World History Chapter 10 Vocabulary

Flashcard maker : Joseph Fraser
Bedouins
a desert dwelling Arabian nomad
Mecca
a city in western Saudi Arabia; birthplace of the prophet Muhammad and most holy city for Islamic people; bustling town and pilgrimage center
Yathrib
final destination of Muhammad’s hijra and the home of the first community of Muslims; later renamed Medina
Hijra
Muhammad’s journey from Mecca to Medina in 622
Medina
a city in western Saudi Arabia, a city where Muhammad preached
Kaaba
the most sacred temple of Islam, located at Mecca
Quran
holy book of Islam
Mosque
Muslim house of worship
Hajj
one of the five pillars of Islam; the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at once in their lifetime
Jihad
in Islam, an effort in God’s service, a duty
Sharia
body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principle to everyday life; governs all aspects of business, government, family life, and criminal life
Abu Bakr
Muhammad’s father-in-law, the first caliph
caliph
successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
Sunni
a member of one of the largest Muslim sects; Sunnis believe that inspiration came from the example of Muhammad as recorded by his early followers
Shiite
a member of one of the two major Muslim sects; believe that the descendents of Muhammad’s daughter and son-in-law, Ali, are the true Muslim leaders
Sufis
Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals; respected for piety and some were believed to have miraculous powers
Abbasids
members of the dynasty that reigned from Baghdad during the flowering of Muslim culture, 750-1252
Baghdad
the capital of the Abbasid dynasty, built on the Tigris River
Umayyads
members of a caliphate that united and greatly expanded the Muslim empire in the 700s
minaret
a slender tower beside a mosque from which Muslims are called to prayer
sultan
a Muslim ruler
social mobility
the ability to move up in social class
Firdawsi
poet known for his history of Persia, the \”Shah of Namah\” (Book of Kings)
Omar Khayyam
scholar, astronomer, and philosopher; best known for the ‘Rubaiyat’
calligraphy
art of beautiful handwriting
Ibn Rushd
a scholar who put all knowledge, except the Quran, to the test of reason
Ibn Khaldun
devised a set of standards for the scientific study of history; emphasized economics, social structure, and avoiding bias
Al-Khwarizmi
a mathematician who pioneered the study of algebra
Muhhamad al-Razi
studied measles and smallpox; taught to treat the mind as well as the body
Ibn Sina
wrote the ‘Canon on Medicine’ an encyclopedia of medicinal cures
Delhi
the city from which the sultans ruled India from 1206 to 1526
rajah
local Hindu ruler
Sikhism
a religion blending Islamic and Hindu beliefs that arose in northern INdia
Babur
military leader and poet who founded the Mughal dynasty
Mughal
Delhi sultanate established by Babur; Persian for \”Mongol\”
Akbar
known as ‘Akbar the Great’; ruled the Mughal empire from 1556 to 1605
Nur Jahan
wife of Akbar’s son Jahangir, most powerful women in the pre-twentieth century India
Shah Jahan
ruled during the high point of Mughal literature, art, and architecture
Taj Mahal
a magnificent Muslim structure built as a tomb for Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan
Ottomans
Turkish-speaking nomadic people who migrated from central Asia to establish an empire from Istanbul
Istanbul
formerly Constantinople; Ottoman capital
Suleiman
sultan during the Ottoman golden age; extended their rule deep into Europe
janizary
elite force of the Ottoman army
Safavid
Shiite Muslim dynasty; founded an empire in present-day Iran
shah
Safavid king
Shah Abbas
king of the Safavid empire from 1588 to 1629;centralized the government
Isfahan
new capital built by Shah Abbas; became the center of the international silk trade
Qajars
dynasty that took control of Iran in the late 1700s
Tehran
new Iranian capital under the Qajars
Muhammad
Muslim prophet born in Mecca around A.D. 570; founder of Islam

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