World History Chapter 1 review answers – Flashcards

Flashcard maker : John Smith
“The Plague” information (cause and effect)
Caused by trading ships that carried rats w/ infected fleas from Asia to Europe

Effects were: epidemic, killed 1/3rd of population, decreased power of the Roman Catholic Church, ended feudalism

Italy’s advantages
3 Advantages
1. Thriving Cities – divided into city states where people could exchange ideas – intellectual revolution
2. A wealthy Merchant Class – Medici family of bankers and merchants (worked hard for achievement) were patrons of the arts
3. A classical heritage of Greece and Rome – drew inspiration from the ruins
~the study of classical texts led to humanism
~focused on human potential and achievement
~popularized Humanities – History, literature, philosophy
basic spirit of Renaissance society was secular (worldly) instead of spiritual
Renaissance Man qualities
educated man is to create art and to master almost every area of study – man who excelled in MANY fields

“The Courtier” – charming, witty, educated in classics, dance, sing, play music, write poetry, skilled – rider, wrestler and swordsman

Ceiling of Sistine Chapel, statue of David
painter, sculptor, architect and poet
sculpted realistic posture and expressions to reveal personality; statue of David (1460s)
Leonardo da Vinci
“Renaissance man” painter, sculpter, inventor and scientist
“Mona Lisa”, “The Last Supper”
favorite subject was Madonna and Child, “School of Athens”
famous for use of perspective
Literature movements
wrote in vernacular
wrote for self expression, to portray individuality of subject
wrote “The Prince” as a political guidebook on how to gain power and keep it, concerned with what is politically effective instead of morally right – “the end justifies the means”
spread of Renaissance – benefits of northern region
~growth in cities after BP and 100 Years’ War
~merchants wealthy enough to patron arts
~ began in Flanders – border of France and Belgium
~England and France were unified under strong monarchs
~monarchs sponsored arts in decorating castles
~northern renaissance had own character such as realism
Albrecht Durer
German artist emphasized realism in his woodcuts and engravings, prints portray religious subjects
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish Renaissance painter, used layers of oil based paints to create a variety of subtle colors, portrayed very realistic details in paintings
Pieter Bruegel
painted realistic details in rich colors of individual people; painted large groups in weddings, dances and harvests,
Christian humanism
~northern humanists were critical of the failure of the Christian church to inspire people to live a Christian life
~encouraged the reform of society
~education, founded schools attended by boys and girls
Desiderius Erasmus
~from Holland
~wrote book “The Praise of Folly” that poked fun at greedy merchants heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars and pompous priests
~believed in Christianity of the heart
Thomas More
tried to show better model of society in writing “Utopia” about an imaginary land where greed, corruption and war have been weeded out
Christine de Pizan
~highly educated woman which was unusual for the time who became on of the first women to earn a living as a writer
~believed in educating boys and girls
~ “The Book of the City of Ladies”
William Shakespere
~greatest playwright of all time
~London, Globe Theatre
~masterful command of English language
~deep understanding of human beings, character flaws
“Hamlet”, “Romeo and Juliet”, “MacBeth”
Printing Press (inventor and benefits)
Johann Gutenberg – developed technologies in a new way that made printing quick and cheap
Gutenberg Bible in 1455 – first printed book, movable type
~allowed printer to produce 100s of copies of single work
Reformation (causes and effects)
Social – humanism led people to question the church
– printing pres spread ideas
Political – monarchs challenged church’s supreme power
– viewed Pope as a foreign ruler, challenge authority
Economic – kings were jealous of church wealth
– merchants resented having to pay taxes to church
Religious – church practices (sale of indulgences) wrong
– some church leaders were worldly and corrupt

Effects – founding of the Christian Church (Protestantism – Calvinism, Anglicanism and Lutheranism) that did not accept the Pope’s authority

Martin Luther
~monk who started Reformation w 95 Thesis
~parents wanted him to become lawyer
~Indulgences allowed people to buy way into heaven
~believed that people did not need priest to interpret Bible
~church teaching should be based on the Bible
Charles V
HRE who issued Edict Of Worms that declared Luther an outlaw and heretic – demanded he recant
Peace of Augsburg
Protestant and Catholic rulers could decide the religion of their state – famous religious settlement!
Henry VIII
broke away from the Roman Catholic church and started the church of England – pope would not annul marriage
Act of Supremacy
called on English people to recognize Henry’s divorce and to recognize him as the head of the Church of England – Anglican Church
John Calvin and Calvinism
French protestant reformer who developed the theory of predestination(God picks the elect for salvation). Hid ideas included new thoughts about church organization and the correct form of government (theocracy – government controlled by religious leaders)
John Knox put Calvin’s ideas into practice in Scotland in developing church led by elders/prebyters
Calvin’s followers in France – there was violence between Huguenots and Catholics
~believed persons should be old enough to decide to be a Christian
~church and state should be separate
~refused to fight in wars
~shared their possessions
Society of Jesus
Catholic Pope created a religious order following Ignatius of Loyola, members were called “Jesuits”
1 – founded schools
2 -converted non-Christians to Catholicism – missionaries
3- stop the spread of Protestantism
Counter Reformation
catholic leaders dealt with corruption at the Council of Trent and made changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
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