World Geography South Asia UNIT8 Study Guide

Why is South Asia sometimes called a subcontinent?
Why is South Asia sometimes called a subcontinent?
It is a large landmass, but it is smaller than a continent.

What two mountain ranges resulted from the collision of what is now the Indian subcontinent with Asia?
What two mountain ranges resulted from the collision of what is now the Indian subcontinent with Asia?
Himalayas and the Hindu Kush

What two tectonic plates were involved in this collision?
What two tectonic plates were involved in this collision?
Indian plate and Eurasian plate

What caused the formation of mountain ranges in the northern part of the region?
What caused the formation of mountain ranges in the northern part of the region?
The gradual collision of two large tectonic plates forcing the land upward.

What are the three great rivers of South Asia?
What are the three great rivers of South Asia?
The Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra

In which directions do these rivers originating in the Himalayas flow?
In which directions do these rivers originating in the Himalayas flow?
East, West, and South

Where is the Indo-Gangetic Plain?
Where is the Indo-Gangetic Plain?
Northern and eastern India and virtually all of Bangladesh; South Asia.

Why is the Indo-Gangetic plain important in terms of population?
Why is the Indo-Gangetic plain important in terms of population?
•One of the most fertile farming places in the world
•The most heavily populated part of South Asia
•Contains 3/5 of India’s population
•Most of the subcontinent’s largest cities are located there

What are the two island countries that are part of South Asia?
What are the two island countries that are part of South Asia?
Sri Lanka and the Maldives

What is the main geological difference between the Maldives and Sri Lanka?
What is the main geological difference between the Maldives and Sri Lanka?
The Maldives is an archipelago made up of atolls.

What are south Asia's main water resources?
What are south Asia’s main water resources?
Rivers and coastal waters

How are they beneficial?
How are they beneficial?
•Many types of fish are found in rivers and coastal waters
•Provide a means of transportation and power

What mineral resources have led to the development of industries in India?
What mineral resources have led to the development of industries in India?
Coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium, iron-ore, manganese, gypsum, chromium, bauxite, copper

Why is deforestation a problem?
Why is deforestation a problem?
Deforestation causes soil erosion, flooding, land-slides, and loss of wildlife habitats.

Name the climate zones of South Asia. There are 6.
Name the climate zones of South Asia. There are 6.
1. Tropical Wet
2. Tropical Wet and Dry
3. Desert
4. Semiarid
5. Humid Subtropical
6. Highland

What are monsoons?
What are monsoons?
Seasonal winds

When are South Asia's monsoon seasons?
When are South Asia’s monsoon seasons?
•October through February
•June through September

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the southwest monsoons?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the southwest monsoons?
•Advantages: Crucial to life on the subcontinent
•Disadvantages: Causes hardships for millions

What is South Asia's most extreme type of weather?
What is South Asia’s most extreme type of weather?
Cyclone

Which country is most affected by cyclones?
Which country is most affected by cyclones?
Bangladesh

Where are South Asia tropical rain forests located?
Where are South Asia tropical rain forests located?
Western coast of India and southern Bangladesh

What do Hindus believe about the Ganges?
What do Hindus believe about the Ganges?
•A sacred river home to the Hindu goddess Ganga
•Holy waters wash their sins away

How do Hindus interact with the Ganges?
How do Hindus interact with the Ganges?
•Provides water for drinking, farming, and transportation
•Spiritual significance
•Worship river as a goddess
•Many temples and sacred sites line the Ganges
•Pilgrims come to visit the Ganges
•Scatter ashes of deceased in the water
•Enter water as the sun rises for purification and prayer
•Float baskets of flowers and burning candles on the water

In what ways is the Ganges a health hazard?
In what ways is the Ganges a health hazard?
•Millions of gallons of raw sewage and industrial waste flow into the river everyday
•Bodies of dead humans and animals
•Toxic chemicals and deadly bacteria
•People contract stomach and intestinal diseases and life-threatening illnesses (hepatitis, typhoid, cholera, etc.)

How did the Feni River cause hardship for the people of Bangladesh?
How did the Feni River cause hardship for the people of Bangladesh?
•Monsoon rains swell the river and may cause it to overflow
•Storm surges swamp low-lying areas
•Villages and fields are flooded

What solution did the Bangladeshis decide on?
What solution did the Bangladeshis decide on?
To construct an earthen dam for the Feni

How long did it take to build the dam across the Feni River?
How long did it take to build the dam across the Feni River?
Six months

What crucial test did the dam pass?
What crucial test did the dam pass?
When a cyclone came into the Bay of Bengal

When and from what country did India gain her independence?
When and from what country did India gain her independence?
•August 14, 1947
•From Great Britain

When and where did early Indian civilization begin?
When and where did early Indian civilization begin?
•Around 2,500 B.C.
•Began in the Indus Valley (now Pakistan)

Who are the Aryans & the Dravidians?
Who are the Aryans & the Dravidians?
•Invaders that crossed the mountains of the Hindu Kush and spread across northern India
•Aryans: A light-skinned people from the plains of northern Iran
•Dravidians: Darker-skinned native Indians who were pushed to the south by the Aryans

How did the Mughal Empire change Indian culture?
How did the Mughal Empire change Indian culture?
Muslim rule brought new customs and sometimes conflicted with those of the native Hindus.

Why did Europeans come to India?
Why did Europeans come to India?
Looking for spices, cloth, and other goods not available in Europe

What is the British East India Company and what did it do?
What is the British East India Company and what did it do?
•A trading arm
•Allowed Britain to gain control over India’s trade with Europe in 1757

What is the raj?
What is the raj?
The period of direct British control which lasted for nearly 90 years

Who was Mohandas Gandhi and what was his movement based on?
Who was Mohandas Gandhi and what was his movement based on?
•A great Indian leader who based his movement on nonviolent resistance

What changes came to India when independence was gained?
What changes came to India when independence was gained?
•The Muslims of West and East Pakistan chose to separate from India
•Violence between Hindus and Muslims
•Mass migrations across new borders caused great hardship and suffering

Who was India's first prime minister & what type of government do they have?
Who was India’s first prime minister & what type of government do they have?
•Jawaharlal Nehru
•Democratic republic

Why are Muslim-Hindu relations of concern to the India Government?
Why are Muslim-Hindu relations of concern to the India Government?
•India is strongly Hindu
•Muslim minority numbers 150 million, so the Indian Government must take Muslim interests into account

How have Sikhs and Tamils expressed dissatisfaction with the government?
How have Sikhs and Tamils expressed dissatisfaction with the government?
•Sikh extremists assassinated Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, the daughter of Nehru.
•Tamil extremists assassinated Indira Gandhi’s son, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.

Why has land reform been so difficult to enact?
Why has land reform been so difficult to enact?
Large landowners have great political influence

What program has improved agricultural yield AND how has it done so?
What program has improved agricultural yield AND how has it done so?
•Green Revolution
•Introduced new farming techniques and higher-yielding grain varieties

What is India's most prosperous city AND which city is its high-tech center?
What is India’s most prosperous city AND which city is its high-tech center?
•Most prosperous city: Mumbai
•High-tech center: Bangalore

What is the center of daily life in India?
What is the center of daily life in India?
Marriage and family

How are traditional marriages in India different than most in the US?
How are traditional marriages in India different than most in the US?
•Follow the custom of arranged marriages
•Male-dominated
•Divorce is rare

Why has India's government placed a high priority on education?
Why has India’s government placed a high priority on education?
To prepare citizens for the future

How do the languages of India reflect ethnic diversity?
How do the languages of India reflect ethnic diversity?
The culture of India is a rich blend of the different linguistic, ethnic, and religious groups.

What do the Hindus believe about karma and reincarnation?
What do the Hindus believe about karma and reincarnation?
•The soul is re-birthed after death
•The moral consequences of a person’s actions, known as karma, help determine how a soul is reincarnated

List and describe the 4 basic castes.
List and describe the 4 basic castes.
1. Brahmans (priests and scholars)
2. Kshatriyas (rulers and warriors)
3. Vaisyas (farmers and merchants)
4. Sudras (artisans and laborers)

What are Hindus basic beliefs?
What are Hindus basic beliefs?
•Each person is born into a different moral caste
•Each person has a certain moral duty, known as dharma, that is specific to the caste
•Each person can only move into a different caste through reincarnation

What are the characteristics of the Indus Valley civilization?
What are the characteristics of the Indus Valley civilization?
•Well-planned cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
•Brick buildings and sophisticated sanitation systems

What caused the partitioning of India AND what country was created as a result?
What caused the partitioning of India AND what country was created as a result?
•Partition caused by the end of British rule in 1947
•Created India and Pakistan

What was the outcome of Pakistan's 1971 civil war?
What was the outcome of Pakistan’s 1971 civil war?
East Pakistan won its independence as Bangladesh

What is the basis for the economies of Pakistan & Bangladesh?
What is the basis for the economies of Pakistan & Bangladesh?
Agriculture

How has microcredit spurred the growth of small businesses?
How has microcredit spurred the growth of small businesses?
The policy makes small loans available to entrepreneurs

What religion is practiced in both Pakistan & Bangladesh?
What religion is practiced in both Pakistan & Bangladesh?
Islam

How do Pakistan & Bangladesh differ in their practice of Islam?
How do Pakistan & Bangladesh differ in their practice of Islam?
•Pakistan is stricter in imposing Islamic law
•In Bangladesh, the Islamic laws such as purdah are much less common and religious practices are less strict

Why was Urdu chosen as the official language of Pakistan?
Why was Urdu chosen as the official language of Pakistan?
To avoid favoring one region or group over another

Why is Rabindranath Tagore a cultural hero in Bangladesh?
Why is Rabindranath Tagore a cultural hero in Bangladesh?
•He wrote about the Ganges and his Bengal homeland
•Bangladesh adopted his song “My Golden Bengal” as its national anthem

What forms of artistic expression are popular?
What forms of artistic expression are popular?
•Poetry (Mushairas)
•Music (Qawwali)
•Dance

In what 2 ways are Nepal and Bhutan alike?
In what 2 ways are Nepal and Bhutan alike?
•Located in the Himalayas
•Kingdoms with strong religious traditions

What factors contribute to the remoteness of Nepal & Bhutan?
What factors contribute to the remoteness of Nepal & Bhutan?
•Mountainous and rugged landscape
•Landlocked location

What 2 countries had control or influence over Nepal & Bhutan?
What 2 countries had control or influence over Nepal & Bhutan?
China and Great Britain

What type of government do both Nepal and Bhutan have?
What type of government do both Nepal and Bhutan have?
Constitutional monarchies

What political challenges do Nepal and Bhutan face?
What political challenges do Nepal and Bhutan face?
•Decades of isolation
•Difficult topography
•Limited resources

What is the economic base for both Nepal and Bhutan?
What is the economic base for both Nepal and Bhutan?
Agriculture

How do farmers increase the amount of farmland?
How do farmers increase the amount of farmland?
Farmers create terraces on the mountainsides

Name the common farm products and livestock in Nepal and Bhutan
Name the common farm products and livestock in Nepal and Bhutan
•Rice, corn, potatoes, and wheat
•Cattle, sheep, and yaks

What activities are also important to the economies of Nepal and Bhutan?
What activities are also important to the economies of Nepal and Bhutan?
Timber industry and tourism

How has tourism affected Nepal?
How has tourism affected Nepal?
•Damaged the environment, particularly on mountain slopes
•Increased trash and pollution

Why does Bhutan regulate tourism?
Why does Bhutan regulate tourism?
Concerned about the impact of tourists on national life

What language do people in Nepal speak AND what ethnic group are most people in Nepal from?
What language do people in Nepal speak AND what ethnic group are most people in Nepal from?
•Speak Nepali, a variation of Sanskrit
•From Tibetan ancestry

What historic event connects Nepal with Buddhism?
What historic event connects Nepal with Buddhism?
The founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Guatama, known as the Buddha, was born on the borders of present-day Nepal and India in the sixth century B.C.

What traditions are reflected in the festivals of Bhutan and Nepal?
What traditions are reflected in the festivals of Bhutan and Nepal?
•Ancient traditions such as archery competitions
•Music is played with traditional instruments

Which 2 ethnic groups settled in ancient Sri Lanka?
Which 2 ethnic groups settled in ancient Sri Lanka?
Sinhalese and Tamils

Which European countries colonized Sri Lanka?
Which European countries colonized Sri Lanka?
Portuguese, Dutch, British

What kind of government does Sri Lanka have now?
What kind of government does Sri Lanka have now?
Republic

Who settled the Maldives?
Who settled the Maldives?
Buddhists and Hindus

What religion had the Maldives adopted by the 12th century?
What religion had the Maldives adopted by the 12th century?
Islam

Who ruled the Maldives for 6 dynasties?
Who ruled the Maldives for 6 dynasties?
Sultans

What type of government does Maldives have now?
What type of government does Maldives have now?
Republic

How many islands make up Maldives and what is the number of square miles?
How many islands make up Maldives and what is the number of square miles?
•1,200 islands
•115 square miles

Name the different religions of the people of Sri Lanka.
Name the different religions of the people of Sri Lanka.
•Sinhalese Buddhists
•Tamil Hindus
•Muslims
•Christians

Name the different ethnicities of the Maldives?
Name the different ethnicities of the Maldives?
Sinhalese and Dravidian mixed with Arab, Southeast Asian, and Chinese traders over the centuries

What is a bodu beru?
What is a bodu beru?
•Music and dance based on drumming
•Dancers sway to the drum beat with increasing intensity
•Strong African influence

What agricultural products & mining products does the economy of Sri Lanka depend on?
What agricultural products & mining products does the economy of Sri Lanka depend on?
•Tea, rubber, coconuts, rice
•Gemstones such as sapphires, rubies, and topaz

How does the economy of the Maldives differ from those of other South Asian countries?
How does the economy of the Maldives differ from those of other South Asian countries?
•Farming is limited by lack of land
•Most food has to be imported

What caused the tourist industry in Sri Lanka to collapse?
What caused the tourist industry in Sri Lanka to collapse?
•A civil war
•Warfare

What challenge does the Maldives face?
What challenge does the Maldives face?
•Global warming
Islands are very low in the water
•Any rise in sea level- caused by melting of the polar ice caps- could flood them completely.

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