world civ chapter 13

Flashcard maker : Clarence Louder
Europeans were able to conquer the empires of the Americas relatively easily for all of the following reasons except
****1) the rulers in the Americas lacked technology.

2) the peoples of the Americas were especially vulnerable to European diseases.

3) the centralized nature of the Aztec and Incan Empires.

4) many subject peoples within the empires aided European efforts.

Scholars generally believe that human beings first came to populate the American continents by immigrating
1) across the Pacific Ocean from Asia to Mexico.

2) across the Pacific Ocean from Australia to Peru.

****3) across a natural bridge from Siberia into Alaska.

4) across the Atlantic Ocean from Europe and Africa to the Caribbean.

Difficulties confront scholars trying to understand the ancient civilizations of the Americas because
****1) Andean civilizations never developed writing.

2) Mesoamerican civilizations never developed writing.

3) Andean writing displays a pro-Spanish bias.

4) the writing systems have never been deciphered.

Archaeological evidence of early American civilizations
1) can produce a narrative history.

****2) has distinct limitations.

3) was almost completely obliterated by the Spanish conquest.

4) only exists for Mesoamerican and not for Andean civilizations.

Christopher Columbus and other early explorers
1) destroyed written records of the Maya.

****2) believed they had reached the East Indies.

3) were sensitive to Native American cultures.

4) conquered all of South America.

Mesoamerica extends from
****1) central Mexico into Central America.

2) Central America to Brazil.

3) North America to Mexico.

4) Chile north to Panama.

Metallurgy came early to
1) Mesoamerican civilizations.

2) Moorish civilizations.

****3) Andean civilizations.

4) Merovingian civilizations.

The staple crops that were domesticated during the archaic period in Mesoamerican history were
****1) maize and beans.

2) wheat and barley.

3) rice and millet.

4) soybeans and potatoes.

The people of the Americas most likely never developed the wheel because they
1) were inferior engineers.

****2) had no large draft animals.

3) had no ready access to wood and iron.

4) were nomadic hunter-gatherers.

The monumental architecture at San Lorenzo suggests that Olmec society
****1) was dominated by an elite class of ruler-priests.

2) maintained social equality between the sexes.

3) was monotheistic.

4) All of these answers are correct.

The Mesoamerican calendar is based on
1) a lunar year of 260 days.

****2) two interlocking solar cycles.

3) a century of 35 years.

4) All of these answers are correct.

The Maya were primarily located in the
1) Andes mountains.

****2) Yucatan rain forests.

3) central Mexican plains.

4) Brazilian rain forests.

Teotihuacán’s influence waned about 500 C.E. because of
1) an invasion by the Aztecs.

2) the Spanish presence in the region.

3) a massive fire and disease.

****4) factors that are still poorly understood.

Which of the following characterized Maya civilization?
1) Maya cities were not really cities but empty ceremonial centers.

2) Maya inscriptions were concerned entirely with astronomical and calendrical observations.

3) Scattered Maya farming communities surrounded the cities.

****4) None of these answers are correct.

The Maya civilization was composed of cities that
****1) competed for dominance.

2) were subservient to one large center.

3) did not serve as religious centers.

4) were cosmopolitan with many merchants from overseas.

Recently, historians have learned more about the Maya civilization because of
1) the examination of Aztec imperial records.

2) the architectural analysis of trade patterns in Mesoamerica.

****3) their ability to decipher Mayan writing.

4) None of these answers are correct.

The main Maya centers were located at
1) Palenque and Teotihuacán.

2) Cacau and Cuzco.

****3) Tikal and Chichén Itzá.

4) Yax Kin.

Which statement is most accurate about how urban life in the Classic period of Mesoamerica compared with that of Europe north of the Alps during the same period?
1) Urban life in Mesoamerica was very similar to that of Europe.

2) Unlike European cities, urban life in Mesoamerica was free from the stresses of warfare.

****3) Classic urban life in Mesoamerica was richer and on a larger scale.

4) Cities in Mesoamerica were often larger than those of Europe, with strictly secular ruling authorities at their centers.

The Aztecs acquired their wealth from
1) trade with Chinese merchants and sailors.

2) the Indian tribes of North America.

3) theft from the Incas of South America.

****4) earlier Mesoamerican people they conquered.

Besides the threat of military force, an important factor in the spread of Aztec influence in Mesoamerica was the
1) appeal of the Aztec religion with its promise of eternal life.

2) activities of Aztec merchants and traders.

****3) Aztec practice of allowing conquered peoples to continue self-rule.

4) Aztec toleration of vice and immorality.

The Toltec civilization
1) lasted for over a thousand years.

****2) influenced the Aztecs in terms of religion and mythology.

3) held a powerful empire that included the Maya centers.

4) All of these answers are correct.

A central feature of Aztec religion and political ideology was the belief in
1) the death of the river god.

2) the resurrection of four sun goddesses.

****3) human sacrifice.

4) flowers that signified the birth of civilization.

Many peoples subject to the Aztecs were willing to support Cortés because of
1) the heavy burden of Aztec sacrifices.

2) the heavy burden of Aztec tribute.

3) their belief that the Aztecs were weak and ineffective rulers.

****4) All of these answers are correct.

When Francisco Pizarro arrived in 1532, the Incan Empire was
1) in decline due to widespread corruption in the government.

****2) one of the largest states in the world.

3) confined to the center of Machu Picchu.

4) not yet free from the control of the Chanca people.

The Incas ruled their empire using all of the following methods except
****1) practicing large-scale human sacrifices.

2) relying on various forms of labor taxation.

3) employing people in full-time state service.

4) providing lavish ritual entertainments.

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