Wildlife Management Exam

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3 major components of wildlife mgmt
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animal, habitat and people
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Conservation Biology
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a synthesis of many basic sciences
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Job opportunities in Wildlife Mgmt
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Wildlife manager, wildlife biologist, wildlife educator, public educator, wildlife law enforcement, wildlife technician, etc.
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What is wildlife?
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all vertebrates sometimes invertebrates
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Nationally managed wildlife:
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US Fish and Wildlife Services
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PA split into two agencies:
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PA Game (Birds & Mammals) PA Fish & Boat (fish, reptiles and amphibians)
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National fisheries divided between:
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Marine (Dept. of Commerce) and freshwater (Dept. of Interior)
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Anthropocentric
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human centered view may have led to over-exploitation and degradation of areas colonized
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European Conservation Movement
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Extinction of auroch, European bison, National Parks and Access to Countryside Act and Wildlife and Countryside act
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American Conservation Movement
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big influences include Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, John Muir and Gifford Pinchot
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John Muir
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used Emerson and Thoreau in his preservation campaign
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Preservationist ethic
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spiritual and artistic value over exploitation for materials needs, nature has intrinsic value JOHN MUIR
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Gifford Pinchot
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first head of U.S Forest Service had opposing view
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Resource conservation ethic
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humans and natural resources, GIFFORD PINCHOT
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Roosevelt’s influence on game management:
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1.Recognized landscapes, water, vegetation, animals as an ecosystem. 2. Conservation through wise use 3. Science is the cornerstone of conservation
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Aldo Leopold
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took roosevelts concepts and formed principals of wildlife management
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Forester, became “Father of Wildlife Mgmt”, synthesis called Evolutionary-Ecological land ethic
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Aldo Leopold
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Ecosystem Management
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combines Leopold and Pinchot’s views (highest priority is maintaining species and ecosystems
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Name four conservation organizations:
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Wilderness Society, Audubon Society, Ducks Unlimited, Sierra Club
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Seven Sisters for Conservation
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1. Public Trust- natural resources on public land 2.Prohibition on Commerce of Dead Wildlife-save wildlife from slaughter 3.Democratic Rule of Law-help creation of laws 4.Hunting Opportnutity for All- all citizens can hunt and fish 5.Non-frivolous Use 6.International Resources- wildlife can freely migrate 7.Scientific Management
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1st National Park in the world
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Yellowstone
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National Wildlife Refuge System
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originally 51 wildlife refuges
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Lacey Act
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prohibits importation, transport and sale of wild vertebrates, eliminated “market hunting”
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Migratory Bird Treaty
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Stopped marketing of waterfowl, migratory birds are not property of any single country
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Black Bass Act
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protects game fish
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Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act
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Pittman-Robertson Act, game restoration work
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Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Act
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Dingell-Johnson Act, fish restoration
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US protection of endangered species
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CITES, ESA and MMPA
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ESA
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endangered species act, conservation and management of endangered flora and fauna
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CITES
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Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, established import and export procedures for endangered species
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Father of Conservation Biology
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Michael Soul`e, First International Conference on Conservation Biology
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Name species extinct due to over harvesting
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Pleistocene, Steller Sea Cow, Aurochs, Eastern Elk
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Commercially extinct species
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Diamondback terrapin
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Beaver Exploitation
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King of England wanted hats, nearly extinct
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Bison
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exploited by native cultures, US slaughtered to reduce Indians supply. 1860=60 million 1889=150
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Passenger Pigeon
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killed for food, flocks were 2 bill., low fecundity, critical nesting mass needed, technology to follow migration
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Labrador duck, Heath hen, Carolina parakeet, great auk
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all extinct
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“Predators are the root of considerable evil”
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William Hornaday
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Introduced species impacting native species
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Ring-necked pheasants, Brown trout, Starlings
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Gifford Pinchot
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chief advisor to Teddy R., coined term conservation, “sustainable use” philosophy, governor
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“To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering” , helped found The Wilderness Society and The Wildlife Society
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Aldo Leopold
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Three Basic Conservation Movements
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1. 1920’s to early 1930’s (buffalo gone, deer dwindling) 2.Began 1960’s (habitat loss, pollution, persecution of predators, “optimum yield” 3.End of 20th century (reawakened concerns from 1960’s)
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Lead Shot
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killed 2 million ducks/geese
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Successes
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Bison, Wood ducks (nest box campaign implemented), Wild turkey, White- tailed deer, Elk, Pronghorn and Beaver
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MMPA
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Marine Mammal Protection Act, Grey whale, sea otter and northern elephant seal
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“Ecological knowledge” is applied through 3 basic approaches
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1. Preservation: no human intervention 2.Direct manipulation: trapped, shot, poisoned and stocked 3.Indirect manipulation: altering of habitat
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Basic goals of wildlife management:
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make population increase, make populations decrease, harvest the population sustainably and do nothing except monitor population
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Managment
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use of a resource and regulation
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Conservation
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use of a resource and or preservation
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Preservation
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leave nature alone, no use
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Ecology
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study of the home
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Ecosystem
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network that interacts in a manner to sustain like including biotic and abiotic communities
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Communities
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identifiable association of plants and animals living in a finite physical environment
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Internal modifications to ecosystem
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individual, long-term genetic responses to environmental conditions
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External modifications to ecosystem
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Climate change, natural impacts, lightning, fire, drought, volcano, hurricane, human impacts
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Human impacts on ecosystems
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hunting, mining, pollution, logging, development, nuclear accidents, wildlife and habitat management
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Biosphere
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includes a few hundred meters below the ground to several kilometers into the atmosphere
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Energy transfer
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10% rule of thumb
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How is biomass different from energy transfer
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not all energy goes into biomass
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Ranges of tolerance
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organisms live withing physical and biological limits
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Steno-
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narrow ranges
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Eury
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broad ranges
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Niche
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functional role and position of the organism in its communtiy
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Niches can reduce what between species? Example
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Competition, Jack pines thrive in fire disturbed systems and spruce grouse
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Niche separation
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Ruffed grouse may be found in the same area but feed on buds of deciduous trees in winter, different feeding niches
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Convergent evolution
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different ancestors produce species of similar appearance/niches due to similar evolutionary forces
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How can managers adjust niche requirements?
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Augment habitat, reduce competition, reduce predation, eliminate or reduce impact of exotics that out compete for the same niche
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Biomes
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regions with similar abiotic and biotic characteristics
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Ecological sucession
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communities change in a sequential process
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Pioneer community
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first step (plowed field or fire)
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Climax community
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final step
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Primary succesion
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occurs when there was no community before ex: volcanic islands
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Secondary succession
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remnants remain of previous community ex: fire, clear cut forest
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Bog turtle habitat managment
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endemic to eastern US, requires bog habitat, large native ungulates once prevented succesion
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Aldo Leopold, 4 tools needed
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Ax, Cow, Match and Plow
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Species associated with climax communities have not done well
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Black footed ferret- prairie Passenger pigeon- oak forest
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Diversity
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# of species
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Stability
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relative constancy of the abundance of populations
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Low diversity communities are…
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generally unstable ex: tundra: snowshoe hare and lynx
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High diversity communities are…
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generally stable, ex: tropical rainforest
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Species diversity related to latitude
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closer to the equator is greater diversity
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Symbiotic Relationships
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close relationship between 2 or more unrelated organisms
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Mutualism
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both benefit
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Obligate mutualism
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required for survival for one or both ex: coral and algae ex: Dodo and Calvaria Tree
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Facultative mutualism
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not required for survival
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Habitat selection by a species may be inherited…
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but there may be some plasticity
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What do Red Knots feed on?
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eggs of horseshoe crabs
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Solitary
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individual home ranges, may or may not overlap with others
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Social
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found in social groups
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Why social?
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Predator avoidance, food, reproduction
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Monogamy
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occurs when females either scattered or not defensible so produces greatest genetic variablilty in population, more individuals get to breed
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Polygyny
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occurs when females defensible, so form harems, many males don’t get to breed, have to wait or not at all, genetic varialbility of population may become low in closed systems
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Polyandry
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female has multiple mates, males often important in care of young, seen mostly in birds
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Peent (call) count
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courtship calls, woodcock, also amphibians, whales and turkeys
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Nesting or Denning sites
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where young are reared may be habitats different from those used at other times of year
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Example of behavioral issues
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Black ducks prefer forest wetlands and Mallards prefer open habitat
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Territory
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area defended against others of the same species usually males
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Home range
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area in which animal may live
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Territories associated with:
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seasons, breeding, courtship, food, nesting/ denning sites, scent and available resources
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Lek bahvior
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a gathering of males for the purposes of competitive mating display, Sage Grouse, Ugandan kob, Hammer-head bat and Cock-of-the-Rock
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Sexual segregation
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sexes may be found in different locations at different times of the year, may protect vulnerable young, and may be to avoid food competition ex: Indiana bat
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Circadian rhythms
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daily activity patterns
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Circannual rhythms
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yearly patterns (migration)
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Ultradian rhythms
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patterns of less than a day
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Dispersal helps to:
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maintain genetic variability, repopulated depleted areas and colonize new areas
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Innate dispersal
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behavioral response to environmental stresses
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Environmental Dispersal
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behavior response to environmental stresses
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Philopatric
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stay close to mother
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Allopatric
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disperse away from parents
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Habituation
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some species adapt well to human activities
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Captive rearing
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may need training in use of habitat and capture of prey ex: black footed ferrets, imprinting must be avoided
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Migration
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moving from one location to another
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Anadromous
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fish live in saltwater breed in freshwater ex:salmon
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Catadramous
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fish live in freshwater, breed in saltwater ex: American eel
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Reptile migration examples
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sea turtles and timber rattlesnake (migrate to and from hibernacula)
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Which four groups of mammals migrate?
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Bats, cetaceans, pinnipeds and ungulates
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Why do gray whales migrate?
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Summer bloom of phytoplankton provides food but for birth south has less predators
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Why do wildebeest and zebras migrate?
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due to lack of sufficient drinkable water
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Caribou
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hot topic for energy policy in US, roads and pipelines interrupt migration route in some locations, also climate change
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Ramsar convention
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wetland protection for waterfowl
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Population
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group of organisms of the same species that occupy a given area over a specific time period
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Density
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number of individuals/unit area
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Natality
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birth rate, number of births/thousand
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Mortality
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death rate, number of deaths/ number of individuals
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What would the death rate (X:1000 indiv.), if we observed 135 deaths in a population of 947 pronghorn in one year?
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135/947=X/1000 X=135/947 x 1,000= 0.142 x 1000=142
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Age pyramid with wide base?
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expanding
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Age pyramid with narrow base and buldging middle?
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declining
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Age pyramid with a normal base and narrows towards top?
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stable
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Fecundity
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refers to # of eggs or sperm produced by an individual
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Fertility
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% of eggs that are fertile, # births/# of individuals
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Production
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# of offspring produced or may be # that reach breeding age
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Recruitment
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production and immigration into the population- new individuals in the populaton
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In stable populations you can expect
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births, immigration, death and migration to all be equal
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In a declining populations you can expect
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more deaths and migration than births and immigration
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In a growing population you can expect
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more births and immigration than deaths and migration
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Exponential growth
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r= max. growth/individual x number of individuals in the population
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Intrinsic rate of increase
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top of graph, low life span but can produce many young, longer lives but fewer offspring
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When would exponential growth be seen?
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unlimited food, no predator
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Carrying capacity
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k= max. # of animals that the environment can sustain
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Population that exceed carrying capacity can be a negative number resulting in…
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decreased population
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Density dependent factors
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factors that cause higher mortalities or lower natality as the population increases ex:food supply, predation, disease, territorial behavior
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Density independent factors
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factors not related to population density ex: rain, cold, floods, volcanoes
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If growth rates of a managed population are close to maximum predicted…
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not much more to do
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If lower rate than predicted…
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look for limiting factors that can be managed
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Inflection point
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maximum growth is reached near 50% of carrying capacity
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Maximum production
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if pop. is harvested to keep it at 50% of carrying capacity
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Maximum sustainable yield
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MSY, largest average harvest that can be taken continuosly from a population under existing conditions
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When is MSY attainable?
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when population is kept at 1/2 of its carrying capacity and when harvest takes the annual production of the population
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What is the Maximum Sustainable yield of a species with an intrinsic growth rate if 0.2, and a carrying capacity of 1000?
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H=1000 x 0.2/4=200/4=50
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Problems with MSY
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1.Carrying capacity is not constant (max pop. not easily determined) 2.logistic equation assumptions are not always met (rate of increase doesnt respond instantly, age and sex structure of pop. is not stable, harvest is not spread evenly throughout pop.) 3.MSY have largely been replaced by optimum yield
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Optimum yield goals
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provide greatest benefit to the nation with reference to food production and recreational opportunities, prescribed as such on a MSY as modified by any relevant economic, social or ecological factors
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Data collections include
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availability and quality of food, predation, competition, disease, environmental and human impacts
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Isle Royale
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simple system, isolated
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Moose-Wolf interactions
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predator-prey systems, populations fluctuate in response to a # of variables
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Population growth
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r (intrinsic pop. growth) = b (birth rate/individual/unit time) – d (death rate/individual/unit time)
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1,000 rabbits having 3,250 babies calculate pop. growth
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birth rate # births/# females = 3250/1000 = 3.25
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If immigration (i) or emigration (e) included in the equation, then population growth rate:
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r = (b – d) + (i – e)
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Birth rate influenced by:
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Age at sexual maturity of both males & females, Length of gestation, Sex ratios, Mating system (monogamy, polygny, polyandry), % of females breeding at each age, # of young/female at each age, Nutritional impacts on reproduction
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Sex ratios
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Typically is written as # males:100 females
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Example: Observe population of elk 1063 males and 2784 females
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Sex ratio equals 1063/2784 = X/100 X = 1063/2784 X 100 = 38 Sex ratio of this population is 38:100
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Example: an observed population has a sex ratio of 60:100 (males:females)—what percentage of the population are males?
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60/(100 + 60) X 100 = 60/160 X 100= .375 X 100 = 37.5
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Primary sex ratio
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at time of egg fertilization usually 50:50, but not always
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Secondary sex ratio
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at birth or hatching; female may have some control over sex ratio of offspring
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Tertiary sex ratio
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as juveniles sexes may be predated at different levels
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Quarternary sex ratios
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adult population sex ratio may be skewed towards one sex or another
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Monogamy
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sex ratios generally close to equal ex: seasonal and life time monogamy, maximum production favored
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Polygamy
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multiple mates, results in biased sex ratios
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Polygyny
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males have multiple mates, more females than males, max. production based on females, harvest of males is ok
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Polyandry
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female has multiple mates, pop. has more males than females, max production may be less dependent on the less numerous sex
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Promiscuity
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not restricted to any one partner
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Birth rate dependent upon
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sex ratios, age and fecundity of that age class and environmental cndt.
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Age-specific birth rate
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# of offspring/female of a specific age class
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Assuming that the Canada goose population consists of 34% one-year olds, 33% 2-3 olds, & 33% 4+–calculate #eggs/100 females
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(34 X 0 offspring) + (33 X .2 amount breeding X 4.6 # of eggs) + (33 X .72 X 6.4) = 182 eggs/100 females If ratio changed to 40% 1 year olds, 40% 2-3 year olds, & 20% 4+ = 129 eggs/100 females—29% reduction in egg production
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Additive
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moralities that have an equal impact upon a population
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Compensatory
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moralities that may have occurred due to another factor and which have no or a lower net impact on the population ex:hunting , coyotes, quail
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Density-dependent may be
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compensatory
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Catastrophes or severe weather may be
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additive
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a = m + n – mn
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a = annual mortality rate m = mortality from harvest n = natural mortality
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Example 1 (high natural mortality rate): 20%=m, 70%=n
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a = .20 + .70 – (.20 X .70) a = .90 – .14 = .76 X 100% = 76% annual mortality 6% net increase over natural
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Example 2 (low natural mortality rate): 20% harvest, 40% natural
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Example 2 (low natural mortality rate): 20% harvest, 40% natural

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