wheeler final exam Essay

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America’s return to a peacetime economy in 1920 and 1921 was marked by
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a 20 percent unemployment rate, the highest to date.
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In its effort to create prosperity at home, the Harding administration supported
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high tariffs to protect American business.
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President Harding’s administration was characterized by
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scandals that touches many members of his administration.
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What was the goal of the Washington Disarmament Conference?
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To establish a balance of naval power among Britain, France, Japan and Italy.
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What was the purpose of the Dawes Plan, instituted in 1924?
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It cut Germany’s annual reparations payments in half and initiated fresh American Ioans to Germany.
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Which industry formed the keystone of the American economy in the 1920s?
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The automobile industry
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Who was responsible for the creation of “welfare capitalism” in the 1920s, and why did they use it?
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Businesses created welfare capitalism to encourage workers’ loyalty to the company
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What was Detroit’s second largest industry during the 1920s?
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Illegal alcohol sales
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Federal authorities sent Al Capone to prison on what charge?
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Income tax evasion
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Which of the following statements describes the Shepard-Towner Act of 1921, which gave federal assistance to states seeking to reduce high infant mortality rates?
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It was women’s only significant national legislative success in the 1920s.
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The National Woman’s party supported which of the following?
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An Equal Rights Amendment
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In the United States, the flapper of the 1920s represented
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a challenge to women traditional gender roles.
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Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association urged black Americans in the 1920s to
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rediscover their African heritage and take pride in their culture and achievements.
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In 1927, Charles Lindbergh became the first person to
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fly nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean.
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Who funded the rapid growth of radio in the United States between 1922 and 1929?
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Advertisers
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How did rural Americans perceive cities during the 1920s?
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As the sources of vice, religious threats, and other assaults on traditional values.
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What did the outcome of the Sacco and Vanzetti trial suggest about the United States in 1902s?
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Antiforeign hysteria was rampant in many areas of American life.
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What accounted for the reemergence of the Ku Klux Klan in the United States in 1915?
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The widespread belief that blacks, immigrants, radicals, feminists, catholics, and jews threatened traditional american values.
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What was the central issue addressed by the highly publicized Scopes trial of 1925?
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The legality of the teaching of Darwin’s theory of evolution in Tennessee.
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What earned Herbert Hoover the nickname “the Great Humanitarian”?
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His managing efforts to feed civilian victims of the fighting during WWI
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Which of the following characterized the US economy when Hoover moved into the White House in 1929?
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There was huge disparity in wealth between rich and poor.
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Among the first signs of economic distress in the US in the mid-1902s was
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a slowdown in new construction and in automobile sales
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What did President Hoover do to offer a solution to the human problems of the depression in 1929?
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He instituted a voluntary recovery plan, protective tariffs, and some government intervention, including public works projects and small federal loans to states.
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What was the purpose of the President Hoovers Reconstruction Finance Corporation, created in 1932?
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Lending money to endangered American banks, insurance companies, and railroads
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Which groups were hardest hit by the Great Depression?
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The unemployed, tenant farmers and sharecroppers
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How did the Great Depression affect the American family in the 1930s?
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It created resentment among men, who lost their jobs more often than women did.
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Describe the facts most responsible for Henry Ford’s success.
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Mass production: to improve efficiency, ford reduced assembly line work to the simplest most repetitive tasks. changes on the assembly line and in management, along with technological advances, boosted overall efficiency and allowed productivity to grow much faster than average wages, resulting in huge profits for Ford.
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What were some of the unintended consequences and costs of Prohibition?
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High wages: ford also paid his workers relatively high wages to encourage loyalty to the company and discourage traditional labor unions, and to allow them to buy the cars they produced.
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What was Franklin D Roosevelts political experience before he won the presidential election of 1932?
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He had served as governor of New York
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What was the name of President Roosevelts signature program?
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The New Deal
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What made the election of 1932 particularly historic?
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Roosevelt won 57 percent of the popular vote, and democrats swept both houses of congress
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What was the three-part goal of Roosevelt’s New Deal?
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Relief, recovery, and reform
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Which women became the New Deal’s unofficial ambassador in 1933?
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Eleanor Roosevelt
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The emergency banking act of 1933 strengthened American banks by
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releasing federal funds to bolster their assets.
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Which of the following describes the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)?
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It guaranteed bank customers that the federal government would reimburse them for deposits if their bank failed.
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What strategy did President Roosevelt use to restore Americans confidence in government and the private banking system?
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He broadcast his reassuring fireside chats on the radio.
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What was the name of the agency President Roosevelt established in 1933 to provide direct relief to more than 4 million households?
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Federal Emergency Relief Association (FERA)
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What was the purpose of Roosevelt’s Civilian Conservation Corps?
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It gave young men government jobs conserving natural resources.
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What was the purpose of the Tennessee Valley Authority program that began in 1933?
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It helped supply jobs and power to impoverished rural communities.
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The New Deal made significant improvements in the quality of life in rural America by
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providing electricity to rural communities through the Rural Electrification Administration
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How did the Agricultural Adjustment and Farm Credit acts of 1935 aim to help
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they paid farmers not to grow crops and provided long term credit on mortgaged farm property
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What made it impossible for the National Recovery Administration (NRA) to regulate business effectively?
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The codes written by industry leaders tended to serve the interests of corporations only
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Where did migrant workers seeking to escape the chronic drought of the Dust Bowl typically look for work in the 1930s?
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California
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Father Charles Coughlin, an opponent of the New Deal, placed the blame for the nation’s economic crisis on
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communists, bankers, and capitalists.
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Who championed the “Share Our Wealth” plan of income redistribution?
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Huey Long
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The purpose of the National Labor Relations Act, or Wagner Act, when it was enacted in 1934, was to
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guarantee workers the right to organize
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In 1937, disgruntled workers at the General Motors plant in Flint, Michigan, acted on their grievances by
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staging a sit down strike
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The framers of Social Security agreed to fund the program
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with tax contributions from workers and their employers.
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On what criteria were benefits provided through social security?
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benefits were based on workers contributions and years of work
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What was the outcome of the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act of Native Americans?
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It restored indians rights to own land community and have greater control over their affairs
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President Roosevelts plan to remove judicial obstacles to New Deal reforms in his second term of office
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was popularly known as court packing
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The economist John Maynard Keynes argued which of the following?
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Government interventions is needed in bad economic times to pump enough money into the economy to revive production and increase consumption
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The goal of the New Deal Farm Security Administration created in 1937 was to
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help tenant farmers become independent landowners.
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Which of the following statements describes the National Housing Act of 1937?
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It symbolized the federal governments retreat from providing decent urban housing
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Which of the following statements describes the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938?
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It set standards for wages and hours
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Which of the following describes the overall impact of the New Deal?
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it prevented the US from turning toward authoritarian solutions to the nations economic crisis
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Which nation, in an effort to increase its global power, invaded the northern Chinese province of Manchuria in 1931?
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Japan
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A reluctant isolationist, President Roosevelt believed during the 1930s that
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free trade was necessary for Americas domestic prosperity
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What was the goal of Roosevelt’s “good neighbor” policy?
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To form a less belligerent, more cooperative relationship with Latin America
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What was the objective of Neutrality Act of 1937?
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To prevent increasing American involvement in European affairs
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Who offered Adolf Hitler terms of appeasement in hopes of getting the German dictator to leave Czechoslovakia alone?
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Neville Chamberlain
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Which of the following occurred as a result of the Nazi-Soviet treaty of nonaggression in August 1939?
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Hitlers invasion of Poland
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What event sparked the beginning of WW2?
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Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939
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What was the significance of the Battle of Britain in 1940?
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The British victory handed Hitler his first major defeat
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What was the purpose of the Lend – Lease Act of 1941?
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To mark arms, munitions and other supplies available to Britain
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How did president Roosevelt justify the proposed Lend-Lease Act in January 1941?
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He cited the need to defend democracy and human rights around the world
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In the Atlantic Charter in August of 1941, the United States and England agreed to
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protect freedom of the seas, free trade, and the right of national self-determination
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In the Tripartite Pact of 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan agreed to
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form a defensive alliance among imperial powers
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The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, was part of the Japanese plan to
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knock out a significant portion of American naval bases in the Pacific
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What was the immediate consequences of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941?
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Congress endorsed President Roosevelt’s call for a declaration of war
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Why did President Roosevelt authorize the roundup and internment of all Americans of Japanese decent in 1942?
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A large number of people believed that Japanese Americans were potential sources of espionage and subversion
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What happened in the naval battle at Coral Sea in May 1942?
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the american fleet and warplanes defeated a Japanese armada
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The Battle of Midway signaled to the American military that
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Japanese domination of the Pacific was weakening
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What technological development ultimately led Hitler to withdraw the infamous U-boats from the North Atlantic?
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Radar detector
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How did women who remained at home contribute to the American war effort?
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They planted Victory Gardens of home-grown vegetables
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How did president Roosevelt respond to A. Phillip Randolph’s plans to organize a march of 100,000 on Washington DC in 1941?
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He authorized the Committee on Fair Employment Practices
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Why did the US fail to act on reports of Hitlers genocidal atrocities?
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the american public and its officials believed the reports were exaggerated.
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As the allies closed in on him in December 1944, Hitler ordered a desperate counterattack through Belgium known as
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the battle of the bulge
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In February 1945, the Big Three met at Yalta to discuss
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postwar self-determination for the people of Eastern Europe
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Who succeeded President Roosevelt in the White House after his death on April 12, 1945?
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Harry Truman
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Why did American scientists being to develop a super bomb in 1942?
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They didn’t want the Germans to develop one first
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The United States dropped a second atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki only three days after the attack on Hiroshima
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because the first bomb did not lead to a Japanese surrender to the US
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Dwight D Eisenhower
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preached modern republicanism this meant resisting additional federal intervention in economic and social life but it did not mean turning the clock back to the 1920s
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Indian relocation program
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the third peace of native american policy began. in 1948 and involved more than 100,000 native americans by 1973
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MAD
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because soviet union could respond similarly to an American first strike, this nuclear standoff became known as mutually assured destruction of MAD
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Domino theory
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eisenhower viewed communism in Vietnam much as Truman had regarded it in Greece and Turkey, a view that became known as the domino theory
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Geneva Accords
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temporarily partitioned Vietnam at the seventeenth parallel, separating the Vietnam in the north from the puppet government established by the French in the south
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Fidel Castro
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in 1959 the desire for political and economic autonomy erupted into the Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro
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Cuban Revolution
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in 1959 the desire for political and economic autonomy erupted
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Military Industrial Complex
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as eisenhower left office he warned about the growing influence of the military industrial complex in american government and life
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Kitchen Debate
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nixon boasted to the khruschev during the kitchen debate the suburbs were accessible to families with modest incomes
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Rock n Roll
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new form of music that combined country sounds, black rhythm and blues
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Brown v Board of education
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NAACP reached its crowning achievement with supreme court in 1954 brown consulted the separate suits that reflected the growing determination of black americans to with for their rights
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Plessy v Ferguson
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1896 NAACPs lead lawyer future supreme court to overturn “separate but equal”
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Little Rock Nine
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paratroopers escorted the little rock nine into the school but 44 teachers who had supported from them lost their jobs
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Rosa Parks
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african civil rights activist who the US congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”
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JFK
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irish catholic businessmen served as an ambassador for great britian won election of house of representatives in 1946 and the senate of 1952 won democratic presidential nomination in 1960
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New Frontier
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used by jfk in his acceptance speech in the 1960 us presidential election to the democratic national convention as the democratic slogan to inspire america to support him
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LBJ
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won election to the house of representatives in 1937 and senate in 1948 1955 served as senate majority leader.
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Great Society
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set of domestic programs in the us launched by president LBJ main goal was the elimination of poverty and racial injustice
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Civil Rights Act of 1964
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landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the US that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sec and national origin july 2, 1964
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warren court
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supreme court of the us between 1953 and 1969 when earl warren served as chief justice
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MLK
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american baptist minister, activist, humanitarian and leader in african american civil rights movement
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Civil rights act of 1968
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April 11 banned racial discrimination in housing and jury selection and authorized federal intervention when states failed to protect civil rights workers from violence
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malcom x
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resisted emphasis on integration and passive resistance 1952 joined nation of islams black muslims attached large following especially in the urban ghettos
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equal rights amendment
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proposed amendment to the us constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women was originally written by alice paul and crystal eastman in 1923 introduced to congress
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roe v wade
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case decided in 1973 by us supreme court to legalize abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy decision was written by justice harry blackmun and based on the residual right of privacy struck down dozens of state anti abortion statues
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title ix
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education amendments act of 1972 banned sex discrimination in all aspects of education such as administration athletics and hiring. congress also outlawed sex discrimination in credit in 1974, opened us military academies to women in 1976 and prohibited discrimination against pregnant workers in 1978
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Nikita Khrushchev
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Russian politician who led the soviet union during part of the cold war
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Bay of pigs
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april 17, 1961 1400 cuban exiles launched what became a botched invasion at the bay of pigs on the south coast of cuba
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apollo program
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project apollo, 3rd us human space flight program carried out by the national aeronautics and space administration
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cuban missile crisis
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pivotal moment in the cold war 50 years ago the us and soviet stood closer to armageddon october 1962 JFK was informed of a u2 spy planes discovery of soviet nuclear tipped missiles in cuba
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gulf of token resolution
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southeast asia resolution august 10, 1964 joint resolution that the us congress passed on august 17, 1964 in result to the gild of tonkin incident
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operation rolling thunder
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interrupted bombing campaign that began feb 24, 1965 lasted until october 1968 during this period us air force and navy aircraft engaged in a bombing campaign designed to force ho chi minh to abandon his ambition to take over south Vietnam
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tet offensive
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largest military campaigns of the vietnam war, launched january 30, 1968 by forces of vietnam congress
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detente
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“release from tension” name given to a period of improved relations between the us and soviet union in 1971 president richard nixon visited the secretary general of the soviet communist party
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strategic arms limitation talks
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2 rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the us and the soviet on issues of armament control
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kent state
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shooting at kent state university in kent, ohio and involved the shooting of unarmed college students by the ohio national guard on monday may 7, 1970
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pentagon papers
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secret department of defensive study of us political and military involvement in vietnam from 1945 to 1967 prepared at the request of security of defensive robert mcnamara in 1967
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water gate
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scandal that occurred in the us in the 1970s as a result of june 17, 1972 break in at the democratic national committee (DNC) headquarters in washington dc
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jimmy carter jr
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american politician, author, and the member of democratic party who served as 39th president of the us from 1977 to 1981 nobel peace prize 2002
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three mile island
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middletown, pa partially melted down on march 28, 1979 most serious accident in us commercial nuclear power plant operating history
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ronald reagan
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40th president of us served as governor of California 33rd
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suddly side economics
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school of macroeconomics that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering barriers for people to produce goods and services as well as invest in capital
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sandra day o’connor
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1981 nominated to be the first women justice to sit on supreme court
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AIDS
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disease in which there is a sever loss of the bodies cellular immunity, greatly lowering the resistance to infection and malignancy
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Iron contra scandal
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secret arrangement in the 1980s to provide funds to the nicaraguan contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to iran. product of 2 separate initiatives during the administration of Ronald Reagan
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George HW Bush
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41st president who served from 1989-1993
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saddam hussein
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5th president of iraq served from july 16th to april 9, 2003
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persian gulf war
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January to February 1991 armed conflict between iraq and a coalition of 39 nations including the us, britian, france, saudi arabia 28 nations contributed troops
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bill clinton
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42nd president of the us from 1993-2001
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osama bin ladan
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indicted by a grand jury of the us on june 8, 1998 on charges of “conspiracy to attack defensive utilities of the us” head of terrorist organization – al Qaeda
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NAFTA
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north american free trade agreement is a compressive agreement that sets the rules for international trade and investment between canada, the us and mexico
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george w bush
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43rd president american politician and governor
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no child left behind
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2001 is a united states act of congress that is a reauthorization of the elementary and secondary act which included title I, the governments flagship and program for disadvantaged students

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