What is Social Psychology?

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What Drives Social Behavior?
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Psychodynamics, Social Learning, Cultural, Social Constructionism, Evolution, and Complex Systems
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Psychodynamics
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Unconscious influences on thought and behavior; Emphasis on self-regulation (impulse vs. norms)
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Social Learning
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– Classically conditioned preferences – Habits rewarded by others – Imitation of behavior we have seen rewarded in others
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Sociocultural
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Forces in larger social groups such as: norms, fads, social class, ethnic identity
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Social Constructionism
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The person’s subjective interpretation of the situation
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Evolutionary
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Genetic Predispositions that promoted our ancestors’ survival and reproduction, such as a bond between parent and child
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Complex Systems
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Self-Organization and Emergence of global properties; Dynamics and Stability
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Sub-disciplines that social psychology is closely connected to
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Developmental, Personality, Environmental, Clinical, Cognitive, Physiological/Neuroscience
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What is Social Psychology?
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a science that studies the influences of our situations, with special attention to how we view and affect one another.
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Social thinking
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– how we perceive ourselves and others – what we believe – judgements we make – our attitudes
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Social influence
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– culture – pressures to conform – persuasion – groups of people
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Social relations
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– prejudice – aggression – attraction and intimacy – helping
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Social thinking (Big Ideas)
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1. We construct our social reality 2. Our social intuitions are powerful, sometimes perilous (dangerous) 3. Attitude shape, and are shaped by, behavior
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Social Influences (Big Ideas)
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4. Social influences shape behavior 5. Dispositions shape behavior
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Social relations (Big ideas)
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6. Social behavior is also biological behavior 7. Feelings and actions toward people are sometimes negative (prejudiced, aggressive) and sometimes positive (helpful, loving)
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Applying social psychology (Big Ideas)
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Social psychology’s principles are applicable in everyday life
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“dual processing”
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we know more than we know we know
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What are our social intuitions noteworthy for?
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powers and perils (dangers)
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social neuroscience
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explores the neural bases of both social and emotional processes and behaviors, and how they affect our brain and biology
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hindsight bias
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the tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one’s ability to have foreseen how something turned out.
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theory
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an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events
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theories
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not only summarize but also imply testable predictions called hypothesis
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hypothesis
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a testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events
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What does a good theory consist of?
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– effectively summarizes many observations – makes clear predictions that we can use to – confirm or modify the theory – generate new exploration – suggest practical applications
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Field Research
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(everyday situations) Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory
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Correlational Research
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The study of naturally occurring relationships among variables.
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Experimental Research
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Cause-effect studies where relationships are manipulated while controlling others
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How do correlations quantify?
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the coefficient “r”
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What does “r” stand for?
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the degree of relationship between two factors; from -1.0 through 0 to +1.0
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Random Sample
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Survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion
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What are the 4 Biasing Influences?
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– unrepresentative samples – question order – response options – question wording
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What are the 2 major advantages over correlational studies?
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– random assignment – control
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Random assignment
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eliminates all such extraneous factors; each person has an equal chance of viewing the violence or the nonviolence
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Independent Variables
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the experimental factor that a researcher manipulates
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Mundane Realism
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the degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations
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Experimental Realism
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the degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants
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People often construct their social world to explain behavior and make it seem orderly, ____________, and ____________.
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predicable controllable
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What are the two levels of dual processing?
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deliberate thinking intuitive thinking
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The face that people often overestimate the danger of shark attacks is an example of ______________ __________________.
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social intuition
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Juror decisions, marketing, smoking, and helping behavior all illustrate how social psychology is applied to___________?
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everyday life
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Beliefs about sexual preference, marriage, and education all reflect a persons’s _____________?
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values
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Psychologists’ own _____________ may play a role in the judgements they make.
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values
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Which of the following combine to create the hindsight bias?
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– errors in remembering the past – errors in judging the future
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The I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon often makes people __________ about the accuracy of their predictions.
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overconfident
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A good theory
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-suggests practical applications -summarizes many observations -makes clear predictions
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_______________ research is research in everyday situations while controlled research takes place in the ______________.
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– field – laboratory
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Observing whether years of education and scores of intelligence are related is an example ___________________.
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correlational research
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In experimental research, one or more factors are ______________ while other factors are held constant.
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manipulated
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When everyone participating in a survey has an equal chance of being selected, it is called a __________.
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random sample
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Order of questions, wording of questions, and response options are all considered _____________ influences in survey research.
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biasing
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A major advantage of experiments over correlational studies is _________________.
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cause can be inferred
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With random assignment, ______________.
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-everyone has an equal chance of being assigned to any given research condition -equivalent groups are created
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The manipulated variable is also known as the ________________ ____________.
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independent variable
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In an experiment, the variable that is being measured is called the ______________.
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dependent variable
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Which of the following are true about an experiment?
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– it should have experimental realism – it should follow ethical guidelines
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Which of the following are reasons why individuals construct their social reality?
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– as humans we like to have events be predictable – as humans we like to have order in our world – as humans we like to attribute behavior to some cause
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Intuitive and deliberate thinking are levels of ______________ _______________.
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dual processing
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Social intuition can be a problem because _________________.
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– we may trust our memories more than we should – we may predict our future incorrectly
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Social psychological principles have the ability to influence ____________.
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almost all aspects of our lives
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Beliefs about capital punishment and education reflect a person’s _______________.
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values
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In what ways do personal values enter into social psychology?
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-the choice of research topics -the choosing of statistical tests -the types of people who are attracted to various fields of study
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Which of the following is/are problem(s) with the hindsight bias?
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– blaming decision makers for obvious wrong choices – overestimating our own intellectual powers
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A theory is an integrated set of principles that is used to _________ _________ observed events.
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– explain – predict
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Another name for research in everyday situations is called __________________ research.
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field
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The study of naturally occurring relationships among two variables is called _____________ research.
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correlational
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Random assignment aims to create _______________ groups.
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equivalent
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With random assignment, ______________.
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– everyone has an equal chance of being assigned to any given research condition – equivalent groups are created
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Social representations are widely held _________________.
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– ideas – values – assumptions
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When subjects receive experimenter cues that guide their behavior and suggest how to act, they are experiencing _________.
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demand characteristics
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The two essential ingredients of every social psychology experiment are ______________ and ___________ ________________.
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– control – random assignment
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The degree that an experiment is superficially similar to everyday life is called ___________ ______________.
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mundane realism
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In order for experimental realism to be achieved, _____________.
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deception may be necessary
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Which of the following are part of the ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association?
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– protection – confidentiality – informed consent
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The post-experimental explanation of a study to the participants is called ____________.
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debriefing
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Time- ___________________ correlations reveal the sequence of events.
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lagged
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The purpose of hypotheses is to __________________.
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– give direction to research – test a theory
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The biggest advantage of correlational research includes _________________.
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the use of important variables in a real-world setting
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What is the major thinking error that psychologists make with regard to research?
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assuming cause and effect when examining two variables
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What kind of research is specifically designed to make predictions, such that when you know the value of one variable, you can guess the value of a second variable?
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correlational
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Which of the following are true about debriefing?
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– it usually discloses any deception involved – it takes place after the experiment is completed
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Which of the following is true about theories and facts?
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facts are agreed-upon statements about what is observed
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The way a question is posed is called _____________.
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framing
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Which of the following are true about random sampling and random assignment?
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– Random assignment helps infer cause – Random sampling helps generalize to a population
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When researchers repeat a study several times in different settings to see whether the results stay consistent each time, they are completing __________ studies.
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replication
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Social psychological studies __________ use deception.
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sometimes
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When research participants are told enough information to help them decide whether they want to participate, it is called __________ _______________.
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informed consent
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The disclosure of deception is typically done in the __________ portion of an experiment.
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debriefing
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Ideas, behaviors, and traditions shared by a large group of people and that are transmitted from one generation to another is called _________________ transmission.
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culture
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Which of the following statements is/are true about values?
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– values can influence the types of people entering a major field of study – values can play a role in the choice of research topics
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One major problem with common sense in social psychology is that it is used ___________.
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after the facts are known
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A major criticism of social psychology is that it is trivial and ___________ because the findings could be used to manipulate people.
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dangerous
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What are ways in which science may be subjective?
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– social representations may play a role in research – researchers may come from a common viewpoint in research – preconceptions may play a role in research.
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Which of the following is/are true about science?
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– science has subjective aspects – science may be biased in subtle ways

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