by overthrowing the monarch and causing the execution of many courtiers
by allowing people from the lower classes to participate in leisure activities
by easing France’s financial crisis and ending starvation among the people
by showing that the people’s will could overpower that of the monarch
There was a single, democratically elected leader in England, while there was a dictator who held sole government power in Spain.
There was a separation of powers among the political leaders in England, while the Spanish monarch held complete power over the people.
The people were the primary decision makers in England, while a small governing body held the majority of the power in Spain.
The monarch held sole control over all decisions in England, while the monarch shared his power with a governing body in Spain.
Russian nobles were forbidden from taking positions in government, while French nobles were encouraged to take active roles in government.
In France, nobles were removed from a role in government, while in Russia they were employed in government.
In both France and Russia, nobles were excluded from government, which was administrated by commoners.
In both France and Russia, nobles dominated the government, weakening the power of the monarchy.
Her husband Gottfried had a negative reputation in the scientific community.
Many academic institutions in society considered a woman’s role to lie outside science.
The calendars that she produced were proven to be incorrect.
No women were allowed to use scientific equipment during this era.
The individualism of Enlightenment thinkers helped disprove socialism.
Enlightenment satirists such as Voltaire shredded the old mercantile system.
The writings of Adam Smith set forth the theory of that economic system.
Capitalism grew out of democracy, and the Enlightenment favored democracy.
An aristocratic government has an inherent vigour, unknown to democracy. The nobles form a body, who by their prerogative, and for their own particular interest, restrain the people; it is sufficient that there are laws in being to see them executed.
But easy as it may be for the body of the nobles to restrain the people, it is difficult to restrain themselves.
Which inference about Montesquieu’s ideas on government is not well supported by the passage? (5 points)
Government should restrain people’s excessive self-interest.
Each form of government has its own drawbacks.
Different social groups have different character traits.
Aristocracy is the best form of government.
How might Leonardo da Vinci’s sketches of the human body, such as the one above, have inspired later scientists? (5 points)
The sketches popularized the scientific study of anatomy among common people.
His depictions of the human form emphasized that it was a simple subject to study.
The sketches showed that the human body could be studied as a system, using scientific principles.
His depictions of the human form made subsequent dissections unnecessary.
It established a list of necessary tools for research.
It made experimentation a popular pastime among the common people.
It established a rational, systematic methodology for research.
It created the idea of the “theory.”
It led to a violent revolution and the overthrow of the crown.
It lessened the importance of observation and measurement in scientific discovery.
It strengthened people’s belief in the authority of the Church.
It led thinkers to seek out explanations instead of accepting common knowledge.
Government should exist only to protect the nation, not to control people’s lives.
Colonialism is immoral because it replaces one people’s culture with another’s.
When government violates individual rights, the people have the right to rebel.
In the state of nature, there is only one social class, not a division into “estates.”
He explained how the nervous system works.
He explained the circulation of blood.
He explained how muscles work.
He explained how the brain works
We must smother the internal and external enemies of the Republic or perish with it; now in this situation, the first maxim of your policy ought to be to lead the people by reason and the people’s enemies by terror.
If the spring of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the springs of popular government in revolution are at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; terror, without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible; it is therefore an emanation of virtue; it is not so much a special principle as it is a consequence of the general principle of democracy applied to our country’s most urgent needs.
Which statement best summarizes Robespierre’s argument? (5 points)
Violence is equally regrettable no matter which side uses it.
Revolutions must be ruthless in destroying the enemies of the people.
In a revolution, the frenzy of the people cannot be controlled by law.
The violence of the Reign of Terror was a mistake, but was limited.
He sought the assembly’s permission for new taxes to solve France’s debt crisis.
He wanted to introduce a new legislature in which the Third Estate had more power.
He tried to impose a constitutional monarchy in which he would remain king.
He vainly wished to gain the people’s support in his attempt to stop the revolution.
Islamic trade bolstered the economy and helped scientists fund their research and increase exploration.
The Islamic Empire placed great value on learning, and later European scientists were able to build on the advancements of Islamic scholars.
As Europeans conquered Islamic territory, they captured classical Greek and Roman texts in the process.
Most of the leading thinkers of the Scientific Revolution held Islamic religious beliefs.
They each have their own national currency.
Each practices Roman Catholicism.
Each has its own democratic government.
They each have their own hereditary monarchy.
It is natural to a republic to have only a small territory, otherwise it cannot long subsist. In a large republic there are men of large fortunes, and consequently of less moderation…. In a large republic, the public good is sacrificed to a thousand views; it is subordinate to exceptions, and depends on accidents. In a small one, the interest of the public is easier perceived, better understood, and more within the reach of every citizen; abuses are of less extent, and of course are less protected.
Based on the passage, which aspect of government does Montesquieu fear most? (5 points)
a small republic because humans cannot be trusted to make personal sacrifices
a government that replaces the need of many with the needs of a few
a government with clear separation of powers because its power to act is limited
an elected representative government because it can easily perceive the needs of the public
prediction of future trends
the study of heredity
society and government
He was a German mathematician and astronomer who established a set of laws to describe planetary motion around the sun.
He was a German cleric who promulgated a new doctrine that encouraged scientific research.
He was a German philosopher known for his work in epistemological theory.
He was a German chemist who created the first periodic table.
Individual consciousness is the only thing that never changes in a changing world.
Logic and mathematics could figure out the uncertainties of existence.
Given the choice between two theories, the simpler one is usually correct.
The nature of God could be analyzed as a machine.
by developing progressive theories of child-raising
by hosting salons for intellectual discussion
by directly confronting the Roman Catholic Church
by financing new methods of education
the Scientific Revolution
increased availability of printed books
decline in the education system
Descartes’s developments in analytical geometry were used by Newton in his development of calculus and research into optics.
Newton and Descartes revolutionized navigation with their research, which led to increased colonization of the Americas.
Descartes was inspired to create a system of analytical geometry to describe Newton’s Theory of Gravity.
They both made their most famous discoveries while working for the king of England.
The Spirit of the Laws
The Wealth of Nations
Galileo took the brunt of the Catholic Church’s disapproval, making it easier for Copernicus to express his ideas.
Galileo’s refined telescope made astronomical observations possible which verified heliocentrism.
Galileo was a high-ranking official in the church, and he used his influence to protect Copernicus.
Galileo was a popular figure in Renaissance Italy, and he incorporated the Copernican system into his own research.
Coffeehouses provided a setting in which citizens could gather to exchange ideas.
Coffeehouses enriched the economies of Paris and London, creating more leisure time.
Coffeehouses were a breeding ground of anti-monarchical theories and conspiracies.
Taxes on coffee enraged the people of England and France against their governments.
The period of administrative freedom caused by the war gave leaders the opportunity to rebel for these rights.
The war with France made Spain tighten their political and economic hold on the colonies in desperation.
The exposure to French ideas through the war convinced many in Spain to provide these liberties to the colonies.
The disruptions caused by the war encouraged colonial merchants to seek markets in the Pacific.
Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo
a rigid class structure
France’s invasion of Spain
the injustice of slavery
the Mexican-American War
the French Revolution
the American Revolution
Both groups felt that the meddling by European powers had caused the wars.
The American-born groups felt they were denied state and church offices.
The Spanish-born groups tended to resent the privileges of the American-born groups.
The American-born were prevented from participating in the Spanish War of Independence.
the increased influence of the Church
the numerous liberal economic reforms
the continuation of the caste system
the complete independence from Spain
separation and independence from Spain
large colonies breaking up into smaller countries
the establishment of military dictatorships
continued fighting between the new countries
“Train any population rationally, and they will be rational. Furnish honest and useful employments to those so trained, and such employments they will greatly prefer to dishonest or injurious occupations. It is beyond all calculation the interest of every government to provide that training and that employment; and to provide both is easily practicable.”
Source: A New View of Society – Essays 1813-1816, Robert Owen
In what way might Adam Smith have disagreed with this statement? (5 points)
Smith believed that workers could not be trained to work.
Smith believed that education was only for the poor.
Smith believed that the government’s role was very limited.
Smith believed that the government should directly employ people.
Capitalism seeks to redistribute wealth, while socialism and communism seek to limit the role of government in economic affairs.
Capitalism values society collectively, while socialism and communism value the market and the individual.
Capitalism values the market and the individual, while socialism and communism value society collectively.
Capitalism seeks to limit the role of government in economic affairs, while socialism and communism reject the idea of wealth redistribution.
“…he intends only his own security… he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention… By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it.”
Source: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
How does Smith’s view of the economy expressed in this excerpt compare to Owen’s? (5 points)
Owens believes individuals acting in their self-interest will lead to the maximum social benefit, while Smith does not.
Both believe individuals acting in their self-interest will lead to economic inequality.
Smith believes individuals acting in their self-interest will lead to the maximum social benefit, while Owens does not.
Both believe individuals acting in their self-interest will lead to economic equality.
“It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest.”
Source: Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
Which of the following systems believes that the role of the government is only to promote competition and provide public goods? (5 points)
Marx described a system where the bourgeois capitalists were the tools of revolution.
Marx advocated the use of utopian communities and social reforms to create a classless society.
Owens and Fourier thought that the capitalist system would bring about revolution.
Owens and Fourier believed that the working masses were being exploited by Capitalism.
“To save the Russian commune, a Russian revolution is needed.”
Source: English translation of Letter to Vera Zasulich by Karl Marx, Creative Commons License
Who is most likely to have made this statement? (5 points)
It started the Franco-Prussian War.
It ended the Austro-Prussian War.
It started the Austro-Prussian War.
It ended the Franco-Prussian War.
Naples and Savoy
Naples and Sicily
Nice and Savoy
Nice and Sicily
He put political enemies into prison.
He received a disabling wound in battle.
He preferred to use armed force.
He suffered from an iron deficiency disease.
a meeting of nations to find a balance of power
a political philosophy that favors material factors
a symphony orchestra concert held in Vienna
an agreement that gave German states to France
Both Macau and Belize were Portuguese colonies that were returned to China.
Both Macau and Belize underwent a prolonged process of decolonization.
Both Macau and Belize saw mass economic depression shortly before decolonization.
Both Macau and Belize went through years of violent rebellion before decolonization.
“In fact, I believe that I have rendered a service to India and England by showing in non-co-operation the way out of the unnatural state in which both are living…I am endeavoring to show to my countrymen that violent non-co-operation only multiples evil, and that as evil can only be sustained by violence, withdrawal of support of evil requires complete abstention [avoidance] from violence…I am here, therefore, to invite and submit cheerfully to the highest penalty that can be inflicted upon me for what in law is deliberate crime, and what appears to me to be the highest duty of a citizen.”
-excerpt from Mohandas K. Gandhi’s “Statement in the Great Trial”, 1922
Based on this excerpt, how did Mohandas Gandhi’s approach to gaining independence in India differ from the approach taken in French-Indo China? (5 points)
Rebels in French Indo-China saw peaceful negotiation as the most effective means to bring change.
Gandhi believed that violence was not an effective means to bring change.
Gandhi believed violent resistance to be the highest duty of a citizen.
Rebels in French Indo-China rejected the use of violence.
He restricted political rights to the white minority, ultimately extending the apartheid system.
He refused to end civil war, ultimately contributing to the elimination of apartheid.
He set up talks between the government and the ANC, ultimately contributing to the elimination of apartheid.
He encouraged the government to outlaw the ANC, ultimately extending the apartheid system.
the nation of Cuba
the Haitian aristocracy
the United Nations
the Haitian military
“Having now disposed of the first part of this subject, I must speak of the transit of the slaves in the West Indies. This I confess, in my own opinion, is the most wretched part of the whole subject. So much misery condensed in so little room, is more than the human imagination had ever before conceived … Let any one imagine to himself 6 or 700 of these wretches chained two and two, surrounded with every object that is nauseous and disgusting, diseased, and struggling under every kind of wretchedness! How can we bear to think of such a scene as this?”
-William Wilberforce’s, 1789 Abolition Speech
Based on the above excerpt, why did Wilberforce think that slavery should be abolished? (5 points)
Slavery does not provide enough profit for the amount of suffering it causes.
No person should be submitted to the immense suffering that is perpetrated through slavery.
Slavery causes the spread of disease, which could affect Europeans as well as Africans
People who are submitted to the suffering caused by slavery might rebel against Europeans.
the many sanctions imposed on Bolivia
the short Falkland War with Great Britain
the disappearance of thousands of people in Chile
the harsh suppression of a revolution in Algeria
The coffee elite felt that their favored social and economic position was threatened.
The newly created trade unions established a minimum wage and child labor laws.
The tenantes sought to concentrate power at the top of the social ladder.
The urban middle class sought to overturn the coffee elite-controlled government
He used a coup to regain power and resist democratic reforms.
He used the election to persecute democracy reformer Michelle Bachelet.
He defied the election results by forcing the military to retake power.
He defied the election results and stayed in power for two more years.
The colonies in Africa had been the sight of most of the most deadly battles of the Second World War.
Africa had undergone centuries of brutal exploitation and mass slavery that broke down institutions of civil society.
The colonies in Africa each had very large white settler populations who resisted all attempts at independence.
African countries tended to seek independence earlier than other countries around the world.
Korea fought a long and violent war for independence.
Korea achieved independence because Japan lost the war.
India achieved independence much earlier than Korea.
India achieved independence when Britain entered the war.