WGU Change Management Study

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Systems Theory
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organizations are viewed as a total system of interdependent subsystems with individual components that include people, technology, work, and culture all of which work together to respond to external environmental changes such as competitors, customers, or government regulations.
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Contingency theory
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viewing organizational dimensions (strategy, structure, people, work, rewards) as parts of a whole that fit together. When one of these dimensions is out of sync with the others, issues emerge.
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Top-down approach
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seeks to gain top management commitment and involvement in order to significantly affect intended changes. Implemented throughout the organization.
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Collaborative approach
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involving professionals who are affected by changes and who support the changes to the organization.
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Facilitation approach
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uses skilled dialogue and discussion, listening, feedback when assisting professionals to identify weaknesses and strengths of the organization: planning for change; managing the change process; and implementing, coaching, and problem solving during the change.
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Design approach
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helps leaders and managers to develop meaningful work climates where organizational members can accomplish their goals in a healthy way.
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Developmental change
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involves an improvement of what already exists.
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Transitional change
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consists of an implementation to achieve a known desired state that is different from the existing one. Ex. Installing a new technology system.
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Transformational change
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involves the emergence of a new, unknown state for the organization. Ex. Changing the entire structure and culture of an organization.
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Dunphy and Stace’s Model four levels of change
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a. Level 1: Fine-Tuning- This type of change involves an ongoing process of matching and fitting an organization’s strategy, structure, and processes with the environment. Ex. Commitment to the organization’s mission and departments b. Level 2: Incremental Adjustment: Incremental adjustments are predictable changes that evolve slowly and systematically at a constant rate over time within the organization to fit the external environment. Ex. Modifying a mission statement. c. Level 3: Modular transformation: Organizational change is radical in this type of change but is focused on subparts rather than on the entire organization. For example: restructuring departments, changes in key executives responsibilities, introducing new processes. Related to transitional change. d. Level 4: Corporate transformation: This type of change, like transformational change in previous model, involves an radical shift in the business strategy and changes in the vision, mission, culture, and systems. There is outside recruitment of new executives. Most, if not all, of the internal systems and dimensions of an organization are affected.
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Balogun and Hope-Hailey’s Model
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a. End Result (horizontal axis)= Transformation and Realignment b. Nature of Change (vertical axis)= Incremental and Big Bang c. Four strategies: i. Evolution- when the change is incremental but transformation is the result. This strategy suggests proceeding in a progressive way by also analyzing both the internal and external environments while implementing the change. ii. Adaptation- When the change is also incremental and the end result is realignment. This is the least intrusive impact on the organization and the most commonly used. iii. Revolution- When the change is big bang and transformational. An example might be a company that is bought by another parent firm and the new owner requests the present leaders and managers to change the vision and mission and the replace a majority of the workforce. iv. Reconstruction- When the change is big bang combined with realignment. The organization may experience turmoil as in a turnaround or large expansion, and the basic business model may remain intact.
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Tichy’s Model
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Tichy’s framework explains change from a combination of external forces (political, technical, and cultural) that affect internal organizational systems.
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Contingency Alignment Framework
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Related to the open-systems, based approach and also similar to Tichy’s model. Another main difference in this framework is that the internal organizational dimensions (vision and strategy, structure, people, measurement systems, nature of work, culture, and technology) all should fit and work together to add value and synergy to both the input and output of the organization.
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The Stakeholder Approach
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has the capacity to enable users to identify groups, their ‘ethics” and how each affects and is affected by an organization’s change. Originated as a strategic management approach to address the “principle of who or what really counts”.
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Open-systems model of change
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Three steps: input, throughput, and output
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Three different types of change
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reorganization and restructuring, spinning off businesses, and sell the business
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Resource Dependency Theory
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organizations are dependent on the environments in which they operate. Motivation of the leaders was to ensure the survival of the organization and enhance its autonomy while maintaining stability.
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Duncan’s Model: Environmental-industry-organization fit
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can be used to understand an organization’s existing environment and to diagnose the type of organization to which that organization might move to increase its performance. The model is a simple “big picture” and straightforward way of mapping an organization’s fit with environmental uncertainty. The two dimensions of environments are: environmental change and environmental complexity.
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Systems contingency model (congruence model)-
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there is no one right or best strategy, structure, or culture that can predict organizational success; effectiveness is defined by the “fit” or congruence of these dimensions working together to meet environmental and competitive requirements. Starts with the organization’s vision, mission, and strategy. a. Shows that leadership, environment, history, and resources of the organization at the input phase are emphasized as customer requirements because translating and meeting customer needs in the environment are central to survival and success. b. Transformation phase- the leadership and managers are responsible for creating, processing, and completing the services and or products before delivery. c. Output phase- reflects the effectiveness of this model through three levels: organizational level, group level, and individual professional level.
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Greiner’s Organizational Life Cycle Model
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used to diagnose the types of crises and challenges organizations face as they age. This model adds a historical dimension for understanding an organization’s developmental needs in terms of changing capabilities required of leaders to grow organizations along their life-cycle. Move through periods of stability with embedded crisis. a. Five stages: i. Stage 1: Entrepreneurial- Growth with creativity ii. Stage 2: Collectivity- Growth with Clear Direction iii. Stage 3: Formalization- Growth with delegation iv. Stage 4: Elaboration- Growth with Coordination v. Stage 5: Revitalization or Decline- Growth with collaboration and innovation b. Each stage is both a result of the previous phase and a cause for the next phase. c. Greiner hypothesized that during each period managers are limited in what they are able to do for growth to occur.
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Change intervention
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planned actions designed to help enhance an organization’s effectiveness by solving a problem or creating an opportunity
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First order (adaptive) change
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incremental, small-scale, fine-tuning, and developmental. These changes involve adjustments to systems.
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Second order (discontinuous) change
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radical, transformational, and sometimes transitional in nature. Changes are also called “frame bending” and may be done with a “big bang”.
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Levels of intervention
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a. Developmental b. Transitional c. Transformational
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Action Research Modal
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a. Identify the problem or opportunity b. Consult with the client- Initial meeting c. Collect Data d. Make a preliminary diagnosis e. Present Feedback to the Client f. Jointly diagnose Problem/ Opportunity/ Findings with client g. Instigate Joint Action Steps h. Implement Change i. Managing Change: The change consultant’s role j. Collect Post-Implementation Data
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Kotter’s 8-Step Change Process
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used to help with the need for large-scale transformational change that requires comprehensive planning approaches that both the OD and change management fields offer. 8 steps include: a. Step 1: Establish a sense of urgency b. Step 2: Form a Powerful Guiding Coalition c. Step 3: Create a Vision d. Step 4: Communicate the Vision e. Step 5: Empower Other to Act on the Vision f. Step 6: Plan for and Create Short-Term Wins g. Step 7: Consolidate Improvements and Produce More Change h. Step 8: Institutionalize New Approaches in the Culture
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Appreciative Inquiry Approach
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engages people across the organization in creating positive change that focuses on learning from success. Is the cooperative search for the best in people, their organizations, and the world around them. Involves systematic discovery. Four Phases: a. Discovery- Appreciating that which gives life b. Dream- Envisioning impact c. Design- Co-Constructing the future d. Delivery- Sustaining the change
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Horizontal linkage model
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provides a framework for the shared development of innovations among several departments. This approach saves both time and money in the development of innovations by increasing coordination among departments. A risk involve is that its possible to become too passionate about the innovation and overlook potential risks. a. Cooperation- when organizations create the conditions and systems to help facilitate internal and external coordination and knowledge sharing b. Internal coordination- the combined expertise of a number of different players, each with their own areas of specialization, to come up with a single creative, yet realistic, solution.
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External coordination
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occurs when organizations look outside their boundaries to find and develop new ideas.
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Closed innovation
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when a business generates its own ideas in-house and then develops, manufactures, markets, and distributes them.
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Open innovation
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extending the search for and commercialization of new ideas beyond the confines of the organization and even beyond the limits of the industry, sharing knowledge and resources with other organizations and individuals outside the firm. Crowdsourcing is used in open innovation.
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Incremental or sustaining innovation
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refers to a series of incremental, small improvements to existing products or products line that help to sustain and maintain or improve its competitive position over time. Reduced risk.
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Process or production innovations
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increase the bottom line profitability, reduce costs, raise productivity, and increase employee satisfaction.
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Strategy innovation
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challenging existing industry methods of creating customer value in order to meet newly emerging customer needs, add additional value, and create new markets and new customer groups for the organization.
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Cultural silos
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the tendency for departments to work independently from one another and to communicate with one another in an inadequate fashion
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Lewin’s Change Management model
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Unfreeze, change, freeze (refreeze). Simple and easy to understand framework for achieving behavioral and attitudinal change approach in order to achieve a desired future state that benefits the organization. a. Stage 1: Unfreezing- makes the organization aware of the problems and the need for change. Develop a compelling message and sense of urgency, b. Stage 2: Change- where people begin to resolve their indecision and look for new ways to do things. Leadership provides a new vision and plan that everyone can believe in. c. Stage 3: Refreezing- Needs to develop a coalition among people for the organization to adopt and institutionalize the changes.
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Ackerman and Anderson’s change process model
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The roadmap developed by Ackerman and Anderson is often described as a “thinking discipline” rather than a prescribed way of forcing an organization’s behavior into a forced plan and timeline. Steps: a. Preparing the lead to change b. Creating vision, commitment and capability c. Assessing the situation: Determine design requirements and desired state and analyze the impact d. Plan organize and implement the change e. Analyze the impact f. Plan and organize for implementation g. Implement the change h. Celebrate and integrate the new state i. Learn and course correct
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Warrick’s six-step change implementation process
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a. Step 1: keep the big picture in mind b. Step 2: Choose the right interventions c. Step 3: Use a sound change model to plan and manage the change process d. Step 4: Keep people engaged and make the incentive for change great than the incentive to stay the same e. Step 5: Identify and manage resistance to change f. Step 6: Follow through and learn from the process
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Cumming’s and Worley’s five dimensions of leading and depicting change
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a. Motivating change b. Creating a Vision c. Developing political support d. Managing the transition e. Sustaining Momentum
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Culture of discipline
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They developed a culture of discipline that made hierarchies excessive and unnecessary.
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Hedgehog concept
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Great companies and their leaders learned and followed what they did best by understanding and implementing their passion, what they could do best, and drove their economic engine.
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Technology Accelerators
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They carefully applied selected technologies to ignite and accelerate their transformation- not to define their change.
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Self designing organizations
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organizations that have capabilities to renew change themselves fundamentally and continuously. Risk taking is embraced and employee empowerment and ownership is not part of the organizational culture.
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Peter Senge’s Five Principles
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a. Systems thinking (pg 94)- the ability to comprehend the whole and to examine the interrelationship among the parts to identify and solve problems accurately b. Personal mastery- continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively. No learning occurs without personal mastery. c. Mental models- deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures and images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action. d. Building shared vision- very important in implementing and sustaining a major change initiative. Starts with leadership. e. Team learning- the process of aligning and developing the capacities of a team to create the results its members truly desire. Team learning builds on systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, and shared vision.
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Woolner’s Five Stage model
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a. Stage 1: Forming the Organization i. Learn through trial and error b. Stage 2: Developing the Organization i. Begun to solidify business models and products can start to set up formal, proactive learning situations through training with outsiders. c. The Mature Organization i. Understand the need for employee learning and begin to provide internal training d. Adapting Organization i. Learning becomes part of the strategic plan. Learning is integral to the company’s long-term growth at individual, group, and organizational levels. e. Learning Organization i. Learning becomes part of an organization’s day-to-day activities. Its fully integrated into operations and is viewed as part of the organization’s health and success. Encourages formal and informal learning.

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