Western Civilization Final Exam Study Guide

Nuremberg Trials
former Nazis put on trial for war crimes and crimes against humanity

NEP
Lenin’s New Economic Plan – introduced capitalism into communism

U-Boat
Underwater boat (submarine)

Hiroshima
first city to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon

Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin

Ninety-Five Theses
Grievances against the church – (Martin Luther)

Toussaint L’Ouverture
led Haiti to independence

Cultural Diffusion
spread of cultural ideas around the world

Cultural Diversity
variety of cultures; cultural differences

Bougeoisie
middle class

Three Estates
1-clergy, 2-nobility, 3-everyone else

Estates General
meeting of the estates

Josef Stalin
leader of Soviet Union – everything he did failed

Immediate Cause of World War I
assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary

Underlying Causes of World War I
nationalism, imperialism, militarism, alliances

Sale of Indulgences
selling forgiveness of sins

Thomas Malthus
population increases more rapidly than food supply – wars and epidemics need to kill off extra people

David Riccardo
wages would be forced down as population increased

September 1, 1939
WWII begins – Germany invades Poland

Reconquesta
reconquest of Spain from the Muslims by Ferdinand and Isabella

Duma
Russian Parliament

Ethnocentric
belief that one’s ethnic group is centrally important

Petition of Rights
signed by Charles I – limited the power of the English monarch

Duke of Wellington
defeated Napoleon for the final time at the Battle of Waterloo

Horatio Nelson
British admiral – defeats Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
motto of the french revolution

Henry VIII
began Protestant Reformation in England, began Anglican Church because pope would not grant him a divorce – married 6 times

Bolsheviks
(red) – V.I. Lenin – believed that the revolution had to be led by an elite group of people who devoted life to revolution and would lead the revolution until the proletariat was ready to take over.

Mensheviks
(white) – Alexander Kerensky – wanted to wait until the proletariat was ready

Peter The Great
Czar of Russia (Peter I)

Isaac Newton
English scientist and mathmatician – all physical objects are affected equally by the same forces – law of universal gravitation

Johan Gutenberg
invented the printing press (movable type)

Karl Marx
German journalist – Marxism – radical type of socialism

Mohandas Gandhi
non-violence – civil disobedience – boycotts – fasts – led marches (salt march) – gained worldwide sympathy – killed in 1948 by Hindus who believed he was a traitor

Benito Mussolini
fascist leader of Italy

Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points
wanted “peace without victory” – (self-determination, fair peace, disarmament, fair treatment of colonial people, no secret alliances, league of nations)

NATO
defensive alliance against communism – Western European nations, U.S. and Canada

Warsaw Pact
defensive alliance of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European bloc nations

Paul Von Hindenberg
president of the Weimar Republic – appoints Hitler chancellor

Nikita Khrushchev
becomes leader of USSR – believes in destalinization – in 1956 viewed as a weak leader

Cold War
war of ideology

Reparations
money paid for doing something wrong

Adam Smith
(believed in laissez faire) – free markets – government should not interfere

Nicholas Copernicus
polish mathematician and astronomer – discovered that Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun

Heliocentric
believed that the Earth revolved around the sun

Geocentric
believed that the sun revolved around the Earth

Black Death (Bubonic Plague)
spread by fleas carried by rats – killed between 1/4 – 1/3 of the population of Europe

Columbian Exchange
the exchange of goods and animals between the Americas and Europe

Treaty of Versailles
ends WWI on November 11, 1918; Germany was demilitarized, territorial changes/new countries, reparations (Germany had to pay 30 billion dollars), league of nations

Adolf Hitler
leader of Nazis – starts Holocaust – wants master race (Aryan) – creates 3rd Reich

White Man’s Burden
white people influence Africans and introduce them to western culture

Otto Von Bismarck
German-Prussian – First Chancellor of the German Empire

Rene Descartes
invented analytical geometry – said, “I think, therefore I am.”

Byzantine Civilization Effect Upon Russia
influenced through the Cyrillic alphabet, architecture (onion shaped dome), eastern orthodox religion

Irish Potato Famine
(Great Famine) – potato disease – led to starvation, disease, emigration – many people died

Klaus Von Metternich
led Austria at the Congress of Vienna

Congress of Berlin
meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empire – led by Otto Von Bismarck

Congress of Vienna
conference of ambassadors of European states to settle issues – led by Klaus Von Metternich

V.I. Lenin
Leader of the Bolsheviks; returns to Russia with the help of Germany, signs the treaty of Brest-Litovsk (pulls Russia out of WWI) – promises the people “peace, bread, and land.” – seizes control of provisional government; becomes leader of Soviet Union and establishes war communism – then makes NEP (adds capitalism into communism)

Christopher Columbus
made a daring voyage from Spain in 1492 – he tried to find Asia but never did

Magna Carta
signed by King John of England – June 15, 1215 at Runnymede – limited the power of the monarch

Glorious Revolution
Parliament withdrew support from King James II – gave English throne to his daughter Mary, and her husband William of Orange (ruler of Netherlands) – William invaded England and James fled to France – William and Mary were crowned co-rulers of England – turning point in English constitutional history because Parliament established the right to limit the English monarch’s power and control succession to the throne

Elizabeth I
protestant – became queen after the death of her half-sister Mary who was catholic – returned England to the protestant faith – kept a balance between Protestants and Catholics – ruled England during its Golden Age – (virgin queen)

October Manifesto
issued by the Czar to stop the revolution

William and Mary
became English monarchs following the abdication of James II – agreed to rule according to the laws of Parliament

Balfour Declaration
issued by Britain; promised to help Jews form homeland in Palestine after WWI

Enlightenment
European movement – emphasized individualism

Mercantilism
the belief that a nation’s wealth and power can greatly increase by following certain principals

Protestant Reformation
led by Martin Luther – reformed beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic church

Renaissance
rebirth of learning/culture; began in Italy due to its wealth from trade

Humanism
stresses the importance of each individual human

Francesco Petrarch
father of humanism

Galileo
Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher – improved the telescope

Charles Darwin
theory of evolution; Origin of Species

Nicholas II
became Czar in 1894; attempted to industrialize Russia

Alexander Kerensky
leader of the Mensheviks

Maximilian Robespierre
led Jacobins in National Assembly; backed execution of Louis XVI

Louis XVI
needed money; called Estates General into session

British Reform Movements
followed ideas of Enlightenment; more democratic

Oliver Cromwell
leader of the Puritan Revolution; executed Charles I; Made himself the “Lord Protector” of England

Declaration of the Rights of Man
French constitution

Louis XIV
known as the “Sun King”; example of an absolute monarch

James I
king of Scotland; became king of England when Queen Elizabeth I died without an heir

Charles II
monarch of England, Scotland, and Ireland; son of King Charles I

Restoration Period
restoring of the English monarch; after the death of Oliver Cromwell

Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian artist – Mona Lisa

James Watt
invented the steam engine

Michelangelo
Italian sculptor; decorated the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

Social Darwinism
ideas based on natural selection

Alexander II
emperor of Russian empire

Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
entrepreneurs, labor supply, markets – (British colonies), natural resources (coal/iron); transportation (water – harbors & canals); government support (taxes)

Benefits of Industrial Revolution
raised the living standard

Negative Effects of Industrial Revolution
overcrowding, child labor, unsafe working conditions, low pay

Giuseppe Mazzini
Italian nationalist leader

Count Emilio Cavour
Italian statesmen; first person to be the head of the government in unified Italy

Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot and military leader who unified Italy

Victor Emanuel II
first king of united Italy

Thomas Hobbs
wrote Leviathan; said that people are basically evil and that every government is good government

Napoleon Bonaparte
leader of the French; expanded the French empire; believes all men are equal and women are inferior; exiled to Elba but escaped; defeated for the final time in Waterloo and exiled to Helena

Ivan II
prince of Moscow

Francisco Franco
leader during the Spanish Civil War (Fascist revolution)

Nelson Mandela
first South African president with democracy – anti-Apartheid activist

Apartheid
apartness – white minority (10%) controlled black majority in Africa

Green Peace
environmental concerns

Greenhouse Effect
global warming

Existentialism
Jean Paul Satre – philosophical theory stating that everyone has free will

Interdependence
depending on each other

Margaret Thatcher
first female to be prime minister of UK

Euro
money system

European Union
economic and political association of European countries with free trade

Berlin Airlift
US dropped food, fuel, and medical supplies in Germany

United Nations
created to help to maintain peace

Policy of Containment Following World War I
stopped the spread of Communism

Yalta
FDR, Churchill, and Stalin promised to permit free elections in Eastern Europe following WWII

Munich Conference
people give into Hitler’s demand to rule over all German speaking people; Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) is annexed by Germany

Appeasement
policy that Britain and France enter into; giving into an aggressor to keep peace

Holocaust
killing of inferior races by Nazis – 6 million Jews are killed and 13 million people are killed all together

Trench Warfare
type of combat when both sides fight from trenches facing each other

Divided Germany
4 zones (American, French, British, Soviet)

Mikhail Gorbachev
least leader of Soviet Union

Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviet Union had the right to prevent its satellites from rejecting Communism

Boris Yeltsin
first president of Russia

Perestroika
reconstructing – reformed Soviet Union – introduced aspects of democracy

Glasnost
openness – end to secrecy – introduced a market economy

Easter Rebellion
ended British rule in Ireland

Ned Ludd
Luddites – destroyed machines because they took away jobs

Kellogg-Briand Pact
outlawed war

IRA
Irish Republican Army – formed when Ireland was trying to gain independence from Britain

Cecil Rhodes
South African – believed in imperialism and colonialism; founder of Rhodesia

Queen Mary I (England)
“Bloody Mary” – eldest daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon