Western Civ. Miderm Chs. 1-5 – Flashcards

question
Akhenaten's experiment with monotheism failed because
answer
it was imposed from above and did not find a place among the people
question
Mesopotamian agriculture depended on
answer
irrigation
question
Which of the Near Eastern societies invented writing?
answer
Sumerians
question
All of the following traits characterized the Neolithic stage of human development except
answer
A) new types of stone tools. B) agriculture and animal husbandry as primary ways of life. C) use of bronze weapons. *** D) the appearance of towns. E) warfare and the construction of walled villages.
question
According to the text, large-scale trade in the Neolithic world developed out of
answer
the agricultural surplus.
question
The earliest written signs
answer
were pictographs, in which each sign pictured an object.
question
The division of labor within Neolithic towns resulted from
answer
agricultural surplus.
question
All of the following were products of systematic agriculture except
answer
A) the division of labor. B) the development of permanent towns. C) a healthier population. D) a dramatic increase in population. E) more people needed to become involved in food production. ***
question
Under the Code of Hammurabi, _____________ were punished most harshly for a given crime.
answer
slaves
question
The Sumerian nobility included all of the following except
answer
leading merchants
question
Sumerian society was
answer
complex, with various social categories.
question
One major drawback to the system of writing known as pictographs was that it
answer
could not represent abstract ideas
question
Sargon built a new capital city, the city of
answer
Akkad.
question
The political unification of Egypt ushered in the period known as the
answer
Old Kingdom.
question
Egypt was
answer
nearly self-sufficient.
question
Egyptian religion was
answer
permeated by the cyclical patterns of the Nile River.
question
The primary purpose of the pyramids was to serve as
answer
massive tombs.
question
Near Eastern peoples originally developed writing to
answer
keep accurate records
question
Around 1800 B.C.E., people whom the Egyptians called the _________ began to settle in the Nile Delta.
answer
Hyksos
question
Egalitarian society
answer
a society with equality between groups; men and women had equal rule
question
Stone Age
answer
Paleolithic period- "Old Stone Age", 200000-10000BCE, still no documentation, old stone tools Mesolithic period- bone tools were used for fishing Neolithic period- 10000BCE- 3000BCE, increased sophistication--esp. in agriculture using the new stone tools
question
Nomads
answer
traveled from place to place in search of food and resources
question
Cuneiform
answer
from the latin "wedge-shaped"- the Sumerian form of writing, came AFTER pictographs
question
Polytheists
answer
Mesopotamian religion, belief in many gods
question
Epic of Gilgamesh
answer
the first Sumerian epic poem
question
B.C.
answer
Before Christ
question
A.D.
answer
Anno Domini- "In the Year of Our Lord"
question
Homosapiens
answer
"knowing man"- knew how to make tools, nomadic, became sedentary (stayed in one place) when agriculture began
question
Agriculture
answer
cultivation of plants and animals/domestication/harvesting/storing (8000-7000BCE), first appeared along the Fertile Crescent
question
Consequences of agriculture
answer
1. War- walls were built around villages 2. Inc. in population 3. Social classes/ division of labor 4. Craftsmen 5. Trade
question
Ur
answer
First city in history, 500000 ppl, 3000BCE, modern day Iraq
question
Mesopotamia
answer
"land between the rivers" (rivers=Tigris and Euphrates)
question
Pros/Cons to living on the rivers
answer
Pros- population growth/religion Cons- flooding (can be both good and bad, good when the water irrigates)
question
Lugal
answer
first king of Mesopotamia (established a hereditary monarchy)
question
King's responsibilities
answer
- Make laws/enforce them/judicial power - Leader of the army - Supreme architect
question
What was ancient writing used for?
answer
Taxes
question
True or False? Mesopotamian gods were vengeful.
answer
True
question
Ziggurat
answer
temple (step-pyramids) where sacrifices were made
question
Nobles
answer
the top level of Sumerian society; consisted of the king and his family, the chief priests, and the high palace officials
question
Clients
answer
free men and women who were dependent on the nobility; in return for their labor they received small plots of land to work for themselves
question
6 Basic Elements which form a Civilization
answer
1. Urban focus- has a city 2. Distinct religious structure- gods/priests 3. Distinct political/military structure-monarchy 4. Social structure based on economic power- classes w/slaves 5. Writing- cuneiform 6. Artistic/Intellectual activity- pottery, temples, Epic of Gilgamesh
question
Sumerian
answer
1st human civilization, constant war due to high density population, kingship was hereditary
question
Imperialism
answer
1 country taking over other countries
question
Monarchy
answer
"one power" in the hands of the king
question
Arkadian Empire
answer
1st Empire- conquered Sumer
question
Sargon I
answer
Emperor of Akkad who controlled Sumer after conquering (2335BCE)
question
People who lived in Mesopotamia
answer
Sumerians
question
Amorites
answer
Babylonians who migrated from Arabia and settled along the Euphrates-location dominated trade
question
Hammurabi
answer
Babylonian king who set out to: 1. make Babylonia secure 2. unify Mespotamia 3. win the Babylonian place in Mesopotamian civilization
question
Code of Hammurabi
answer
a set of 282 laws governing daily life in Babylon; the earliest known collection of written laws. This covered a broad spectrum of moral, social, and commercial obligations.
question
Social Structure of Egypt
answer
1. Pharaoh- ruler of the land (monarchy) 2. Bureaucrats- government employees: priests, scribes, tax collectors, military leaders, governors, judges, nobles=aristocrats 3. Merchants/artisans 4. Farmers and serfs (90%) - farmers--own their own land - serfs--can either own or rent the land
question
Culture
answer
Religion, art, intellectual activity NOT political, social, or economic
question
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton)
answer
1364-1347, declared that there was only 1 God who rewards the good and punishes the bad
question
King Tut
answer
changed Egypt back to polytheism
question
In the mind of the Egyptians, the ____ was the supreme renewer of the land
answer
Nile
question
The Nile
answer
-allowed farmers to produce their agricultural surplus, which in turn led to population growth - promoted communication throughout the valley (movement of goods and armies)
question
True or False: Egypt was self-sufficient
answer
True, Egypt's natural resources made it self-sufficient. Ex.: Egypt possessed stone which they used for architecture and sculpture, clay for pottery, and gold for jewelry and ornaments. They obtained copper from Sinai and timber from Lebanon
question
Egypt's 2 entities
answer
Upper Egypt Lower Egypt
question
Menes
answer
king who united upper and lower Egypt into ONE kingdom (3100BCE)...political unification led to the "Old Kingdom"
question
Periodization of Egypt
answer
Old Kingdom- 2660-2180 Middle Kingdom- 2080- 1640 **Hyksos invaded!** New Kingdom- 1570- 1075 *Intermediate periods- holes in history, marks the breakdown on central authority/invasions
question
Old Kingdom
answer
noted from prosperity, art, and the development of religions
question
Egyptians were ______ (what religion)
answer
polytheists
question
Most powerful Egyptian gods
answer
1. Amon (sky god)- created an entire cosmos with his thoughts, caused the Nile to flood and the wind to blow 2. Ra (sun god)- creator/destroyer of life, commanded the earth and the underworld 3. Amon-Ra- a combination of the 2 gods 4. Aton- another sun god, where the souls of the dead went 5. Isis- wife of Osiris, viewed as a protector 6. Osiris- king of the dead
question
Book of the Dead
answer
explained that the god Osiris weighed each person's heart to determine if he/she has lived justly and deserves an everlasting life. After death, the soul leaves the body to become part of the divine
question
Pharaoh
answer
commanded the wealth, resources, and people of Egypt--became one with Osiris after death
question
Pyramids
answer
used as tombs
question
New Kingdom
answer
slavery became widespread
question
True or False: there was a strict caste system in Egypt that prevented mobility, even if one possessed the talent to move up
answer
False, there was no caste system in Egypt and people could move freely between classes if they worked their way up
question
Hyksos
answer
rulers of the uplands, settled in the Nile delta in 1800BCE, took political control of Egypt and created the capital city of Avaris, slavery became more prominent
question
What Age did the arrival of the Hyksos bring Egypt into? Why?
answer
the Bronze Age--because they brought tools, armor and weapons with them
question
Egypt's desert
answer
served as a natural fortress because it was so difficult to cross
question
Akhenaten
answer
pushed for religion (monotheism), suggested that Aton was the only god--monotheism did not endure beyond his reign
question
Hittites
answer
first Indo-Europeans to become broadly important throughout the region--left a lasting imprint--introduced iron to form weapons and tools
question
Battle of Kadesh
answer
ushered in a period of peace and stability in the Near East which lasted until the 13th century BCE when "Sea Peoples" invaded/conquered, brought Egyptians back into the Nile delta and destroyed the Hittites
question
In Africa, the decline of Egyptian power energized the kingdoms of ____ and ____, who adopted the elements of Egyptian culture as they rose to power in this region.
answer
Nubia and Kush
question
The __________ thrived with the absence of pressure from the Egyptians and Hittites, and they developed a trade network that spread Mesopotamian culture along the Mediterranean. They also began to manufacture goods for export (metal tools and weapons). They also developed the alphabet, which was their most lasting cultural achievement. The Greeks later modified it and used it as their written language.
answer
Phoenicians
question
The End of Egyptian power
answer
The long wars against the Sea Peoples impoverished Egypt, weakening its power in the region
question
Third Intermediate Period
answer
the 400 years of political fragmentation in Egypt after their power was weakened
question
The Evolution of the Jewish State
answer
- From Egypt, Moses and his people (Hebrews) wandered in the Sinai Peninsula until they settled in Palestine in the 13th century BCE - Once in Palestine, the Hebrews felt threatened by the Philistines (superior technology and military organization)--Saul led attacks on the Philistines
question
The ___________ invented a script called Linear A.
answer
Minoans
question
The fall of the Mycenaean kingdoms ushered in a period historians call the
answer
Dark Age
question
The works of Homer
answer
described a time when gods still walked on earth.
question
Hesiod's Theogony
answer
traces the origin and descent of the gods.
question
Minoan civilization was centered
answer
on Crete
question
The agora in the Greek city-state served as all of the following EXCEPT a
answer
A) marketplace. B) refuge from attack. ** C) site of courts. D) site where warrior assemblies originally met. E) political forum.
question
For protection, Greek city-states relied on
answer
a militia of citizens who owned land.
question
The Greeks called a colonizing city a(n) ___________, or mother city.
answer
metropolis
question
The greatest weakness of the Greek polis (city-states) was
answer
their difficulty in cooperating with one another.
question
At the end of the First Messenian War, Sparta turned the Messenians into __________, or state serfs.
answer
helots
question
Solon did all of the following EXCEPT
answer
A) free people enslaved for debt. B) recall all exiles. C) cancel all debts on land. D) outlaw private property. ** E) divide society into four groups based on wealth.
question
An Athenian woman's main function was to
answer
have and raise children.
question
Mycenaean script derived directly from
answer
Minoan Linear A script.
question
Minoan Linear A script.
answer
deme.
question
Underlying Athenian democracy was the belief that
answer
all full citizens were sovereign.
question
The Greeks' defeat of the Persians
answer
saved Greece and Greek culture from Persian domination.
question
The most important economic activity in most Greek communities was
answer
agriculture.
question
After the Greek victory over the Persians, the Athenians formed the
answer
Delian League.
question
The sculptures adorning the Parthenon
answer
depict scenes from the life of Athena.
question
Athenian drama originated in
answer
the religious festivals of the city.
question
After the Peace of Nicias, the Peloponnesian War was rekindled by
answer
Alcibiades.
question
A government characterized by the "rule of the few" is called a
answer
oligarchy.
question
Plato's great contribution to philosophy was
answer
the founding of the Academy.
question
Herodotus's central subject was
answer
the Persian wars.
question
Aspasia was the lover and companion of
answer
Pericles.
question
_________ was the first of the Pre-Socratics.
answer
Thales
question
The culmination of Pre-Socratic thought was the theory that
answer
four substances—air, fire, earth, water—make up the universe.
question
According to the text, the most important factor in the success of Philip II of Macedon in Greece was
answer
warfare among the Greeks.
question
Alexander's expedition eastward halted at the Hyphasis River because the
answer
Macedonian army refused to go further.
question
After Alexander's death, the Ptolemies founded a dynasty in
answer
Egypt
question
The ___________ kings established cities and colonies from Western Asia Minor to India.
answer
Seleucid
question
The political history of the Hellenistic period was dominated by Greek leagues and
answer
great monarchies.
question
Zeno was the founder of the __________ school of philosophy.
answer
Stoic
question
The Stoics' most important practical achievement was the creation of the concept of
answer
natural law.
question
The bureaucrats of the Hellenistic kingdoms were usually recruited from
answer
Greece.
question
In the Hellenistic city, Greeks represented
answer
an elite citizen class.
question
The uniqueness of Hellenistic culture lay in its
answer
fusion of Greek and Eastern cultures.
question
The accomplishments of Hellenistic science included all of the following EXCEPT
answer
A) calculation of the earth's circumference to within about 200 miles. B) the development of hydrostatics. C) the revolution of weaponry according to scientific principles. D)** the discovery of techniques for the production of high-quality steel. E) the conclusion that the stars were enormously distant from earth.
question
The _________ linked China, Central Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean.
answer
Great Silk Road
question
Probably the most popular mystery cult in the Hellenistic Near East was that of
answer
Isis
question
In the Hellenistic period
answer
manual labor was abundant and often provided by slaves.
question
All of the following were traits of the mystery religions EXCEPT
answer
A) a community of initiates united with their god. B) a promise of eternal life for the soul after death. C) emotional intensity. D)** the use of human sacrifice. E) initiation rites that allowed the devotee access to the secrets of the religion.
question
How did Hellenistic culture influence the Jewish religion?
answer
The Old Testament was translated into Greek.
question
The Hellenistic period provided the basis for all of the following EXCEPT
answer
A) expanded commerce between Greece and the Near East. B) the development of monarchical ruling systems. C) a new cosmopolitan society. D) the Roman Empire. E) the destruction of the civilizations of the Near East.**
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question
Akhenaten's experiment with monotheism failed because
answer
it was imposed from above and did not find a place among the people
question
Mesopotamian agriculture depended on
answer
irrigation
question
Which of the Near Eastern societies invented writing?
answer
Sumerians
question
All of the following traits characterized the Neolithic stage of human development except
answer
A) new types of stone tools. B) agriculture and animal husbandry as primary ways of life. C) use of bronze weapons. *** D) the appearance of towns. E) warfare and the construction of walled villages.
question
According to the text, large-scale trade in the Neolithic world developed out of
answer
the agricultural surplus.
question
The earliest written signs
answer
were pictographs, in which each sign pictured an object.
question
The division of labor within Neolithic towns resulted from
answer
agricultural surplus.
question
All of the following were products of systematic agriculture except
answer
A) the division of labor. B) the development of permanent towns. C) a healthier population. D) a dramatic increase in population. E) more people needed to become involved in food production. ***
question
Under the Code of Hammurabi, _____________ were punished most harshly for a given crime.
answer
slaves
question
The Sumerian nobility included all of the following except
answer
leading merchants
question
Sumerian society was
answer
complex, with various social categories.
question
One major drawback to the system of writing known as pictographs was that it
answer
could not represent abstract ideas
question
Sargon built a new capital city, the city of
answer
Akkad.
question
The political unification of Egypt ushered in the period known as the
answer
Old Kingdom.
question
Egypt was
answer
nearly self-sufficient.
question
Egyptian religion was
answer
permeated by the cyclical patterns of the Nile River.
question
The primary purpose of the pyramids was to serve as
answer
massive tombs.
question
Near Eastern peoples originally developed writing to
answer
keep accurate records
question
Around 1800 B.C.E., people whom the Egyptians called the _________ began to settle in the Nile Delta.
answer
Hyksos
question
Egalitarian society
answer
a society with equality between groups; men and women had equal rule
question
Stone Age
answer
Paleolithic period- "Old Stone Age", 200000-10000BCE, still no documentation, old stone tools Mesolithic period- bone tools were used for fishing Neolithic period- 10000BCE- 3000BCE, increased sophistication--esp. in agriculture using the new stone tools
question
Nomads
answer
traveled from place to place in search of food and resources
question
Cuneiform
answer
from the latin "wedge-shaped"- the Sumerian form of writing, came AFTER pictographs
question
Polytheists
answer
Mesopotamian religion, belief in many gods
question
Epic of Gilgamesh
answer
the first Sumerian epic poem
question
B.C.
answer
Before Christ
question
A.D.
answer
Anno Domini- "In the Year of Our Lord"
question
Homosapiens
answer
"knowing man"- knew how to make tools, nomadic, became sedentary (stayed in one place) when agriculture began
question
Agriculture
answer
cultivation of plants and animals/domestication/harvesting/storing (8000-7000BCE), first appeared along the Fertile Crescent
question
Consequences of agriculture
answer
1. War- walls were built around villages 2. Inc. in population 3. Social classes/ division of labor 4. Craftsmen 5. Trade
question
Ur
answer
First city in history, 500000 ppl, 3000BCE, modern day Iraq
question
Mesopotamia
answer
"land between the rivers" (rivers=Tigris and Euphrates)
question
Pros/Cons to living on the rivers
answer
Pros- population growth/religion Cons- flooding (can be both good and bad, good when the water irrigates)
question
Lugal
answer
first king of Mesopotamia (established a hereditary monarchy)
question
King's responsibilities
answer
- Make laws/enforce them/judicial power - Leader of the army - Supreme architect
question
What was ancient writing used for?
answer
Taxes
question
True or False? Mesopotamian gods were vengeful.
answer
True
question
Ziggurat
answer
temple (step-pyramids) where sacrifices were made
question
Nobles
answer
the top level of Sumerian society; consisted of the king and his family, the chief priests, and the high palace officials
question
Clients
answer
free men and women who were dependent on the nobility; in return for their labor they received small plots of land to work for themselves
question
6 Basic Elements which form a Civilization
answer
1. Urban focus- has a city 2. Distinct religious structure- gods/priests 3. Distinct political/military structure-monarchy 4. Social structure based on economic power- classes w/slaves 5. Writing- cuneiform 6. Artistic/Intellectual activity- pottery, temples, Epic of Gilgamesh
question
Sumerian
answer
1st human civilization, constant war due to high density population, kingship was hereditary
question
Imperialism
answer
1 country taking over other countries
question
Monarchy
answer
"one power" in the hands of the king
question
Arkadian Empire
answer
1st Empire- conquered Sumer
question
Sargon I
answer
Emperor of Akkad who controlled Sumer after conquering (2335BCE)
question
People who lived in Mesopotamia
answer
Sumerians
question
Amorites
answer
Babylonians who migrated from Arabia and settled along the Euphrates-location dominated trade
question
Hammurabi
answer
Babylonian king who set out to: 1. make Babylonia secure 2. unify Mespotamia 3. win the Babylonian place in Mesopotamian civilization
question
Code of Hammurabi
answer
a set of 282 laws governing daily life in Babylon; the earliest known collection of written laws. This covered a broad spectrum of moral, social, and commercial obligations.
question
Social Structure of Egypt
answer
1. Pharaoh- ruler of the land (monarchy) 2. Bureaucrats- government employees: priests, scribes, tax collectors, military leaders, governors, judges, nobles=aristocrats 3. Merchants/artisans 4. Farmers and serfs (90%) - farmers--own their own land - serfs--can either own or rent the land
question
Culture
answer
Religion, art, intellectual activity NOT political, social, or economic
question
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton)
answer
1364-1347, declared that there was only 1 God who rewards the good and punishes the bad
question
King Tut
answer
changed Egypt back to polytheism
question
In the mind of the Egyptians, the ____ was the supreme renewer of the land
answer
Nile
question
The Nile
answer
-allowed farmers to produce their agricultural surplus, which in turn led to population growth - promoted communication throughout the valley (movement of goods and armies)
question
True or False: Egypt was self-sufficient
answer
True, Egypt's natural resources made it self-sufficient. Ex.: Egypt possessed stone which they used for architecture and sculpture, clay for pottery, and gold for jewelry and ornaments. They obtained copper from Sinai and timber from Lebanon
question
Egypt's 2 entities
answer
Upper Egypt Lower Egypt
question
Menes
answer
king who united upper and lower Egypt into ONE kingdom (3100BCE)...political unification led to the "Old Kingdom"
question
Periodization of Egypt
answer
Old Kingdom- 2660-2180 Middle Kingdom- 2080- 1640 **Hyksos invaded!** New Kingdom- 1570- 1075 *Intermediate periods- holes in history, marks the breakdown on central authority/invasions
question
Old Kingdom
answer
noted from prosperity, art, and the development of religions
question
Egyptians were ______ (what religion)
answer
polytheists
question
Most powerful Egyptian gods
answer
1. Amon (sky god)- created an entire cosmos with his thoughts, caused the Nile to flood and the wind to blow 2. Ra (sun god)- creator/destroyer of life, commanded the earth and the underworld 3. Amon-Ra- a combination of the 2 gods 4. Aton- another sun god, where the souls of the dead went 5. Isis- wife of Osiris, viewed as a protector 6. Osiris- king of the dead
question
Book of the Dead
answer
explained that the god Osiris weighed each person's heart to determine if he/she has lived justly and deserves an everlasting life. After death, the soul leaves the body to become part of the divine
question
Pharaoh
answer
commanded the wealth, resources, and people of Egypt--became one with Osiris after death
question
Pyramids
answer
used as tombs
question
New Kingdom
answer
slavery became widespread
question
True or False: there was a strict caste system in Egypt that prevented mobility, even if one possessed the talent to move up
answer
False, there was no caste system in Egypt and people could move freely between classes if they worked their way up
question
Hyksos
answer
rulers of the uplands, settled in the Nile delta in 1800BCE, took political control of Egypt and created the capital city of Avaris, slavery became more prominent
question
What Age did the arrival of the Hyksos bring Egypt into? Why?
answer
the Bronze Age--because they brought tools, armor and weapons with them
question
Egypt's desert
answer
served as a natural fortress because it was so difficult to cross
question
Akhenaten
answer
pushed for religion (monotheism), suggested that Aton was the only god--monotheism did not endure beyond his reign
question
Hittites
answer
first Indo-Europeans to become broadly important throughout the region--left a lasting imprint--introduced iron to form weapons and tools
question
Battle of Kadesh
answer
ushered in a period of peace and stability in the Near East which lasted until the 13th century BCE when "Sea Peoples" invaded/conquered, brought Egyptians back into the Nile delta and destroyed the Hittites
question
In Africa, the decline of Egyptian power energized the kingdoms of ____ and ____, who adopted the elements of Egyptian culture as they rose to power in this region.
answer
Nubia and Kush
question
The __________ thrived with the absence of pressure from the Egyptians and Hittites, and they developed a trade network that spread Mesopotamian culture along the Mediterranean. They also began to manufacture goods for export (metal tools and weapons). They also developed the alphabet, which was their most lasting cultural achievement. The Greeks later modified it and used it as their written language.
answer
Phoenicians
question
The End of Egyptian power
answer
The long wars against the Sea Peoples impoverished Egypt, weakening its power in the region
question
Third Intermediate Period
answer
the 400 years of political fragmentation in Egypt after their power was weakened
question
The Evolution of the Jewish State
answer
- From Egypt, Moses and his people (Hebrews) wandered in the Sinai Peninsula until they settled in Palestine in the 13th century BCE - Once in Palestine, the Hebrews felt threatened by the Philistines (superior technology and military organization)--Saul led attacks on the Philistines
question
The ___________ invented a script called Linear A.
answer
Minoans
question
The fall of the Mycenaean kingdoms ushered in a period historians call the
answer
Dark Age
question
The works of Homer
answer
described a time when gods still walked on earth.
question
Hesiod's Theogony
answer
traces the origin and descent of the gods.
question
Minoan civilization was centered
answer
on Crete
question
The agora in the Greek city-state served as all of the following EXCEPT a
answer
A) marketplace. B) refuge from attack. ** C) site of courts. D) site where warrior assemblies originally met. E) political forum.
question
For protection, Greek city-states relied on
answer
a militia of citizens who owned land.
question
The Greeks called a colonizing city a(n) ___________, or mother city.
answer
metropolis
question
The greatest weakness of the Greek polis (city-states) was
answer
their difficulty in cooperating with one another.
question
At the end of the First Messenian War, Sparta turned the Messenians into __________, or state serfs.
answer
helots
question
Solon did all of the following EXCEPT
answer
A) free people enslaved for debt. B) recall all exiles. C) cancel all debts on land. D) outlaw private property. ** E) divide society into four groups based on wealth.
question
An Athenian woman's main function was to
answer
have and raise children.
question
Mycenaean script derived directly from
answer
Minoan Linear A script.
question
Minoan Linear A script.
answer
deme.
question
Underlying Athenian democracy was the belief that
answer
all full citizens were sovereign.
question
The Greeks' defeat of the Persians
answer
saved Greece and Greek culture from Persian domination.
question
The most important economic activity in most Greek communities was
answer
agriculture.
question
After the Greek victory over the Persians, the Athenians formed the
answer
Delian League.
question
The sculptures adorning the Parthenon
answer
depict scenes from the life of Athena.
question
Athenian drama originated in
answer
the religious festivals of the city.
question
After the Peace of Nicias, the Peloponnesian War was rekindled by
answer
Alcibiades.
question
A government characterized by the "rule of the few" is called a
answer
oligarchy.
question
Plato's great contribution to philosophy was
answer
the founding of the Academy.
question
Herodotus's central subject was
answer
the Persian wars.
question
Aspasia was the lover and companion of
answer
Pericles.
question
_________ was the first of the Pre-Socratics.
answer
Thales
question
The culmination of Pre-Socratic thought was the theory that
answer
four substances—air, fire, earth, water—make up the universe.
question
According to the text, the most important factor in the success of Philip II of Macedon in Greece was
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warfare among the Greeks.
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Alexander's expedition eastward halted at the Hyphasis River because the
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Macedonian army refused to go further.
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After Alexander's death, the Ptolemies founded a dynasty in
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Egypt
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The ___________ kings established cities and colonies from Western Asia Minor to India.
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Seleucid
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The political history of the Hellenistic period was dominated by Greek leagues and
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great monarchies.
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Zeno was the founder of the __________ school of philosophy.
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Stoic
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The Stoics' most important practical achievement was the creation of the concept of
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natural law.
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The bureaucrats of the Hellenistic kingdoms were usually recruited from
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Greece.
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In the Hellenistic city, Greeks represented
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an elite citizen class.
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The uniqueness of Hellenistic culture lay in its
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fusion of Greek and Eastern cultures.
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The accomplishments of Hellenistic science included all of the following EXCEPT
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A) calculation of the earth's circumference to within about 200 miles. B) the development of hydrostatics. C) the revolution of weaponry according to scientific principles. D)** the discovery of techniques for the production of high-quality steel. E) the conclusion that the stars were enormously distant from earth.
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The _________ linked China, Central Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean.
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Great Silk Road
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Probably the most popular mystery cult in the Hellenistic Near East was that of
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Isis
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In the Hellenistic period
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manual labor was abundant and often provided by slaves.
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All of the following were traits of the mystery religions EXCEPT
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A) a community of initiates united with their god. B) a promise of eternal life for the soul after death. C) emotional intensity. D)** the use of human sacrifice. E) initiation rites that allowed the devotee access to the secrets of the religion.
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How did Hellenistic culture influence the Jewish religion?
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The Old Testament was translated into Greek.
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The Hellenistic period provided the basis for all of the following EXCEPT
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A) expanded commerce between Greece and the Near East. B) the development of monarchical ruling systems. C) a new cosmopolitan society. D) the Roman Empire. E) the destruction of the civilizations of the Near East.**