Weight Management and Healthy Body Weight
Weight Management: adults
adding healthful weight- add muscle, maintaining healthy weight gain, preventing graduate weight gain over time, those needing to lose weight losing fat mass, preventing weight regain after weight loss.
Weight Management: overweight children
1 in 7 is overweight. in the year 2020 it will be 1 in 5
1 pound of body fat = 3500 kcal. excess fat will become adipose tissue
Positive Energy Balance
energy intake is more than energy expended. results in weight gain
energy intake matches the energy expended. appropriate calories that is within AMDR.
Negative Energy Balance
energy intake is less than the energy expended. results in weight loss.
few or no essential nutrients. 35% of calories is fro extra solid fats and added sugars. beverages account for 400 calories per day.
Lose weight: aesthetics, make weight classifications. Gain weight: healthy weight gain-lean body mass. Modify body composition: enhance strength-to- mass ratio.
Overweight and obesity
it is nearly 2/3 of adults. BMI greater than or equal to 30.
based on how you feel, weight history, fat distribution, family history of obesity-related disease, current health status, and lifestyle.
most widely used height for weight index. weight (kg) / height (m) squared. correlates fairly strongly with body fatness. Healthy 18.5-24.9.
positioning of mass. apple vs. pear. men greater than 40 inches (102 cm) for women greater than 35 inches (88 cm). Narrowest part of the waist
Percent body fat
laboratory/technology assessment. Fat mass, Fat-free mass
BMI and Health Risks
BMI and mortality rates have a strong correlation. :Underweight and obese have increased mortality risk., BMI is more accurate in approximating body fat than measuring body weight alone., BMI is better predictor of a population’s disease risk than an individual’s risk of chronic disease.
Overestimates adiposity in heavily muscled athletes. Underestimates body fat in people who have lost muscle mass
BMI in children
Underweight < 5th percentile Healthy weight 5-90th percentile At Risk of Obesity 90-94.9th percentile Obesity >95th percentile
essential fat (M= 3-5%; F= 12-15%). nonessential (storage) fat
muscle, connective tissue, organ tissue, water
Percent Body Fat
percent mass divided by body mass
Fat Mass and Performance
There generally appears to be an inverse relationship between fat mass and performance of physical activities requiring movement of the body vertically or horizontally. Excessive fat mass is detrimental as it adds non-force producing mass to the body (dead weight). % Fat is inversely related to aerobic capacity
Fat- free Mass and Performance
Physical performance activities require application of force, either moving the athlete, and/or applying force against an external object (throwing, pushing, lifting) is positively related to the absolute amount of Fat-Free Mass (FFM) and body size. Too muscled may hamper absolute speed. Position players in football differ in FFM
Indirect Measures of Body Composition
Underwater weighing (densitometry): Gold Standard (+2.5-3% error) , Air displacement plethysmography, Dual X-ray absorptiometry, Field Methods: Bioelectrical impedance analysis, Skinfold measurement, Circumferences
Also known as hydrostatic weighing: Considered “the standard”. 2% error. Measures density. Based on Archimedes’ principle. The heavier the underwater weight, the greater the fat-free mass
Air Displacement Plethysmography
Measures body volume like UWW. Air, rather than water, is displaced. BOD POD. Accuracy similar to UWW
Smaller, lighter, more portable than UWW. Expensive
Smaller, lighter, more portable than UWW. Expensive
Like UWW, also considered a standard. Relies on X-ray technology. Also measures bone mineral density. Provides regional composition measures. Technical and expensive
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
Measures resistance to flow of electrical current through body. Fat is an insulator thus creates a greater resistance (less H2O). Quick, easy, portable. Less accurate that UWW
Measures thickness of skin and underlying subcutaneous fat. Subcutaneous fat is proportional to total fat . Not as accurate as UWW (5%). Considered a field measure. Requires some skill. Inexpensive, very portable
Android or Apple Shaped
Classic “pot-belly shape”. More highly correlated with metabolic risk: Metabolic Syndrome: several CHD risk factors clustered, Insulin resistance – Type II Diabetes, High blood pressure, Elevated lipids
Gynoid or Pear Shaped
Encouraged by estrogen and progesterone, After menopause, upper-body obesity appears. Less health risk than upper-body obesity. More difficult to lose and keep fat “off”
Weight Management for Athletes
Impact on performance – need adequate CHO. Aesthetics/body image. Weight classifications for competition Changing body composition to aid performance. Increase muscle mass. Decrease fat mass
physiological drive to eat. controlled by internal body
psychological drive to eat. often in the absence of hunger
feeling of fullness or satisfaction after eating
Dietary Intake Influences
physiological, environmental, social/culture, emotional
External Cue Theory
availability, time of day, social obligations, characteristics of food, peers, authority figures
eating in response to complex humans emotions: boredom, depression, anxiety
Energy Intake Assessment
food records, 24-h dietary recall, food frequency questionaires
Basal metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, physical activity
Basal Metabolic Rate
energy for maintenance of normal body functions and homeostasis. sedentary: 60-70%. athletes: 40-60%
Thermic Effect of Food
diet-induced energy expenditure. digestion, absorption, and processing of ingested nutrients. 5-10% above the total energy consumed. protein is greater than CHO and that is greater than fat.
activity-induced energy expenditure. increases energy expenditure beyond BMR by 0-40%. more activity, more energy burned: athletes naturally have greater energy expenditure, aerobic activity burns fat, anaerobic activity may build muscle.
Factors Affecting BMR
body size: 75-80% of BMR depends on amount of LBM. height and weight are indicators of size. age: BMR decreases 2% per decade after 30 yrs. gender: males are greater than females (more LBM)
Situational Factors Affecting BMR
elevating: magnitude of LBM, fever, stress. lowering: fasting/starvation- hinders net caloric cost of dieting
general population: one-third, additional one-third is overweight. in athletes, this is relatively rare. athletes at risk: football, wrestling, boxing, field events
Health Consequences of Obesity
increased mortality, Increased morbidity: heart disease, hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes- increasing in younger people, osteoarthritis
Causes of Obesity
genetic predisposition, behavioral practices, social/ cultural influences, psychological factors, environmental factors.
Childhood Obesity: long-term
obese children 3x more likely to be obese adults, child usually does not grown out of obesity, prior to puberty there is very little sex difference in % fat
Adult Obesity: long-term
most adult weight gain is 25-55yrs, women gain- child bearing years, males- gain about 1-2 lbs per year of fat, loss of muscle.
enlarging existing cell size
increasing the number of fat cells
non-obese: fill existing fat cells (hypertrophy). obese: filling of existing cells (hypertrophy) and then adding new cells (hyperplasia).
obese: decrease in size but not in number, same is observed in children and adult. non-obese: decrease in size and not number
is for weight loss not weight management. dietary intake: eating pattern of reduced calories and the maintenance of reduced calories. should include exercise. must consider eating behaviors during the diet and after then target weight is met.
Long term goal
weight loss (lbs.)
Short Term Goals
dieting and exercise
Success rate: 5% after 3 years. Spot reduction: no such thing. quick weight loss: not fat weight but water. Ketosis: insufficient CHO is diet but a high protein diet. Dieting and the athlete: weight loss out of season, low CHO leads to muscle wasting. Fad diets not made for athletes.
typically weight loss is not maintained. Only 5% of weight losers keep it off. 1/3 lost weight regained within 1 year.
Negative effects of YoYo
Associated with upper body fat deposition. Discouragement, decreased self-esteem
Why can’t quick weight loss be mostly fat?
body fat contains 3500 kcal per pound. must have an energy deficit 3500 kcal to lose a pound per week. lean tissue and water account for dramatic weight loss in fad diets
Sound Weight Loss
1. Aware of the problem: assess and evaluate current status. 2. Setting Goals: first target is 5-10% loss in BW, time frame: 1-2 lbs per week. 3. Moderation: 500-1000 kcal/ day difference. incorporation modest caloric constriction with elevated physical activity.
Best weight loss program
Moderate Calorie Intake
Elevated Physical activity
Elevated Physical activity
Start: Goals and Assessment
Assessments: height, weight waist circumference, body composition. calculate athlete’s estimated energy needs. determine appropriate deficit: 250-1000 calories per day. Goals: realistic, timely, appropriate.
Set and Monitor Goals
Realistic goals: weight targets- fat loss. Time frame goals: short term: 1-2 lbs pounds per week and 5-10% of BW over 3-6 month period. loner term goals: Performance, age, and gender healthy target
Control Calorie Intake
Increase: Whole grains, vegetables, fruits. Limit: Solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol. Minimal caloric intake: maintain nutrients for health. Calorically severe restrictive diets result in loss of FFM, and subsequent decrease in BMR (diet less effective). Women – 1200 kcal/day; Men – 1500 kcal/day. Less than 1000 kcal/day leads to intense hunger and diet fails.
eat nutrient rich foods. eat lower-fat foods. favorite foods in smaller amounts. colorful plate mean fruits and vegetables present. eat more often. reduce portion size. menu planning, meal planning keep records.
Strongest Evidence to Healthy Weight
focus on total calories. record food intake. when eating out choose smaller portions or lower calorie options. Prepare, serve, and consume small portions. eat nutrients rich breakfast. limit screen time.
identify behaviors that led to the weight gain, behaviors that are appropriate and effective during weight loss, changing of lifestyle to keep weight off. attend both sides of energy balance equation.
Things that we need to change
chain breaking, stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, contingency management, self-monitoring
TV and Eating
be in charge of temptations
labeling foods “off limits,” think about progress, not limitations, seat realistic goals
plan for high risk situations
record eating habits and foods consumed
Rewards: do you use food as a reward? Self-monitoring: keeps records of what, when, and how you feel. Cognitive restructuring: reasonable goals and time frames, think about progress, not short comings. Portion control: swap sizes, take some home, share with a friend, one plate one cookie, one is okay not more than one. Shopping: lists and stick to them, avoid ready to eat foods. Activities: insight foods (fruits); out of sight foods (freezer). Holidays and parties: less alcohol, politely decline. Eating: leaving some on the plate, don’t eat and watch TV.
Window: 3-5 lbs of weight gain. lack of physical activity- 4 days in a row. Second repetition of destructive behavior. Withdraw from support group. Failure to participate in nonfood-oriented leisure activities for more than once per week.
Adds to caloric deficit (energy expenditure). Maintains BMR and LBM. Allows moderation in diet in creating energy deficit. Workouts: aerobic activity burns fat- 300 kcal per workout. Essential part of keeping weight off.
Exercise by itself leads to little weight loss
exercise prevents then decrease in RMR seen with dieting. exercise added to dieting increases the amount of weight lost. exercise added to dieting helps preserve FFM.
PA levels and BMI
studies have revealed an inverse relationship between BMI and physical activity.
PA for Weight loss
brisk walk. effective to prevent weight gain greater than 3%. will provide only modest weight loss. will improve weight loss with modest dieting. great PA associated with greater weight loss.
Preventing weight gain
50-100 kcal reduction per day. 60 minutes of moderate- vigorous PA per day.
PA and body mass: weight loss
500 kcal or more reduction per day. 30 min/day of PA and more is better
Preventing weight regain
more PA is better in preventing weight regain after weight loss. 60 minutes a day of walking at modest intensity. 300 minutes per week.
Resistance Training: Weight Loss
Does not enhance weight loss. It may increase fat-free mass and increase fat loss.
PA and Obese Wight Loss
obese lose little weight when incorporating only PA. most obese need to include caloric restriction to meet weight loss goals.
PA, social support, recording eating, plan menus and meals, positive self-talk, reasonable expectations, no fad diets, relapse strategies.
Female Athlete Triad
eating disorder, amenorrhea, osteoporosis.
Preoccupation with body shape/size, preoccupation with muscularity impairs other aspects of life, Excessive exercise, Obsesses about food, May abuse steroids, if I am not large than I am inadequate. diet is regimen: more protein with low body fat.
Best weight for the athlete
assess BMR, BC (LBM, and fat mass) circumferences, eating behaviors, exercise habits, seasonality, attitude toward changes in nutrition
Maintain Training Energy Levels
Determine energy needs and deficit ranges, Dietary modifications, Healthy eating patterns and foods, Eat for fuel (training takes adequate energy), Small amounts of favorite foods, Assess training and performance level
Set Monitor Initial Weight Loss Goals
Loss of 5-10% of current body weight, 1-2 pounds per week (monitor weekly), Off season activity
Athletes Rapid Weight Loss Practices
Water loss by: Excessive exercise, Exercising in rubber/plastic suits, Exercising in hot areas or saunas, Fluid restriction, food restriction (fasting), Vomiting, laxative use, diuretic abuse
Unhealthy Weight Loss
Decrease in performance, Glycogen depletion, Dehydration, Increased loss of fat-free mass, Impaired functional capacity, Lower quality training sessions
Requirements for Gaining Weight
Regular participation in a resistance training program. Achieving a positive energy balance. Achieving a positive nitrogen balance.
Must address “overload principle.” Train major muscles. Train for hypertrophy: 8 to 12 reps/set, 3 to 5 sets/muscle group, 2 to 3 times/week
Achieving a Positive Energy Balance
Caloric in take is more than caloric expenditure. 2300 to 3600 calories above is about 1 pound of muscle. optimal weight gain is about 1/2 to 1 lb per week. CHOs should predominate, protein support.
Positive Nitrogen Balance
input is larger than output. intake equals 1.4-2.0 g/kg BW. excessive amount not recommended. supplements not required but can offer advantages.
Tips for Weight Gain
Consume fluids after meals to avoid being full on fluids. Avoid carbonated beverages – bloating. have small frequent meals/snacks throughout the day. Consume a variety of nutrient/energy dense foods. Use high calorie beverages at meals. Include bedtime snacks one hour before.
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