Voluntary Retirement Scheme Impact On Sugarcane Labourers Sociology
- Research program
- Research inquiries
- Research design
- Qualitative research
- Epistemology and ontology
- Why use qualitative research alternatively of quantitative research
- Focus group
- Advantages of focal point groups
- Disadvantages of focal point groups
- Pilot survey
- Ethical issues
“ Was the Voluntary Retirement Scheme been a success among sugarcane laborers in Mauritius? A instance survey of FUEL ”
Focus group was chosen as a method to transport out portion of the research since it allows the research worker to larn about the VRS donees ‘ experiences.
Rational for the undertaking
The sugar industry in Mauritius is one of the most of import pillars of the economic system. Sugar cane was introduced in Mauritius by the Dutch in 1639. However, it was non until 1735, under the Gallic regulation, that sugar cane was cultivated on a commercial footing and the first sugar mill was built by Mahe de Labourdonnais, one of the Gallic governors. In 1810, when the British took over Mauritius, Sir Robert Farquhar, the first English governor encouraged the cultivation of sugar cane, happening the clime of Mauritius suited for its growing. In 1825, a trade measure was passed in Mauritius which meant equalising the responsibility on sugar from all of Britain ‘s settlements. Therefore, leting Mauritanian sugar industry to vie on an equal terms with the West Indian ‘s sugar industry. This provided a stimulation to the enlargement of the sugar industry. By the mid-nineteenth century, Mauritius became one of Britain ‘s major sugar-producing settlements.
In 1968, when Mauritius acceded to independence, the economic system was extremely dependent on one-crop, sugar cane and more than 30 % of the entire work force in Mauritius was employed in the sugar industry. In the mid-1970s throughout the mid-1990s, thanks to a flourishing development in the sugar industry, Mauritius was able to hike its economic system. Much of this success was owed the Sugar Protocol attached to the Third Lome Convention, under which Mauritius benefited from export quotas with the EC at discriminatory guaranteed monetary values. The Sugar Protocol was a trade understanding of imprecise continuance between the European Union and 19 ACP provinces, including Mauritius. Since 1975, Mauritius had “ a quota of 507,000 metric tons of sugar at a guaranteed monetary value for export to the EU market ” under the ACP-EU Sugar Protocol. The net incomes under the Sugar Protocol resulted into Mauritius being assured of changeless and conventional degree of net incomes and this was critical for Mauritius ‘ economic growing and its wining transmutation from a low-income mono-crop economic system to a middle-income diversified economic system.
In 2004 the Mauritanian sugar industry accounted for 19 % of the value of exports and 5 % of the state ‘s GDP. About 90 % of the cultivable land and 45 % of the entire country of the island was devoted to turning sugar cane and approximately 60,000 people and little plantation owners were straight working in the sugar industry.
Today, Mauritius is germinating in a globalised universe invariably characterised by alteration. Globalization has prompted the creative activity of the World Trade Organisation and the latter has accelerated the procedure of globalization through the falling down of trade barriers. Neo-liberal policies sport that the best manner to better economic conditions is the decrease or riddance of monetary value control to manufacturers, in add-on to export orientation and low duties. In this case, Mauritius witnessed the riddance of the Sugar Protocol which means that Mauritius no longer benefits from discriminatory trade with the EU. This means the inevitable devastation in ACP states of centuries ‘ old traditions of sugar production with lay waste toing socio-economic effects. From October 2009, Mauritius ‘ mention monetary value for both natural and white sugar, have undergone a gradual cut of up to 36 % until September 2015. During those nine old ages, Mauritius has been expected to lose about a‚¬895 million and a‚¬ 95 million yearly. The phasing out of the trade preferential procedure has had negative results non merely on the sugar industry in Mauritius but besides on the national economic system every bit good without burying the 1000s of people whom their support depend on this sector. There had been income and occupation losingss, more force per unit area on Mauritius ‘ footings of trade and on its export fight. Consequently, drastic reforms had to be brought to the Mauritanian sugar sector among which was the coming of Voluntary Retirement Scheme to downsize labour and therefore cut down cost of production.
The VRS was implemented in order to downsize labor and finally cut down on cost of production. Some 8,200 employees have been laid off under a voluntary retirement strategy, leting the industry to cut down money spent on wages by 25 per centum. The age bound for people to be eligible to choose for the VRS was 50 to 55 for work forces and 50 to 45 for adult females and this includes both agricultural and non-agricultural workers. The strategy included a hard currency compensation of 2 months ‘ wage per twelvemonth of service, 300 mA? of land and the chance, for those who wanted to, to acquire re-skilling/training installations so that they can go self-sufficing or work into other economic sectors. The Government besides established the Empowerment Programme whereby those who wanted to put up a little endeavor, can acquire aid and support. The donees were besides assured that they would be able to return to work as seasonal workers.
As mentioned above, the one to be largely affected by the reforms are the older workers. There is a important per centum of the population who work in the cane Fieldss and who has ever worked at that place. The VRS was implemented to downsize labor, so that older people working as laborers in the cane Fieldss or those working in the mills can make up one’s mind to take early retirement. However, many of those who plumped for the strategy, returned to work in the Fieldss as seasonal workers. Small research has been done on the affair. The authorities is believing of implementing another VRS, that is the VRS II. Before sing another VRS, it is imperative to larn about whether the one implemented was a success or non. This is chiefly because the lives of laborers are at interest and it is really of import to larn about the donees ‘ experiences, point of position, and sentiments about the reforms implemented and what factors made them make up one’s mind to choose for the VRS. Consequently, the methodological analysis used for the research will be qualitative, concentrate groups and in-depth interviews being the tools used. The research design is a instance survey.
The people who will be involved in the research, that is, the VRS donees, are sugarcane laborers who have small or no instruction. Most of them are illiterate and have known nil but sugar cane Fieldss. They are besides really hapless. In some manner, these people can be said to be ‘vulnerable ‘ , since harmonizing to Stone ( 2003 ) , vulnerable individuals may dwell of those who live in poorness, whose voice are non heard, who are uneducated and can be easy persuaded to make something which they do non truly understand.
In order to transport out a research, a scope of tools and methods are used. Therefore, methodological analysis is elemental. Methodology refers to the research methods used by a research worker to roll up grounds for his/her research and besides “ the more general doctrines upon which the aggregation and analysis of informations are based ” .
Research inquiries are indispensable when carry oning a research since they help the research worker to make up one’s mind about what research design to utilize and they help the research worker to concentrate on peculiar issues which are to be studied. They besides highlight the aims of the survey.
Some of the research inquiries for this survey are
Why have the laborers opted for the VRS?
Were they the lone one involved in the decision-making?
Did they consult person like household, expert, professional or friend?
After the VRS, what were their feelings?
Were they happy with the retirement?
How do they go through their free clip?
Are they satisfied with the bundle given?
Have they followed a preparation class?
Why did they take to go seasonal workers?
What are their positions on their current wage?
In order to transport out the research, ideally focus groups will be used.
In order to transport out this research, a instance survey of FUEL is deemed more appropriate. This is chiefly because it is one of the biggest sugar mills in Mauritius and many of the VRS donees at that place, returned to work in the sugar cane Fieldss as seasonal workers.
Epistemology and ontology
Harmonizing to the research worker, research is about giving people, particularly those who are considered vulnerable, the opportunity to voice out their sentiments, their experiences in life, their feelings, things that have non been taken into consideration or have been altered or concealed or non good understood ( Bergen, 1993 ) . In this peculiar survey, the vulnerable consists of the VRS donees who are hapless, educationally disadvantaged, most likely discriminated against and who can be easy influenced or capable to coercion ( Stone, 2003 ) . Since most of the sugar cane laborers have no or small instruction, it is assumed that they are non truly cognizant of their rights and that they likely do non hold a clear apprehension of the VRS. This is why a survey will be carried out to happen out how they have been informed of the VRS, what they know about it and whether they made the determination of choosing for the VRS by themselves or there were some sort of force per unit area. The seasonal workers would be portion of the survey excessively since they took the VRS and so came back to work.
Why use qualitative research alternatively of quantitative research
Before carry oning the research, the research worker needs to carefully be after what methods would be used. Therefore, it is aboriginal for her to cognize about her epistemic and ontological place which is the relationship between societal theory and research. The research worker for this survey believes in ‘constructionism ‘ , “ that asserts that societal phenomena and their significances are continually being accomplished by societal histrions. ” ( Bryman, 2001: 17 ) . Harmonizing to constructionism, societal histrions construct significance and societal world through interaction which other people. From this point of position, in order to analyze facets of society, qualitative research methods are used because they take into consideration interaction and asserts that values are present and expressed ( Bryman, 2004 ) . This is wholly different from rationalists who claim that societal phenomena and their significances have an being that is independent from societal histrions and who apply the method of the natural scientific disciplines by emphasizing on mensurating nonsubjective facts and concentrating on variables to analyze society and human existences ( Hammersley, 2004 ) . Constructionists province that through interaction, people construct and reconstruct societal phenomena and its significances. Harmonizing to Warren ( 2002 ) , unlike quantitative research methods like studies where there is normally a set of preconceived inquiries and replies, qualitative research methods like unstructured interviews, the inquiries are normally open-ended. In other words, when utilizing a quantitative method, the participants ‘ responses do non act upon or find how and which inquiries the research workers ask following whereas the participants ‘ responses, in a qualitative method, find what inquiry the research workers ask later. Qualitative research methods are more suited to understand how people interpret experiences and the manner they construct and reconstruct significances because they are flexible and fluid ( Liamputtong, 2007 ) . The analytical aims of qualitative research methods like focal point group or in-depth interview are that they aim at depicting and explicating relationships, single experiences or group norms. They seek to research phenomena alternatively of seeking to corroborate hypotheses about phenomena. Given the research worker ‘s epistemic and ontological place, qualitative research methods seem more suited.
There are different types of qualitative research methods and each of them is appropriate to get specific informations. For this specific research focal point group will be carried out with VRS donees who after holding opted for the VRS, returned to work as seasonal workers in the sugar cane Fieldss and in-depth interviews will be used to larn about the other VRS donees ‘ manner of life and experiences.
Focus groups have been widely used in market research. However, it is now used in societal research for some obvious grounds. Focus group is a signifier of group interview where a group of selected people take part in a focussed treatment on a certain issue ( Jary and Jary, 2000 ) . It is a method used to happen out about specific subjects and people ‘s experiences, through group interaction. There is the moderator, normally the research worker, who guide each session without being excessively intrusive. Focus groups are normally used to look into countries where point of views and sentiments are unsure. During a focal point group, “ there is a interactive attack that produces a scope of sentiments, thoughts and experiences, and therefore generates insightful information ” ( Litoselliti, 2003:2 ) . This is why focal point groups have been chosen as a research method to research the research inquiries listed supra. Focus groups normally emphasize an expressed subject or subject and in this instance it is about the VRS and the people who opted for it. The research worker is interested in holding an penetration on how the participants discuss their experiences of choosing for the VRS, as members of a group, that is, how interaction takes topographic point and how the participants responds to each others ‘ positions while constructing up their ain. Unlike in a one-to-one interview where facts are discovered, a focal point group involves “ an active procedure in which cognition is created through interaction ” ( Haralambos, 2000:1005 ) . It besides must be noted that informations collected from focal point groups can be said to hold the advantage of being valid which means to what extent the information is close to the truth or reflects societal world.
Harmonizing to Kitzinger ( 1994 ) , there are two sorts of interaction in a focal point group. One of them is the complementary interaction which involves understanding among participants on peculiar issues. There is an outgrowth of consensus whereby participants build on predating comments. The other type of interaction is argumentative where there is dissension among the participants which help them revise their positions and believe about grounds why they hold peculiar sentiments. Argumentative interaction may besides press people to voice out positions which they would non hold claim they had during a face-to-face interview.
Random sampling will be used. This is largely because the people who would be involved in the research are all VRS donees and the survey is about acquiring to cognize about their experiences. Consequently, everyone will hold an equal opportunity of being selected. The sampling frame would be the names and contact figure of the VRS donees.
The sampling will dwell of both work forces and adult females, if possible 14 work forces and 14 adult females. Ideally four focal point groups will be carried out and each of them will dwell of three work forces and three adult females. Two of the focal point groups will include people who opted for the VRS and did non travel back to work and the other two Sessionss will consist of those who “ retired ” under the strategy but who returned to work as seasonal workers. The ground to take both work forces and adult females is because both of them worked as laborers and many chose to take the strategy. Another ground for blending work forces and adult females in the focal point groups is to larn about gender relationships.
A missive will be sent to the Human Resource Manager of FUEL for permission to acquire entree to the seasonal workers so as to speak to them personally about the focal point groups and besides if possible obtain the telephone Numberss of the other VRS donees who did non come back to work after choosing for the strategy ( see Appendix A ) . If all this is successful, participants will be indiscriminately selected and contacted.
The people who will be involved in the focal point groups will be those who opted for the VRS and so decided to return to work as seasonal workers. The end of this survey is to carry on five focal point groups of 6-7 participants which may last for one to two hours and will likely be tape or picture recorded if the participants give their consent. Small groups are favorable so that the moderator can hold a certain control and everyone will acquire the opportunity to voice out their positions. Harmonizing to Litoselliti ( 2003 ) , it is better to hold a focal point group of six participants if the survey seeks to understand multifaceted subjects and elaborate history. However, engagement in a focal point group is likely to be low. Some people may hold to come but so do non demo up. In order to get the better of this job, it is recommended by Wilkinson ( 1999:188 ) to over-recruit.
An informal scene for the focal point groups in this research will be adopted. When transporting out the focal point groups, the moderator needs to do the participants feel at easiness. This is chiefly because the participants involved in the survey have little or no instruction at all, that is why they will be speaking in “ Mauritanian Creole ” and it is assumed that some of them may experience diffident and loath to speak.
There are different sorts of moderateness, harmonizing to Morgan ( 1997 ) . For this specific research, medium-level moderateness will be used. This involves the moderator utilizing general inquiries ( from the research inquiries given supra ) to steer the treatment but non commanding it to some extent so that participants can convey up issues which they think is of import. Consequently, the moderator should let the conversation to run freely but intervene when important subjects harvest up, when the participants are either fighting in its duologues or are non developing the issues, when the conversation is traveling off path, when there are unproductive silences or when there are uninterrupted repeat of the same issues. Intervention could be in the signifier of unfastened inquiries which have been prepared beforehand. The facilitator must do certain that that the inquiries fit the general flow of the conversation. Specific inquiries finally help to add construction into the administration of the focal point group ( Schlesinger et al, 1992 ) . He/she must hold an interview usher which has been prepared in progress which he/she will relay on to take the conversation on path. The moderator must do certain that the chief inquiries are discussed and that it is non merely one individual who dominates the conversation but that everyone feels included and is encouraged to take part. On the other manus, a ‘topic usher ‘ could be used where the subjects could be brought up by the moderator during the focal point group session ( Macnaghten and Jacobs, 1997 ) . For the intent of this research the ‘topic usher ‘ will include grounds for taking the VRS, what go on after they opted for the strategy, were they happy with the bundle given, how do they go through the clip and for the focal point groups which involve the seasonal workers, add what factors made them make up one’s mind to return to work.
Advantages of focal point groups
Focus groups are set up in such a manner that they seem to be closer to the natural scene in mundane life ( Litoselliti, 2003:2 ) . Participants interact with each other. The group moral force which is involve in a focal point group help the research worker to derive penetration at how people are influenced by others. They will react to each others ‘ positions and develop their ain sentiment. When carry oning focal point groups, Morgan ( 1997 ) asserts that perceptual experiences and attitudes are produced through group interaction. The premise here is that persons concept and reconstruct significances through active interaction with each other, that is, they do non develop beliefs or positions in isolation ( Krueger, 1988 ) . In other words, sometimes it is indispensable for people to listen to other people ‘s point of position and to examine each other ‘s grounds for keeping certain positions, in order for them to explicate their ain sentiments. This is non accomplishable during a one-to-one interview where there is merely the research worker and the interviewee and there may be times where the latter might bury certain events which will non be included in the information aggregation. However, when focal point groups are used, one participant might speak about something which will finally do person retrieve an of import point. There is a sort of ‘snowballing ‘ which takes topographic point during a focal point group. One participant may get down with an sentiment whereby others will go on to add of import penetration to that position. Consequently, it can be said that focal point groups provide rich and detailed informations which contribute to the cogency of a survey.
Focus groups allow the research to acquire an penetration at both single and corporate point of views ( Jary and Jary, 2000 ) . They are really utile to look at the linguistic communication and civilization of a certain group of people, their attitudes, perceptual experiences, beliefs, responses to a specific subject and their manner of understanding life. This is rather suiting for the surveies of the VRS donees since the research worker wants to see the manner this peculiar group of people feel or think about the strategy and how they have anticipated their retirement.
Focus group helps the research worker to larn things about societal life and facets of understanding which would otherwise stay vague if another research method was used. During a focal point group interview, there is an synergistic exchange of sentiments. For illustration the manner people interact with each other and how they construct significances.
Harmonizing to Kitzinger ( 1994 ) , in a focal point group interview, there is a sort of group work whereby the participants ‘ manner of understanding the universe, their experiences, their linguistic communication and constructs are the Centre of attending.
There are many cases where focal point groups were seen as an appropriate method of informations aggregation for this research as they will assist to look at the power differences which exist between the participants, that is, the VRS donees and their higher-ups and whether these power disparity has been a factor whereby the sugar laborers were nuance persuaded to choose for the strategy ( Morgan and Kreuger, 1993 ) .
Focus group is a good manner of holding group dynamic and shared life experience. This can do it easier for some people to discourse sensitive issues, particularly if it is with a supportive group ( Liamputtong, 2007 ) . The group moral force can besides ensue in new affairs being spawned where they will be discussed in more deepness. It besides empowers participants to portion their positions and experiences as they may experience more relaxed if they feel that other people portion the same experiences and positions ( Wellings, 2000 ) . An illustration is the research done by Paul Willis ( 1977 ) on instruction. He interviewed several ‘lads ‘ together and he observed that they were more relaxed than when they were interviewed separately. This shows that focal point group decrease the job of interviewer prejudice and has a greater inclination to bring forth valid day of the month ( Haralambos, 2000:1005 ) .
During a focal point group session, participants are able to bond and really frequently there is the continual constitution of positions ( Borkan, 2000 ) . The focal point group is rather flexible and allows the moderator to examine replies and research issues which were non expected.
In a focal point group, psychological facets are taken into consideration. This encompasses the nature of the interaction, the tone and look used by different participants and the participants ‘ reaction to certain inquiries.
Peek and Fothergill ( 2009 ) assert that when they used focal point groups for their researches, they felt that the Sessionss were rather good for the participants. Establishing themselves on their research, they claim that focal point groups allowed the “ participants the chance to portion their narratives with others and to develop a sense of solidarity with other people who are traveling through similar experiences or have similar life fortunes ” ( Peek and Fothergill, 2009:26 ) . When carry oning focal point groups with VRS receivers, the research worker hopes that this will assist to authorise them and hold a sort of societal support if they learn that they are non the merely one holding certain jobs or there are other people who have had the same experiences as them.
The usage of focal point group as a research method aid to cut down the jobs associated with power disparity between the research worker and the respondents.
It can non be denied that focal point groups have some practical advantages. Alternatively of questioning merely one individual for two hours, several individuals can be interviewed at the same clip. Compared to research methods like participant observation or interviews, it takes less clip and it is non that expensive to carry on focal point groups ( Peek and Fothergill ) .
Disadvantages of focal point groups
Unlike in a face-to-face interview, the research might non hold the same sum of control over the proceedings in during a focal point group. However, this may depend on how involved the moderator should be during the Sessionss and how far he/she wants to lodge to a set of subjects or inquiries.
Sometimes during a session there are participants who tend to rule the treatment while others who may be diffident, remain quiet. In order to get the better of this, the moderator should do clear to all the participants that their positions are surely required. Participants who are diffident should be encouraged by the moderator to give their positions ( Krueger, 1998 ) . On the other manus, when enrolling people, they can be asked whether they are more comfy take parting in a focal point group or whether they would prefer a face-to-face interview. This may assist to antagonize the fact that some individuals may non willing to speak about private issues when they are in a group and will be more at easiness speaking merely to the interviewer. It can besides go on that if the bulk of the participants are holding on something, person who thinks otherwise may stamp down his/her position.
If focus group Sessionss are recorded, these entering take a batch of clip and rather complicated to transcribe. Bloor ( 2001 ) asserts that transcribing a focal point group session can travel on for eight hours which is manner longer than transcribing an single interview. This is chiefly because there is demand to see who says what and non to bury about fluctuations in voice pitch. However, the type of informations gained from a focal point group session differs from that of a face-to-face interview. Information acquired from a focal point group consists of the positions and attitudes of many persons at the same clip and the interaction go oning between them whereas in a one-to-one interview, even if it is an in-depth interview, merely the point of views of one individual are obtained and there is no information about interaction.
Another possible restriction of focal point groups is that person may state what people want to hear and non what they really do or believe ( Litoselliti, 2003 ) . Peoples may non be true when they are in a group of people like they may experience ashamed of something or embarrassed. This is a direct menace to cogency. It must be noted that this sort of job does non concern merely focus groups but many other research methods. There can be ways to get the better of this but this depends on the participants ‘ motive, that is, what they want to do the moderator believe. The moderator could assist all participants to experience at easiness by making a friendly and non-threatening environment ; motivating and examining for replies and to clear significances ; seek to construct a resonance before the focal point group, like one-to-one confabs.
Even if focus groups produce immense sum of information, it is rather hard to analyze and clip consuming. It is rather slippery to analyze the form of interaction during the session and at the same clip subjects in what people say.
Having used focal point groups as a tool in their research, Peek and Fothergill ( 2009 ) claim that there are cases where there is non adequate clip for the participants to associate all their experiences and point of views. In order to forestall this, the moderator can seek to convey the conversation back to the research inquiries when the treatment is turn outing to be irrelevant to the survey. As discussed above, the facilitator will make a medium-moderation.
Focus groups are rather hard to organize, that is, when and where and how to do certain that everyone turns up. Even if everyone does come, how to do them come at a peculiar clip since each of them has their ain docket and it is instead slippery to acquire everyone free at a certain clip. Small items like verifiers or some sort of payment can be made so as to promote people to demo up.
Findingss from focal point groups can non be generalised since the research is done on a little graduated table and it is non rather representative of the whole population. However, given the research worker ‘s ontological and epistemic stance, the purpose of this survey is non to generalize but to hold a deeper apprehension of what happened during and after the VRS was implemented, from the donees ‘ position.
In order to turn to some of these drawbacks, the focal point groups should be planned, organised and moderated carefully and skillfully. This could be rather time-consuming and cautiousness should be taken ( Peek and Fothergill, 2009 ) .
When be aftering focal point groups, peculiar attending should be given to the people who will be recruited. Since the research will be carried out with VRS donees who worked together in the same sugar mill, some of them may cognize each other. This can move as an advantage as they may experience more comfy around people with whom they are familiar with. Nevertheless, some may or may non cognize each other but the common factor among everyone would be the VRS.
The location where the focal point group should take topographic point must be where they would experience comfy and safe. A topographic point which would be familiar and accessible to the respondents is preferred. The VRS donees all live near the sugar mill and they are all really accustomed to the topographic point. Consequently, the location of the focal point groups could be the sugar mill, in a room. However, one chief concern would be that possibly the participants would experience loath to speak against their higher-ups when they are in the sugar mill. This could be a menace to cogency. The moderator should guarantee the respondents that whatever they would state would stay confidential. Alternatively, the focal point groups could be carried out in a local eating house which would be some sort of a impersonal topographic point. However, a eating house could be noisy. ( vin how to get the better of SA? ? to p sleep la..comme tap! ! : Calciferol )
From the benefits and the restrictions discussed above, it may be good to transport out a pilot survey. A pilot survey refers to a small-scale initial research which is carried out before the chief research so as to “ look into the feasibleness or to better the design of the research ” ( Haralambos and Holborn, 2000:998 ) . For this peculiar research a pilot survey would be carried out so that the research worker can measure whether carry oning a focal point group with 6-7 participants is manageable. During the pilot survey, the moderator can be in a sense, prepared as how the conversation would transport on, even if it does non intend that it would be the same, at least she can acquire an thought ( Teijlingen and Hundley, 2001 ) . Consequently, this can assist the research worker to fix a ‘topic usher ‘ . A pilot survey can be utile to look into how the room is arranged and how the participants would be seated and ( if the focal point groups would be recorded ) the scenes of the recording device and the quality of the sound.
Ethical concerns are really of import when transporting out a research. The participants must be made cognizant of the research, what it is approximately, why it is being carried out and what would be their part. Great attention should be taken when carry oning this research as there could be possible deductions or effects for either the participants or their superior, depending on the result of the survey. Some portion of the survey will ask about coercion and the research will be largely about the VRS donees ‘ private lives and private experiences which may present intrusive menaces and political menaces which may happen if the research will imply societal struggle or persons who have power in the society ( Lee, 1993 ) . Consequently, ethical issues should be taken into consideration. The people taking portion in the in-depth interviews are those who have returned to work and it is extremely likely that they would non desire to speak against their superior for fright that they might lose their occupation. They should be reassured that whatever they say would be purely confidential. The moderator should besides remind the participants that whatever they hear during the focal point groups should be kept confidential ( Litoselliti, 2003 ) . Datas from the Sessionss must be made anon. ( Gibbs, 2007 ) . The research worker should be able to develop a certain trust between herself and the participant. It is of import to make so that the respondents would non experience diffident or afraid to give true replies. The participants should be made cognizant that they have the right to retreat from the research at any clip.