Vocab – Chemistry Flashcard

solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more pure substances
nonsolutions
suspension, colloidal dispersion
solvation
process of solution formation
hydration
process of solution formation when water is the solvent
spontaneous
reaction will occur on its own
entropy
amount of randomness or disorder in a system
solubility
amount of a solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solution
unsaturated solution
contains less than the maximum amount of solute
saturated solution
contains the maximum amount of solute
supersaturated solution
contains more than the maximum amount of solute
solute-solute interaction
substances with similar intermollecular forces form solutions
immiscible
two liquids that do not dissolve
miscible
two liquids that do form a solution
concentration
relative amount of solute to amount of solution or solvent
colligative properties
properties of solutions that depend only on the amount of solute present
vapor pressure
pressure exerted by the vapor phase of a volitile liquid that is in equillibrium with the liquid phase
boiling point
temperature where vapor pressure of a liquid equals the external pressure
boiling point elevation
presence of a non-volatile liquid solute increases the boiling point of a liquid
freezing point depression
presence of a solute decreases the freezing point of a liquid due to entropy
osmosis
movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane in response to a difference in solute concentration
reaction rate
change in amount (reaction or product) over time
instantaneous reaction rates
rate at a specific time- slope of a line tangent to the concentration/time curve
integrated rate laws
relate concentration and time
first order reaction
rate=K[A]
half life
amount of time required to reach 1/2 original reactant amount
second order reaction
rate=K[A]^2
collision theory
to react, reactants must encounter each other
activation energy
energy barrier between reactants and products (E required for a successful collision)
transition state
short lived intermediate between reactants and products
molecularity
classifying of elementary steps based on the number of reactants in the collision
rate determining step
slowest step in reaction mechanism
fast initial step
rate limiting step contains an intermediate as a reactant
catalysis
lowers Ea (increases a)
homogeneous catalysis
catalyst is in same phase as reactants
heterogeneous catalysis
catalyst and reactants are in different phases
surface catalyzed
when a solid catalyst binds with liquid or gas reactants
adsorption
binding to a surface
migration
adsorbed reactants move to encounter each other
desorption
product releases from surface
hydrogenation
addition of H2 to an unsaturated hydrocarbon
enzymes
biological catalysts
proteins
strings of amino acids
amino acid
composed of an amine group, acid group and organic group
primary protein structure
amino acid sequence
secondary and tertiary protein structure
describe 3d shape of protein; maintained by interactions between amino acids
dynamic equilibrium
forward and reverse reaction continue to occur at the same rate
K>>1
products are favored
K<<1
reactants are favored
heterogeneous equilibrium
reactants and products are in multiple phases
Le Chatelier’s Principle
when a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the relative concentrations of reactants and products shift to reestablish equilibrium
Arrhenius theory of an acid
a substance that increases H+ in water
Arrhenius theory of a base
a substance that increases OH- in water
Bronsted-Lowry theory of an acid
proton donor
Bronsted-Lowry theory of a base
proton acceptor
conjugate acid
has one more proton that the base from which it formed
conjugate base
a substance with one less proton than the acid from which it formed
strong acid
donates all available protons
strong base
accepts all available protons
weak acid
donates some available protons
weak base
accepts some available protons
amphoteric
can act as an acid or a base
amphiprotic
can accept and donate protons
neutral solution
pH=7.0 @ 25 degrees C
acidic solution
[H+]>10^-7 and [H+]>[OH-]
basic solution
[OH-]>10^-7 and [OH-]>[H+]
polyprotic acid
multiple acidic protons per acid molecule
salt
ionic compound- composed of cation and anion
anion hydrolysis
anion reacts with H+ of H2O forming a basic solution
Cation hydrolysis
react with OH- through hydrolysis creating an acidic solution
Lewis Acid-Base Theory Acid
electron pair acceptor
Lewis Acid-Base Theory Base
donates electron pair
buffer capacity
amount of acid or base the buffer can neutralize before the pH begins to change to an appreciable degree
pH range of buffer
range over which the buffer acts effectively
Ksp
how soluble a solid is in water
solubility
quantity of substance that dissolves to form a saturated solution
common ion effect
whenever a weak electrolyte and a strong electrolyte contain a common ion, the weak electrolyte ionizes less than it would if it were alone in the solution
buffer
a solution that resists change to pH even upon the addition of an acid or a base
titrant
substance with a known concentration that reacts with the analyte
Ve (equivalence point)
# mols titrant added is stoichiometrically equivalent to the # mols of analyte
dynamic equilibrium
dissolution and precipitation both occur at the same rate
aqueous solubility
solubility with H2O as solvent

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