Vitamins Part 1

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What vitamins do
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have no calories and they facilitate body processes and act as coenzymes to assist enzymes which release energy from carbs, fats, and proteins
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3 Forms of Vit A
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n Retinol (alcohol) – transports and storage form, stored in the liver and carried by retinol-binding protein in the blood
n Retinal (aldehyde) – needed for vision in retina
n Retinoic acid – hormone involved in embryonic development and controls hundreds of genes
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How Vitamin A helps
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1. Vision – retinal form helps to maintain clear corneas
2. Involved in light detection in retina
3. Night blindness if lack it
1. Protein Synthesis and Cell Differentiation – maintains the intergriety of epithelial cells and aids in replacement of layers
2. Embryoninc development
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Beta carotene
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orange and vit A precursor in plants, stored in human fat and anit oxidant which helps against heart disease and cancer
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Lack of Vitamin A
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Blindness – without Vit A epithelial cells keratinize and flatten, harden
Infection Proneness
Skin becomes dry and hard
Salivary glands harden – increase infection
Stomach/Intestine – have less mucous secretions which hinders digestion and absorption and increases susceptibility to mucous membrane infections.
4. Toxicity – stores of excess – from eating excessive foods with active form like animals and fortified food suppliments. Must get 10X RDA for weeks, Beta Carotene precursor does not get converted to active Vit A fast enough to cause toxicity. Children are more vulnerable and need less to get toxic amounts. Malformations if fetus (teratogenic) and weakness in bones leading to osteoporosis,
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Xerosis
Xerophthalmia
Karatomalcia
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Xerosis – hardening of cornea
xerophthalmia – progressive blindness
karatomalcia – last stage, severe permanent and total blindness
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Vitamin A in Food
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.5 vitamin A in fruits and vegetables (in beta carotene form) like orange veggies and fruits and dark green veggies. .5 is preformed active Vit A like milk, cheese, fortified cereals, butter, dairy, eggs, meats, liver and fish, It is lost when fat is removed from milk
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Vitamin A for men and women
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1. Know RDA for men 900ug
2. Know RDA for women is 700ug
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Vitamin D general info
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body can synthesize its own with sunlight and skin and not essential if you get enough sun then you don’t need it from food. Liver makes the precursor (7-dehydrocholesterol) from cholesterol where it is sent to skin and modified by UV lights and final active Vit D made in liver and Kidneys. Steroid hormone
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Funtion of Vit D
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a. Bone making and maintenance – works with Vit A,C,K, collagen, hormones, CA, other minerals.
b. it makes Ca and Phosphorus available in blood for bone use.
— stimulates absorption of Ca and P in GI track
— It mobilizes Ca and P from bone into blood
— Stimulates Ca and P retention by Kidneys
c. It may also target brain, pancreas, skin, reproductive organs, and certain cancer cells.
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Deficiency in Vit D
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A. Deficiency – similar to CA deficiency, bones are improperly calcified and weakening or bending. Current adolescents may have problems with bone density later in life if they don’t drink milk
B. Rickets
C. Osteomalicia – adult rickets (low CA intake) risk for osteoporeosis
B. Toxicity – increased CA absorption so increased CA in blood which precipitates in soft tissues leading to stones like kidney stones, and hardens arteries. MOST TOXIC OF ALL VITAMINS in excess don’t exceed recommended dosage of (2,000 IU)
C. Sunlight exposure – SPF of 8+ retards Vit D only need 10 min a day 3/wk, tannin beds stimulate Vit D, dark skin need more, like 3 hr/wk
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Vit D Food sources
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eggs, liver, butter, fish, fortified milk and margarines – natural breast milk is low in Vit D
1. Strict Vegetarians are often deficient in Vit D
Do not exceed – 50ug/day
5 for kids and 10-15 for adults is recommended
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Vitamin E general
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tocopherol and anti-oxidant and protects lipids in cell membranes form oxidation and lungs form O2 and oxidizing air pollutants. Protects LDL from oxidation and prevents heart disease and artherosclerosis
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Erythrocyte Hemolysis
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when blood Vit E becomes slow RBC can break open often seen in premature infants. Vit E can be transferred to fetus in the last weeks of pregnancy
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Vitamin E deficiency in Adults
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loss of muscle coordination and relgexes with impaired movement, vision and speech. Fat absorption problems can cause this like liver, gallbladder, pancreas disease. **Long term low fat diets or fat substitutes**
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Vit E Toxicity
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– interferes with blood clottinand and enhance the effects of anticoagulant medications leading to hemorrhaging. <300mg with no more than 1,000mg/day. 15mg a day is recommended!!!
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Where do I get Vit E
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20% from veg oils, margarines, shortening, salad dressing, soybean,oil and wheat germ
20% from fruits and Veg
15% from fortified cereals and grains – animal fats have none
Other good sources are – whole grain, nuts, seeds, not heat stable
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3 Types of Vit K
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phylloquinone (K1 plants) memaquinone (K2 bacteria) Menadione (K3)
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Function of Vit K, where it’s made, newborns?
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2. Its most active function is blood clotting. It activates 7 of 13 proteins involved with clotting including precursor of thrombin
3. Involved in syn of bone proteins so without is low bone density
4. Made in bacterial intestines
newborns often lack it, so givea shot
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Why Antibiotics are bad for Vit K
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kill bacteria that makes vit K, which blocks K activity. Hemorrhage patients bleed to death – can’t clot
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Toxicity of Vit K
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can reduce effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs and cuase RBC hemolysis, jaundice, brain damage
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Where do I get Vit K?
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green leafy Veg, Cabbage, spinage, liver, milk, meat, liver, cereal, fruit, veg
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Thiamin – B12
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necc for energy metabolism – and for nerve cell membranes

Sources: Food sources – PORK and HAM, also legumes and whole grains. 10 servings of health food, not stored

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Thiamin Deficciency – what causes it and what can you get
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caused by malnourhsment: BERIBERI – lose sensation in hands and feet, muscle weakness, advancing paralysis.

Alcohol Abuse: Wenricke – Korsakoff Syndrome – sometimes confused with beriberi – alcohol abused impairs thiamin absorption and leads to mental confusion and disorientation and loss of memory and jerky movements and staggered gait.

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Where to Get Riboflavin (B2)
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Riboflavin – B2 – facilitated energy production and coenzymes in the Kreb’s Cycle (FADA2)

Milk and Dairy = .5 requirements, others are meat and green veggies

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Randomness about Riboflavin (B2)
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Light sensitive and destroyed by UV
Heat Stable
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Ariboflavinosis
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Lack Riboflavin
swollen and red tongue and sweeling of mucous menbranes and lips and cracked and burring and itchy eyes
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Niacin (B3) “nicotinic acid”
function adn where it’s found
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Function: needed for energy metabolism (NAD) in glycolysis – Kreb’s cycle – it can be made from amino acid tryptophan
FOOD: meat and poultry is .5 and enriched breads and cereals is .25 and mushrooms and asparagus and green leafy veg
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Pellagra
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Lack of Niacin (B3)
diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and death
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Medication of Niacin
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very high niacin (Magadose 100X normal dose) sometimes used to lower blood cholesterol and treat artherosclerosis. Lg dosages can injure liver and cause ulcers.
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Pantothenic Acid (B5)
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involved in lipid synthesis and energy release from nutrients as CoA coenzyme.
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Biotin (B7): function, deficiency
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Energy metabolism – carrier for CO2 – widespread in foods
1. deficiency is rare but can occur in hospitals like an IV feed without supplement.
2. Deficiency – can be stimulated by eating raw eggs and egg white protein called avidin binds tightly to biotin
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Pyridoxine (B6): function
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very extensively studied and stored in muscle tissue. Important for protein and amino acid synthesis.
1. Syn of hemoglobin and neurotransmitters
2. Involved in glucose release from glycogen
3. Imp for hormone response and immune function
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Low B6, deficiency, toxicity, Food DRI
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4. Low B6 and folate in blood can lead to high blood homocysteine (amino acid) – also a risk factor for heart disease
5. Deficiency – weakens immune rsvp – weakness and irritability and insomnia and, dermatitis if advanced it can be anemia and convulsions
6. TOXICITY – since stored sometimes get numb feet, numb hands, inability to walk and don’t rsvp to discontinued suppliments.
7. FOOD – best is meat, fish, poultry, good is potatoes and a few veggies and fruits. Not heat stable
8. DRI – age 14-50 MF – 1.3mg/day
M > 50 – 1.5
F > 50 – 1.8
No more than 100mg/day
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Folate
where does it develop and what happens with deficiency?
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Neural tube – develops in the embryo into spinal cord and brain and deficiency in mom could lead to issues and later problems like spina bifidea where it is split and anencephaly – no brain
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How to prevent folate defects in pregnant lady
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1. Taking folate one month prior to conception and first trimester can decrease risk for this – 400ug daily – 5 servings of veggies, and fruit
2. To help prevent this bread products, flour, corn, and pasta are fortified with 1.4mg
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Why are alcoholics folate deficient?
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3. It can interact with alcohol and other drugs which impairs folate absorption and increase excretion
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What decreases folate
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Aspirin, oral contraceptives, snticonvulsants and smoking
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Folate in Food and DV
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Best is liver, legumes, green leafy veg, beets, oranges, cantaloupe. Good – enriched grain products. Can lose up to 50% of folate in food to heat and oxidation (storage)

UL 1mg/day, 400 ug, Pregnant women 600ug,

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b12 Cobalamin and folate
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1. B12 – cobalamin assists folate in cell division and maintains nerve cells
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Macrocytic Anemia
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1. Deficiency – folate can’t function so it affects rapidly dividing cells
2. B12 def – folate deficiency often thought as – wrong
3. If long deficiency time then nerve damage permanent
4. Requires intrinsic factor made by stomach to be absorbed by cells – genetic deficiency in intrinsic factor – pernicious anemia causes a need for b12 injections
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Folate/B12 Cobalamin in food
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animal products, not plants
FM>14 need 2.4ug/day
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VIT C Ascorbic Avid
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– it is an antioxidant found in citrus fruits like strawberries, cantaloupe, broccoli, brussel sprouts, green pepper, potatoes are decent and it is easily oxidized so it must be in air tight containers
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Vit C ascorbic acid functions in body
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1. Collagen formation – found in connective tissues, skin, scares, artery walls
2. Antioxidant – protects water soluble molecules from oxidation, helps to regenerate IR and CU
3. Amino acid metabolism
4. Involved in stress response – released by adrenal glands
5. Antihistamine – reduces severity and duration of cold and allergy symptoms
6. May help prevent cancer
7. Can help person absorb 2-3X as much Iron in food
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Deficiency in Vit C Ascorbic Acid
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Deficiency – 10mg/day prevents scurvy and treatable with 100mg/day
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Scurvy
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1. Scurvy – affected sailors in 1400-1800s and many died
2. 1753 James lind found citrus fruits cured and British sailors took lime juice
3. Symptoms –
1. Degeneration of gums and tooth loss
2. Muscle degeneration
3. Skin becomes drier and scaly and brown
4. Bones weakened, especially the ends of long bones and leads to joint pain
5. Sudden death likely.
6. Toxicity – megadose is 10-30X as much as needed and can lead to nausea and cramps and diarrhea and interferes with certain medical treatments like anticoagulants
1. Ppl with sickle cell and gout are extra sensitive
2. Withdrawal – if stop taking mega doses – scurvy
3. UL 2g/day or 2000mg but higher risk for iron overload
1. F – 75mg
2. Mβ€”90mg
3. Stress, burns, surgery, traumas, chronic medications, aspirin, oral contro, smoking

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