Virgnia Biology SOL Review

Scientific Method
An organized way to test scientific hypotheses

Qualitative
observation using the 5 senses (example red, blue, hot, cold)

Quantitative
Observation using measuring tools and is given in a number form (example 5 milliliters of liquid)

Dependent variable
Variable that responds(depends) on what is changed by the researcher.

Independent variable
Variable that you change in the experiment. The “I changed it” Variable.

Control
Setup where the independent variable is not changed.

Constant
Things that can change in an experiment but you want to keep the same.

Hypothesis
An educated guess.

Theory
An accepted explanation of something based on many observations and experiments.

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col-lg-5 central-block">Evidence
your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief

Analysis
an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole

Inference
the act of passing from one proposition, statement, or judgment considered as true to another whose truth is believed to follow from that of the former

Observation
an act of recognizing and noting a fact or occurrence often involving measurement with instruments

Conclusion
a reasoned judgment: the necessary consequence of two or more propositions taken as premises

Deduction
the deriving of a conclusion by reasoning

Kingdom
a major category (as Plantae or Protista) in biological taxonomy that ranks above the phylum and below the domain

Phylum
a primary category in biological taxonomy especially of animals that ranks above the class and below the kingdom

Class
a major category in biological taxonomy ranking above the order and below the phylum or division

Order
taxonomic group containing one or more families

Family
a taxonomic group containing one or more genera (sharks belong to the fish family)

Genus
taxonomic group containing one or more species

Species
taxonomic group whose members can interbreed

Organism
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently

Binomial
a biological species name consisting of two terms

Taxonomy
study of the general principles of scientific classification

Taxa
animal or plant group having natural relations

Dichotomous key
a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters

Classification
the basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories

Chordate
any animal of the phylum Chordata having a notochord or spinal column

Vertebrate
animals having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain enclosed in a skull or cranium

Invertebrate
any animal lacking a backbone or notochord; the term is not used as a scientific classification

Prokaryote
a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei; bacteria are the prime example but also included are blue-green algae and actinomycetes and mycoplasma

Eukaryote
an organism with cells characteristic of all life forms except primitive microorganisms such as bacteria; i.e. an organism with `good’ or membrane-bound nuclei in its cells

Archaebacteria
considered ancient life forms that evolved separately from bacteria and blue-green algae

Eubacteria
a large group of bacteria having rigid cell walls; motile types have flagella

Fungi
the taxonomic kingdom of lower plants

Animalia
taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct animals

Protista
eukaryotic one-celled living organisms distinct from multicellular plants and animals; protozoa, slime molds, and eukaryotic algae

Monera
Old classification for all bacteria.

Protozoan
Mostly one celled Eukaryotes with no cell wall. Some are Plant like, some are animal like and some are fungus like.

Cell
basic unit of life

Unicellular
organism made of one cell

Multicellular
organism made of many cells

Herbivore
Animal that feeds on plants

Omnivore
Animal that feeds on both animal and plants

Carnivore
any animal that feeds on meat

Autotroph
Organisms who is able to make their own food (Same as a producer)

Heterotroph
Organisms that must eat food to obtain energy (Same as a consumer)

Decomposer
any of various organisms (as many bacteria and fungi) that return constituents of organic substances to ecological cycles by feeding on and breaking down dead protoplasm

Flagella
any of various elongated filiform appendages of plants or animals

Cilia
: a minute short hairlike process often forming part of a fringe; especially : one on a cell that is capable of lashing movement and serves especially in free unicellular organisms to produce locomotion or in higher forms a current of fluid

Homeostasis
metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes

Gymnosperm
plants of the class Gymnospermae having seeds not enclosed in an ovary

Angiosperm
plants having seeds in a closed ovary

vascular
of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids

Phototropism
an orienting response to light

Photoperiodism
a plant or animal’s response or capacity to respond to photoperiod (a recurring cycle of light and dark periods of constant length)

Antibiotic
a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections

Pathogen
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)

Toxic
of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison

Cell culture
The maintenance or growth of dispersed cells in a medium after removal from the body

Wet mount
a glass slide holding a specimen suspended in a drop of liquid (as water) for microscopic examination

Chloroplast
plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments; in plants that carry out photosynthesis

Plastid
any of various small particles in the cytoplasm of the cells of plants and some animals containing pigments or starch or oil or protein

Centriole
one of two small cylindrical cell organelles composes of 9 triplet microtubules; form the asters during mitosis

Mitochondria
any of various round or long cellular organelles of most eukaryotes that are found outside the nucleus, produce energy for the cell through cellular respiration, and are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes

Vacuole
a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell

Endoplasmic reticulum
a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), involved in the transport of materials

Lysosome
an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells (especially in leukocytes and liver and kidney cells)

Ribosome
an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell; ribosomes attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time and stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid; when a ribosome reaches a stop codon it falls apart and releases the completed protein molecule

Golgi body
an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell.

Cell membrane
the semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell.

Nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

Nucleolus
a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus; nucleoli contain RNA and are involved in protein synthesis

Fluid mosaic
a description of the membrane of a cell. The fluid part refers to the phospholipids of a cell membrane, which, like liquid, flow. The mosaic part refers to proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer that act as conduits through which molecules enter and exit the cell

Diffusion
the process of diffusing; the intermingling of molecules in gases and liquids as a result of random thermal agitation

Osmosis
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal

Isotonic
of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes

Hypotonic
lacking normal tone or tension

Hypertonic
in a state of abnormally high tension

Solute
the dissolved substance in a solution; the component of a solution that changes its state

Solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

Solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; frequently (but not necessarily) a liquid solution

Concentration gradient
the gradual difference in concentration of a dissolved substance in a solution between a region of high density and one of lower density

Proton gradient
The product of the electron transport chain. A higher concentration of protons outside the inner membrane of the mitochondria than inside the membrane is the driving force behind ATP synthesis.

pH
p(otential of) H(ydrogen); the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per liter; provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (where 7 is neutral)

Alkaline
relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7

Cohesion
the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in a solid or liquid

Adhesion
the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition

Enzyme
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions

Catalyst
a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

Active site
the part of an enzyme that interacts with the substrate during catalysis

Substrate
the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment

Denature
modify (as a native protein) especially by heat, acid, alkali, or ultraviolet radiation so that all of the original properties are removed or diminished

Monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

Polymer
a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers

Molecule
the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

Compound
a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Carbohydrate
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain

Hydrocarbon
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen

Monosaccharide
a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars; the simplest group of carbohydrates

Polysaccharide
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules

Lipid
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)

Phospholipid
any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base; an important constituent of membranes

Hormone
the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect

Steroid
any of several fat-soluble organic compounds having as a basis 17 carbon atoms in four rings; many have important physiological effects

Protein
any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs

Polypeptide
a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids

Triglyceride
glyceride occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues; it consists of three individual fatty acids bound together in a single large molecule; an important energy source forming much of the fat stored by the body

Amino acid
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group; proteins are composed of various proportions of about 20 common amino acids

Primary
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group; proteins are composed of various proportions of about 20 common amino acids

Secondary
depending on or incidental to what is original or primary

Tertiary
coming next after the second and just before the fourth in position

Quaternary
coming next after the third and just before the fifth in position or time or degree or magnitude; the quaternary period of geologic time extends from the end of the tertiary period to the present

Gene
a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity; genes were formerly called factor

Gene expression
conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein

Genetic predisposition
an inherited genetic pattern that makes one susceptible to a certain disease

Dominant
of genes; producing the same phenotype whether its allele is identical or dissimilar

Recessive
of genes; producing its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical

Chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

Haploid
an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes

Diploid
an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number

Allele
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits

Phenotype
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype; two organisms with the same phenotype can have different genotypes

Genotype
the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism

Trait
a distinguishing feature of your personal nature

Homozygous
having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci

Heterozygous
having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci

Mutation
(genetics) any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism

Albino
a person with congenital albinism: white hair and milky skin; eyes are usually pink

Inheritance
(genetics) attributes acquired via biological heredity from the parents

Test cross
a genetic test for heterozygosity in which an organism of dominant phenotype, but unknown genotype, is crossed to an organism recessive for all markers in question

Inversion
(genetics) a kind of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed

Drosophila
small fruit fly used by Thomas Hunt Morgan in studying basic mechanisms of inheritance

Pedigree
the descendants of one individual

Sex-linked
concerning characteristics that are determined by genes carried on the sex chromosomes (on the X chromosome in particular)

Fertility
the state of being fertile; capable of producing offspring

Pollinator
an insect that carries pollen from one flower to another

Reproduction
the process of generating offspring

Fertilization
creation by the physical union of male and female gametes; of sperm and ova in an animal or pollen and ovule in a plant

Embryo
an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life

Zygote
the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)

Asexual
not having or involving sex; an asexual spore; asexual reproduction

Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes

Development
the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level

Chromatin
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division the chromatin condenses into chromosomes

Chromatid
one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis

Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

Spindle
(biology) tiny fibers that are seen in cell division; the fibers radiate from two poles and meet at the equator in the middle

Interphase
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions

Prophase
the first stage of mitosis/meiosis

Metaphase
the second stage of mitosis/meiosis

Anaphase
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle

Telophase
the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle

Cytokinesis
organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells

Meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms; the nucleus divides into four nuclei each containing half the chromosome number (leading to gametes in animals and spores in plants)

Karyotype
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)

DNA
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)

RNA
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; it transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes

Nucleotide
a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside; the basic structural unit of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)

Replication
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division

Transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA; the process whereby a base sequence of messenger RNA is synthesized on a template of complementary DNA

Translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

Bioluminescence
luminescence produced by physiological processes (as in the firefly)

Electrophoresis
the motion of charged particles in a colloid under the influence of an electric field; particles with a positive charge go to the cathode and negative to the anode

Recombinant
of or resulting from new combinations of genetic material

Plasmid
a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication

Photosynthesis
synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)

Chemosynthesis
synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water; limited to certain bacteria and fungi

Wavelength
the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave

Respiration
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules; processes that take place in the cells and tissues during which energy is released and carbon dioxide is produced and absorbed by the blood to be transported to the lungs

Fermentation
a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances

Aerobic
depending on free oxygen or air

ATP
a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions

Excretion
the bodily process of discharging waste matter

Metabolism
the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life

Transpiration
the process of giving off or exhaling water vapor through the skin or mucous membranes

Nitrogen fixation
the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria

Nitrification
the oxidation of ammonium compounds in dead organic material into nitrates and nitrites by soil bacteria (making nitrogen available to plants)

Carbon fixation
the process by which plants turn inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) into organic compounds such as carbohydrates

Carbon cycle
the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again

Ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment

Population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

Community
a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

Biosphere
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist

Habitat
Where an organism lives

Niche
Job of an organism in its environment

Interaction
the direct effect that one organism on another,

Deciduous
Lose leaves at the end of the growing season

Migration
the periodic passage of groups of animals (especially birds or fishes) from one region to another for feeding or breeding

Extinction
When populations of organisms die out

Conservation
the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources

Larvae
The newly hatched, wingless, often wormlike form of many insects.

Flora
all the plant life in a particular region

Fauna
all the animal life in a particular region

Succession
(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another

Estuary
the wide part of a river where it nears the sea; fresh and salt water mix

Aquatic
Based on Water

Terrestrial
Land based

Ocean trench
the deep depressions in the Earth’s crust, and they comprise the deepest part of the ocean

Precipitation
the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)

Mutualism
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other

Parasitism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)

Commensalism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it

Symbiosis
Long term interactions between two organsims

Nocturnal
Active at night

Imprinting
a learning process in early life whereby species specific patterns of behavior are established

Instinct
inborn pattern of behavior

Mimicry
When one organism looks or acts like another to hide from or be protected from predators

Camouflage
Adaptation which allows an organism to blend in to the environment.

Evolution
The change in populations of organisms over time

Natural selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

Selective pressure
Something that makes it harder for an organism to survive in an environment.

Adaptation
Having the best physical or chemical characteristics to survive in an environment (example: long fur to survive the cold)

Carrying capacity
the maximum, number of organisms that can be supported for any long time in an environment.

Climax community
An community in which populations of plants or animals remain stable and exist in balance with each other and their environment

Limiting Factor
an environmental variable that limits or slows the growth or activities of an organism

Punctuated equilibrium
Ideas that evolution occurs in fits and starts rather than in a steady process of slow change

Adaptive radiation
the development of many different species from one common ancestor

Reproductive isolation
Populations of organisms become separated and can no longer interbreed.

Gradualism
Idea that species evolve slowly and continuously over long periods of geological time

Fossil
the remains (or an impression) of a plant or animal

Paleontologist
Someone who studies forms of life existing in prehistoric times

Analogous
Unrelated organisms share a structure with Similar function but different design (example: Bird wing and Insect Wing)

Homologous
Related organisms share a similar structure with different function (example: Bird Wing and Human arm)

Convergent Evolution
When two unrelated organisms develop similar adaptations because they live in similar environments

Divergent Evolution
When two organisms develop from a common ancestor as a result of different environments.

Hibernate
be in an inactive or dormant state

Migrate
move from one country or region to another and settle there

Estivate
sleep during summer

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