VCU MGMT 310 Chapters 13-15, 17

The ability to combine or link ideas in new ways to generate novel and useful alternatives.
Cultural intelligence
The ability to understand and respond appropriately to different cultural contexts and situations.
Emotional intelligence
The capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing our emotions and relationships in a productive manner.

– Self-management: composed of two main components, regulation and motivation; regulation includes self-control and adaptability; motivation includes the desire for achievement and the ability to push oneself despite obstacles and setbacks.

– Self-awareness: ability to recognize one’s own emotions and understand how those emotions impact others.

– Social awareness: using empathy to sense others’ feelings and perspectives and taking an active interest in their concerns; ability to understand group dynamics and relationships.

– Relationship management: ability to influence and inspire others, to constructively manage conflict, and to build and cultivate productive teams.

A person’s ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, and adapt to changes in the environment.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
A measure of the overall quality of an individual’s mental abilities.

68% of the population has an average IQ score between 85 and 115; 95% between 70 and 130.

Interpersonal effectiveness
The ability to acknowledge and take responsibility for one’s role in cultivating relationships and in communicating effectively with others.
Locus of control
The extent to which an individual believes that he or she can control or influence the outcome of events.
Organizational behavior
The study of interpersonal attitudes and preferences, behavioral dynamics, and organizational performance.
A system of enduring inner characteristics, tendencies, and temperaments that are both inherited and shaped by social, cultural, and environmental factors.

5 common leadership personality traits (OCEAN):
Emotional Stability (Neuroticism)

The belief that one can control or adapt to certain events and outcomes and be able to bounce back from difficulty.
An understanding of one’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
The ability of individuals to read cues from their environment to assess their behavior. People can vary from being high self-monitors to being low self-monitors.
Triarchic theory of intelligence
The theory that individuals possess three components of intelligence: (1) computational (analytic), (2) experiential (creative), and (3) contextual (practical).
Individuals and/or groups that have common interests and perspectives.
Coercive power
A type of interpersonal power that gives someone the ability to punish another for his or her behavior.
Dependence asymmetry
A phenomenon that exists when a firm is more dependent on a business partner than a business partner is on a firm.
The process of sharing power with subordinates and pushing decision making and implementation to the lowest possible level, increasing the influence and autonomy of all employees.
Expert power
A type of interpersonal power based on an individual having specialized knowledge or skills.
The means or vehicle by which power is exercised.
A quality that exists whenever one individual requires another individual’s assistance to achieve a goal.
Joint dependence
A phenomenon that exists when two firms are equally dependent on the other.
Law of reciprocity
The idea that people should repay in the future what another person has done for them in the present.
Legitimate power
A type of interpersonal power that is based on the formal position an individual holds in an organization.
Personal power
Power that is obtained from having personal attributes that others desire.
Positional power
Power that comes from an individual’s formal place within an organization’s structure.
The potential of one individual or a group to influence behavior, thinking, or attitudes of another individual or group.
Referent power
A type of interpersonal power based on the personal liking an individual has for another.
Relational power
Power gained from the types of networks to which an individual belongs, the types of people in those networks, and the strength of the relationships within the networks.
Resource scarcity
The lack of sufficient resources, such as money and staff, that forces individuals in organizations to make critical decisions about how to best allocate the available resources throughout the company.
Reward power
A type of interpersonal power that gives someone the ability to reward another for his or her behavior.
Adjustment heuristic
The rule of thumb that contends that individuals make estimates or choices based on a certain starting point.
Administrative model
A model of decision making that acknowledges that managers may be unable to make economically rational decisions even if they want to because they lack sufficient information on which to base their decisions.
Situations that are characterized by uncertainty and risk and where the optimal decision is not clear or obvious.
Appropriateness framework
The process of making decisions based on societal norms or expectations.
Availability heuristic
The rule of thumb that contends that individuals assess the frequency, probability, or likely cause of an event by the degree to which instances or occurrences of that event are readily “available” in memory.
Bounded rationality
A set of boundaries or constraints that tend to complicate the rational decision-making process.
Classical model
A model of decision making that seeks to maximize economic or other outcomes using a rational choice process.
Conditions of certainty
Conditions in which individuals have all of the information they need to make the best decision possible.
Conditions of risk
Conditions in which individuals have information about an organization’s goals, objectives, priorities, and potential courses of action, but they do not have complete information about the possible outcomes for each course of action.
Conditions of uncertainty
Conditions in which individuals have information related to an organization’s objectives and priorities, but they do not have complete information about alternative courses of action or about the possible outcomes for each one.
Confirmation bias
A bias in which people tend to seek information that confirms a decision before seeking information that disconfirms a decision, even if the disconfirming information is more powerful and important.
Decision making
The process of identifying issues and making choices from alternative courses of action.
Escalation of commitment
Occurs when decision makers commit themselves to a particular course of action beyond the level suggested by rationality as a means of justifying previous commitments.
Alternative presentations of the same information that can significantly alter a decision.
Garbage can model
A model of decision making whereby problems, solutions, participants, and choices flow throughout an organization. A decision process is NOT viewed as a sequence of steps that begins with a problem and ends with a solution.
Rules of thumb or short-cuts that individuals use to save time when making complex decisions.
Intuitive decision making
Insights that are tapped through intuition and are not always fully understood by the decision maker.
Non-programmed decisions
Decisions that are made in response to novel, poorly defined, or unstructured situations that require managers to use their best judgements.
The deliverable, temporary relaxation of rules to explore many possible alternatives.
Political model
A model of decision making that acknowledges that most organizational decisions involve many managers who have different goals and who have to share information to reach an agreement.
Programmed decisions
Decisions that are made in response to recurring organizational problems that require individuals to follow established rules and procedures.
Representativeness heuristic
The rule of thumb that contends that individuals tend to look for traits in another person or situation that correspond with previously formed stereotypes.
The act of choosing a solution that is good enough.
Status quo bias
The tendency to favor the “here and now” and to reject potential change.
Theory of rational choice
The theory that individuals make decisions based on a rational thought process that optimizes self-interest.
Adjourning stage
The stage that occurs when a team has completed its task and the team is disbanded.
Blocking behaviors
Behaviors that inhibit the team and its members from achieving their objectives.
Boundary manager
A manager who determines how the team will work with clients, upper management, and others who have an interest in the team’s product. They buffer the team from organizational infighting, persuade top management to support the team’s work, and coordinate and negotiate with other groups on work deadlines.
Collocated teams
Teams that use a significant amount of face-to-face communication to make operating decisions. They operate in close proximity to one another, engage in a lot of social interaction, and provide quick feedback on the team’s progress to one another.
The action of people behaving in line with a group’s expectations and beliefs.
Forming stage
The stage that occurs when team members define the task that is to be done and how that task is to be accomplished, setting the ground rules for the team.
Geographically distributed teams
Teams that are made up of geographically or organizationally dispersed members who rely heavily on electronic tools (email, telephone, videoconferencing) to interact and communicate with one another.
Horizontal teams
Teams composed of employees from about the same hierarchical level but from several different departments in the organization.
Manager-led teams
Teams in which the manager acts as the team leader.
Norming stage
The stage that occurs when team members uncover ways to create new standards that encourage more collaborative behavior.
The extent to which individuals engage in the process of generating solutions and articulating their opinions and perspectives.
Performing stage
The stage that occurs when team members adopt and play roles that enhance the activities of the group.
Self-directed teams
Teams that determine their own objectives and the methods by which to achieve them.
Social loafing
Disengaging from the team process and failing to contribute to the team’s recommendations or other deliverables.
Storming stage
The stage that occurs when team members experience conflicts about interpersonal issues and differences in perspectives.
Task complexity
The amount of information that must be processed to understand the task, the degree of uncertainty about possible outcomes, the presence of many subtasks that require a range of skills and knowledge, or the absence of standardized procedures to conduct the task.
Task interdependence
The extent to which group members need to work with and rely on on each other to produce the collective work of the group.
Task objectives
Issues that orient team members toward their goals and priorities and help them understand how their work fits in the bigger picture.
A group of two or more people with complementary skills who are committed to working together to achieve a specific objective.
Team norms
Expected team behaviors.
Vertical teams
Teams composed of a manager and his or her subordinates in the formal chain of command, usually in one functional department.

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