USC Geology 110 Quiz 1 – Flashcards

question
Precious Mineral Resources
answer
ornamental
question
Strategic Mineral Resources
answer
necessary for civilian, industrial, or military needs
question
Metallic Resources
answer
gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, aluminum
question
Nonmetallic Resources
answer
sand & gravel, gypsum, phosphate, building stone; 94% of mineral resources are nonmetallic
question
Potential Energy Sources
answer
wood, coal, hydroelectric dams, nuclear power, gas hydrates, oil & gas beneath Earth's surface
question
What types of energy does the US use?
answer
petroleum, natural gas, coal, nuclear electric power, renewable energy
question
Who uses the energy?
answer
industrial, transportation, residential, commercial
question
Fossil Fuels
answer
nonrenewable; coal, oil, natural gas
question
Formation of Fossil Fuels
answer
organic remains (of plants & animals) are buried in sedimentary basins, causing them to be 'cooked' at different temperatures, producing hydrocarbon materials
question
Conditions Appropriate for Fossil Fuel Formation
answer
1. biologically productive environment producing large quantities of organic material (typically shallow water continental margins) 2. limited supply of oxygen to bottom waters in contact with sediment limits the decomposition of organic material 3. rapid burial of un-decomposed organic material provides for efficient capture of this material in sediment deposits
question
Subsidence
answer
the removal of rock from the mountains by weathering, erosion, & the deposition of that material in the form of clastic sediment around the edges of continents creates a great shift in mass from the mountains to the continental edges; the lithosphere sinks/subsides under the great weight of the sediment accumulation over millions of years
question
Alluvial Fans
answer
sediment from rivers are deposited in alluvial fans
question
The Mississippi River Delta
answer
one of the most important fossil fuel locations in the US; drains almost half of the continental US
question
Gulf of Mexico
answer
one of the most important fossil fuel locations in the US
question
Coal
answer
black, brittle sedimentary rock, non-renewable resource composed of organic materials that were living at the time the sedimentary rocks were deposited; most electricity (around 50%) in the US is produced through the burning of coal
question
Swamps
answer
primary sedimentary environments where thick accumulations of plant material can result in the production of a major coal reserve
question
Coal Formation
answer
burial & heating of organic material creates a progressive change from peat, to lignite, to bituminous coal, and then to anthracite coal; each of these steps involves progressive loss of nitrogen & water to create organic material with higher carbon & hydrogen contents to increase energy
question
Peat
answer
commonly burned for fuel in boggy regions at high latitudes
question
Anthracite
answer
highest grade of coal, 'cooked' at relatively high temperature resulting in a high energy content
question
Consequences of Coal Mining
answer
landscape degradation, groundwater & air pollution, increase in greenhouse gases
question
Limitations on Coal Use
answer
not clean to mine, burn, or handle; expensive to produce 'clean coal'
question
Environmental Impacts of Burning Coal
answer
when burned it produces abundant CO2 (a greenhouse gas) & liberates sulfur dioxide & ash into atmosphere
question
Reserves
answer
estimates that part of a total resource that can be extracted & marketed at a profit; may change dramatically in response to evolving technologies & economic conditions
question
Formation of Oil and Natural Gas
answer
typically occurs in marine sedimentary deposits 1. Diagenesis: occurs at the surface or under shallow burial depths of a few hundred meters and at temperatures generally less than 50° C; biological activity of burrowing organisms and bacteria is present under these conditions, resulting primarily in the decomposition of organic material and the formation of biogenic methane, which is also known as 'swamp gas' 2. Catagenesis: occurs at burial depths of 3.5 to 5 kilometers and at temperatures in the range of 50° - 150° C; water is forced out of the rock and most biological activity ceases; organic material is cooked into a mixture of kerogen (nonreactive/insoluble part of organic material) and oil; at temperatures near the high end of the catagenesis range, the breakdown of kerogen results in the formation of natural gas 3. Metagenesis: occurs at burial depths greater than 5 kilometers and at temperatures greater than 150° C; conditions of early metamorphism; production of natural gas continues from the breakdown of kerogen, beyond about 300° the remaining kerogen becomes graphite and the formation of natural gas ends
question
What's in a barrel of fuel?
answer
gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heavy fuel, heating oil
question
Creation of and oil or gas reserve requires 4 features:
answer
1. source rock: where hydrocarbons are created; usually a shale that contains a large quantity of organic material 2. migration pathway: allows the hydrocarbons to flow upward through the rock formations; this may be fractures in the rock, or pore spaces between mineral grains in the rock. 3. reservoir rock: which is where the hydrocarbons are trapped and stored; usually a porous and/or fractured sandstone, which has lots of open space to store oil and gas 4. trap: which keeps the oil or gas in the reservoir rock - it prevents the escape of the hydrocarbons; usually involve an unfractured rock with low porosity and low permeability
question
Natural Gas
answer
all geologic systems that produce oil also produce some amount of natural gas; disposed of by flaming
question
Advantages of Natural Gas
answer
minimal processing, burns cleanly, most energy per unit, most energy per unit of CO2, extensive infrastructure already in place to handle gas, new technologies might make it a transportation fuel, extensive reserve growth in the US through fracking
question
Disadvantages of Natural Gas
answer
sometimes explodes, methane (strong greenhouse gas) can leak from pipelines
question
Uses of Natural Gas
answer
nearly everything we use depends on petroleum made by machines & systems that depend on oil, rely on oil for transportation
question
Oil: Pessimistic Outlook
answer
all world's great oil fields have already been found, discovery of new ones are declining while consumption is increasing
question
M. King Hubbert
answer
bell-shape prediction curve, simple statistical analysis; his predicted peak & decline of US oil production came in 1970
question
Oil: Optimistic Outlook
answer
large oil fields still remain to be discovered, extortion technologies & economic forces will greatly expand volume of reserves in the future (Kern River Oil Field is a good example of this)
question
Athabasca Tar Sands
answer
alternative oil in Canada; constitute a potential oil reserve similar in size to the conventional oil reserves in Saudi Arabia; expensive to extract this oil
question
Renewable Energy Sources
answer
biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave/tidal; only a small amount of energy & electricity production was from renewable sources
question
Alternative Energy Sources
answer
hydrogen, clean coal, nuclear, biomass fuels, human power
question
Renewable Energy Usage
answer
generate electricity, heat in industrial processes, heating/cooling of buildings
question
Hydropower
answer
electricity produced from flowing water
question
3 Types of Hydropower Facilities
answer
1. impoundment: requires dams 2. diversion: doesn't usually require a dam 3. pumped storage
question
Windmill Uses
answer
pumping water & producing energy
question
Wind Power
answer
conversion of wind energy into a useful form, such as electricity, using wind turbines
question
Advantages to Wind Energy
answer
plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean
question
Challenges for Wind Energy
answer
non-dispatchable, intermittent
question
Solar Energy Uses
answer
heating buildings & water, electric power plants, photovoltaic systems
question
Solar Applications
answer
space heating/cooling, water distillation/disinfection, daylighting
question
Active Solar Techniques
answer
use of photovoltaic panels & solar thermal collectors to harness energy
question
Passive Solar Techniques
answer
orienting a building to the sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air
question
Alternative Energy
answer
"an umbrella term that refers to any sources of usable energy intended to replace fuel sources without the undesired consequences of replaced fuels;" hydrogen, nuclear, tar sands/oil shale
question
Alternative Energy Examples
answer
1. coal as an alternative to wood 2. petroleum as an alternative to whale oil 3. alcohol as an alternative to fossil fuels 4. coal gasification as an alternative to expensive petroleum
question
Renewable Energy
answer
naturally replenished, but can be limited by amount generated; hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal
question
Geothermal Energy Uses
answer
depends on local heat flow conditions/availability of hot water or steam; generate electricity, space heating
question
Geothermal Energy Advantages
answer
CO2 emissions per unit of electricity produced are far lower than fossil fuels, clean, renewable, usually quickly replenished
question
Hydrogen
answer
simplest, most abundant element in universe; can be produced from fossil fuels, biomass, & by electrolyzing water
question
Hydrogen Problems
answer
low energy: a car relying on hydrogen for energy would require a huge tank
question
Nuclear Energy
answer
1. used to boil water which generates steam 2. steam turns turbines which generate power 3. steam is cooled in large towers 4. steam, not smoke, exits towers
question
Uranium
answer
when a sufficient amount is brought together in a nuclear reactor (critical mass), a chain reaction of nuclear fission results; not technically a renewable resources, but dominates most of world energy reserve estimates
question
Nuclear Fission
answer
process of radioactive decay in Uranium, the breaking of are arms into smaller atoms & particles, releasing energy in the process; occurs in nuclear reactors; involves joining of 2 relatively light elements, such as hydrogen & hell, to form a large atom
question
Nuclear Accidents
answer
create public fear & mistrust of this industry; problems with nuclear waste disposal
question
Nuclear Accident Examples
answer
Three Mile Island (PA), Chernobyl Plant (Ukraine), Fukushima (Japan)
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question
Precious Mineral Resources
answer
ornamental
question
Strategic Mineral Resources
answer
necessary for civilian, industrial, or military needs
question
Metallic Resources
answer
gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, aluminum
question
Nonmetallic Resources
answer
sand & gravel, gypsum, phosphate, building stone; 94% of mineral resources are nonmetallic
question
Potential Energy Sources
answer
wood, coal, hydroelectric dams, nuclear power, gas hydrates, oil & gas beneath Earth's surface
question
What types of energy does the US use?
answer
petroleum, natural gas, coal, nuclear electric power, renewable energy
question
Who uses the energy?
answer
industrial, transportation, residential, commercial
question
Fossil Fuels
answer
nonrenewable; coal, oil, natural gas
question
Formation of Fossil Fuels
answer
organic remains (of plants & animals) are buried in sedimentary basins, causing them to be 'cooked' at different temperatures, producing hydrocarbon materials
question
Conditions Appropriate for Fossil Fuel Formation
answer
1. biologically productive environment producing large quantities of organic material (typically shallow water continental margins) 2. limited supply of oxygen to bottom waters in contact with sediment limits the decomposition of organic material 3. rapid burial of un-decomposed organic material provides for efficient capture of this material in sediment deposits
question
Subsidence
answer
the removal of rock from the mountains by weathering, erosion, & the deposition of that material in the form of clastic sediment around the edges of continents creates a great shift in mass from the mountains to the continental edges; the lithosphere sinks/subsides under the great weight of the sediment accumulation over millions of years
question
Alluvial Fans
answer
sediment from rivers are deposited in alluvial fans
question
The Mississippi River Delta
answer
one of the most important fossil fuel locations in the US; drains almost half of the continental US
question
Gulf of Mexico
answer
one of the most important fossil fuel locations in the US
question
Coal
answer
black, brittle sedimentary rock, non-renewable resource composed of organic materials that were living at the time the sedimentary rocks were deposited; most electricity (around 50%) in the US is produced through the burning of coal
question
Swamps
answer
primary sedimentary environments where thick accumulations of plant material can result in the production of a major coal reserve
question
Coal Formation
answer
burial & heating of organic material creates a progressive change from peat, to lignite, to bituminous coal, and then to anthracite coal; each of these steps involves progressive loss of nitrogen & water to create organic material with higher carbon & hydrogen contents to increase energy
question
Peat
answer
commonly burned for fuel in boggy regions at high latitudes
question
Anthracite
answer
highest grade of coal, 'cooked' at relatively high temperature resulting in a high energy content
question
Consequences of Coal Mining
answer
landscape degradation, groundwater & air pollution, increase in greenhouse gases
question
Limitations on Coal Use
answer
not clean to mine, burn, or handle; expensive to produce 'clean coal'
question
Environmental Impacts of Burning Coal
answer
when burned it produces abundant CO2 (a greenhouse gas) & liberates sulfur dioxide & ash into atmosphere
question
Reserves
answer
estimates that part of a total resource that can be extracted & marketed at a profit; may change dramatically in response to evolving technologies & economic conditions
question
Formation of Oil and Natural Gas
answer
typically occurs in marine sedimentary deposits 1. Diagenesis: occurs at the surface or under shallow burial depths of a few hundred meters and at temperatures generally less than 50° C; biological activity of burrowing organisms and bacteria is present under these conditions, resulting primarily in the decomposition of organic material and the formation of biogenic methane, which is also known as 'swamp gas' 2. Catagenesis: occurs at burial depths of 3.5 to 5 kilometers and at temperatures in the range of 50° - 150° C; water is forced out of the rock and most biological activity ceases; organic material is cooked into a mixture of kerogen (nonreactive/insoluble part of organic material) and oil; at temperatures near the high end of the catagenesis range, the breakdown of kerogen results in the formation of natural gas 3. Metagenesis: occurs at burial depths greater than 5 kilometers and at temperatures greater than 150° C; conditions of early metamorphism; production of natural gas continues from the breakdown of kerogen, beyond about 300° the remaining kerogen becomes graphite and the formation of natural gas ends
question
What's in a barrel of fuel?
answer
gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heavy fuel, heating oil
question
Creation of and oil or gas reserve requires 4 features:
answer
1. source rock: where hydrocarbons are created; usually a shale that contains a large quantity of organic material 2. migration pathway: allows the hydrocarbons to flow upward through the rock formations; this may be fractures in the rock, or pore spaces between mineral grains in the rock. 3. reservoir rock: which is where the hydrocarbons are trapped and stored; usually a porous and/or fractured sandstone, which has lots of open space to store oil and gas 4. trap: which keeps the oil or gas in the reservoir rock - it prevents the escape of the hydrocarbons; usually involve an unfractured rock with low porosity and low permeability
question
Natural Gas
answer
all geologic systems that produce oil also produce some amount of natural gas; disposed of by flaming
question
Advantages of Natural Gas
answer
minimal processing, burns cleanly, most energy per unit, most energy per unit of CO2, extensive infrastructure already in place to handle gas, new technologies might make it a transportation fuel, extensive reserve growth in the US through fracking
question
Disadvantages of Natural Gas
answer
sometimes explodes, methane (strong greenhouse gas) can leak from pipelines
question
Uses of Natural Gas
answer
nearly everything we use depends on petroleum made by machines & systems that depend on oil, rely on oil for transportation
question
Oil: Pessimistic Outlook
answer
all world's great oil fields have already been found, discovery of new ones are declining while consumption is increasing
question
M. King Hubbert
answer
bell-shape prediction curve, simple statistical analysis; his predicted peak & decline of US oil production came in 1970
question
Oil: Optimistic Outlook
answer
large oil fields still remain to be discovered, extortion technologies & economic forces will greatly expand volume of reserves in the future (Kern River Oil Field is a good example of this)
question
Athabasca Tar Sands
answer
alternative oil in Canada; constitute a potential oil reserve similar in size to the conventional oil reserves in Saudi Arabia; expensive to extract this oil
question
Renewable Energy Sources
answer
biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave/tidal; only a small amount of energy & electricity production was from renewable sources
question
Alternative Energy Sources
answer
hydrogen, clean coal, nuclear, biomass fuels, human power
question
Renewable Energy Usage
answer
generate electricity, heat in industrial processes, heating/cooling of buildings
question
Hydropower
answer
electricity produced from flowing water
question
3 Types of Hydropower Facilities
answer
1. impoundment: requires dams 2. diversion: doesn't usually require a dam 3. pumped storage
question
Windmill Uses
answer
pumping water & producing energy
question
Wind Power
answer
conversion of wind energy into a useful form, such as electricity, using wind turbines
question
Advantages to Wind Energy
answer
plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean
question
Challenges for Wind Energy
answer
non-dispatchable, intermittent
question
Solar Energy Uses
answer
heating buildings & water, electric power plants, photovoltaic systems
question
Solar Applications
answer
space heating/cooling, water distillation/disinfection, daylighting
question
Active Solar Techniques
answer
use of photovoltaic panels & solar thermal collectors to harness energy
question
Passive Solar Techniques
answer
orienting a building to the sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air
question
Alternative Energy
answer
"an umbrella term that refers to any sources of usable energy intended to replace fuel sources without the undesired consequences of replaced fuels;" hydrogen, nuclear, tar sands/oil shale
question
Alternative Energy Examples
answer
1. coal as an alternative to wood 2. petroleum as an alternative to whale oil 3. alcohol as an alternative to fossil fuels 4. coal gasification as an alternative to expensive petroleum
question
Renewable Energy
answer
naturally replenished, but can be limited by amount generated; hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal
question
Geothermal Energy Uses
answer
depends on local heat flow conditions/availability of hot water or steam; generate electricity, space heating
question
Geothermal Energy Advantages
answer
CO2 emissions per unit of electricity produced are far lower than fossil fuels, clean, renewable, usually quickly replenished
question
Hydrogen
answer
simplest, most abundant element in universe; can be produced from fossil fuels, biomass, & by electrolyzing water
question
Hydrogen Problems
answer
low energy: a car relying on hydrogen for energy would require a huge tank
question
Nuclear Energy
answer
1. used to boil water which generates steam 2. steam turns turbines which generate power 3. steam is cooled in large towers 4. steam, not smoke, exits towers
question
Uranium
answer
when a sufficient amount is brought together in a nuclear reactor (critical mass), a chain reaction of nuclear fission results; not technically a renewable resources, but dominates most of world energy reserve estimates
question
Nuclear Fission
answer
process of radioactive decay in Uranium, the breaking of are arms into smaller atoms & particles, releasing energy in the process; occurs in nuclear reactors; involves joining of 2 relatively light elements, such as hydrogen & hell, to form a large atom
question
Nuclear Accidents
answer
create public fear & mistrust of this industry; problems with nuclear waste disposal
question
Nuclear Accident Examples
answer
Three Mile Island (PA), Chernobyl Plant (Ukraine), Fukushima (Japan)