USACMLS Hazardous Materials Awareness

Flashcard maker : Edwin Holland


Hazmat responders have legal implications:


Liability –


Negligence –


Standard of Care –

Responsible to perform, legally bound


Failure to act


do not go above and beyond your level of competency



Difference between laws and regulations –



Code of Federal Regulation:


carry the weight of….

How many titles?

Laws – enacted by legislation


Regulation – mandated by laws and tell how to comply/implement the laws correctly.



there are 50 titles and they carry the weight of a law






Clean Water Act:    Established (3 things)



Mandates Federal Regulations



National Response System (NRS)


National Contingency Plan (NCP)


National Response Team (NRT)




Resourse Conservation and Recovery Act




Key Word:



Key Word: Waste


Deals with treatment, storage and disposal


Environmentally safe handling

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liablility Act of 1980




Commonly known as the _____ 


Expanded the _____




Commonly known as the superfund


Expanded the NRT


Cradle-to-Grave – if you create the chemical, you must properly dispose of it.


Also emphasized emergency response

Occupational Safety and Health Act



Key Words: ______


Covered Under: ________


Created in 1970


Covers what safety issues (7)

Key Words: Worker Safety


Covered under: 29 CFR 1910:120


1) Emergency Response Plans

2) Incident Command System

3) Presence of a safety officer

4) Appropriate protective equipment

5) Buddy system

6) Backup personnel

7) EMS Support




EPA 40 CFR 300-311



National Oil and Hazardous Substance Contingency Plan.


Uses the same regulation (29 CFR 1910.120) as OSHA so EPA and OSHA states are the same



DOT 49 CFR 100-199


(look for key in title as to what it regulates, there are 6 things)


Enforced by _____ and ______ agencies

Covers Hazmat Transportation Regulations (hence the DOT)


1) Shipping Requirements

2) Placards and labeling

3) Shipping papers

4) Containers

5) Classifications


Enforced by state and local agencies

Consensus Standards –


Mandatory when adopted, but will be judged by peer review (must abide by even if not adopted)

Updated on a 5 year cycle

explain the following:

NFPA 471 –

NFPA 472-  chap 4

NFPA 473-

NFPA 471 – the recommended practices

(before qualification)

Applies to all responders, common terminology, personal protection, safty, communications


NFPA 472 – professional competancy

(tells you what you can do)

29 CFR 1920.120 based on this

Exceeds EPA and OSHA requirements


NFPA 473EMS Competency

Awareness level first responders:


May be the first at the scene


They are expected to: (4 things)


1) Recongize the presence of hazardous materials


2) protect themselves


3) call for trained personnel/assistance


4) secure the area



An Awareness level first responder should:


Analyze the incident (Survey/look – don’t touch)

Implement (from the LERP, SOP and ERG)


(Elaborate on these two)

1) Analyze the incident

a) Detect – presence of hazardous material

b) Survey – from a safe location

c) Collect – info from ERG


2) Implement


a) Initiate Protective Actions (Isolation/Protection)

b) Initiate the notification process




NFPA: Hazardous Materials



DOT: Hazardous Materials

NFPA: defined by NFPA 472. A hazardous material is a substance (solid, liquid, or gas) that when relased is capable of creating harm to people, the environment, and property


DOT: Poses an unresonable risk to the health and safety of operating or emergency personnel, the public and/or the environment if it is not properly controlled during handling, storage, manufacture, processing, packaging, use, disposal, or transportation. It covers all of the hazard classes/divisions.



Hazardous Substances:



Extremely Hazardous Substances:

Hazardous substances: EPA term for chemicals that, if released into the environment above a certain amound, must be reported, and, depending on the threat to the environment federal involvment in handling the incident can be authorized


Extremely Hazardous Substances: EPS term for chemicals that must be reported to the appropriate authorites if released above the threshold reporting quantity



Toxic Chemicals –


Hazardous Wastes –

Toxic Chemicals: EPA term for chemicals whose total emissions or release must be reported annually by owners and operators of certain facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical


Hazardous Wastes: EPA term for chemicals that are regulated under the Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)



Hazardous Checmicals –


Highly Hazardous Chemicals –


Dangerous Goods –


Hazardous Chemicals: OSHA term that denotes any chemical that would be a risk to emplyees if exposed in the work place


Highly Hazardous Chemicals: OSHA term for those chemicals that possess toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive properties


Dangerous Goods: Hazardous materials in Canada





The DOT has classified hazardous materials according to their _____ _____



Primary Danger


Materials that have more than one danger will only be groupled under the one considered the worst


(Canada’s hazard classes are the same as ours)

Classes of Hazards












Gases (compressed)

Flammable Liquid

Flammable Solid






Class 1 – Explosion


Placard has Orange Background


Division 1.1 – Mass explosion Hazard



Division 1.2 – Projection Hazard but not mass explosion (examples)

1.1 examples – black powder, TNT, dynomite



1.2 examples – aerial flares, detonation cord, power device cartridges

Division 1.3 – Fire Hazard plus either or both a minor blast and/or minor projection hazard



Division 1.4 – Minor explosion Hazard

does not contain more than 25 grams (.9oz) of a detonating material

if detonated, mostly confined to package


1.3 examples: Liquid-fueled rocket motors, propellant explosives


1.4 examples: Line throwing rockets, practice ammunitin, and signal cartidges

Division 1.5 – Very insensitive explosives (can have a mass explosion, but are stable substances that would need a catalyst)


Division 1.6 – Extremely insensitive articles – no mass explosion hazard

1.5 examples – prilled ammonium, nitrate fertilizer, fuel oil mixtures (blasting agents)


1.6 examples – Squib devices

Class 2 – Gases




Flammable – Red background, white flame

Non-flammable – green background, white cylinder

Oxidizer – Yellow background, Flaming ‘O’

Poision Gas – white background, skull and crossbones


Major Hazard: BLEVE


Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion

Division 2.1 – Flammable Gas


boiling point less than 20 C or 68 F and 14.7 psi



Division 2.2 – Nonflammable, nonpoisonous compressed gas. includes, pressurized cryogenic gas and liquified gas


Division 2.1 examples – inhibited butadienes, methyl chloride, propane


Division 2.2 examples – anhydrous ammonia, cryogenic argon, carbon dioxide, compressed nitrogen

Division 2.3 – Poisonous Gas (toxic if inhaled)

poses a transportation hazard



Division 2.4 Corrosive Gases (Canada)

Division 2.3 examples – anhydrous hydrogen fluride, arsine, chlorine, and methyle bromide


Division 2.4 anhydrous ammonia

Class 3 – Flammable and Combustable Liquid


Major Hazard – Burns easy




Red background with flammable or combustible on them



Flammable Liquid – flash point of 141 F or less


3.1 – flash point less than 0 F

3.2 – flash point 0 to 73 F

3.3 – flash point 73 F – 141 F


Examples – acetone, amyl acetate, gasoline, methyl alcohol, toluene


Combustible Liquid– doesn’t meet the definition of other hazard classes and has a flash point between 140 F and 200 F


Division 4 – Flammable Soldi, Spontaneously Combustible and Dangerous When Wet


Major Hazard – rapid combustion and lots of smoke



Flammable Solid – Red and white verticle stripes

Spontaneously Combustible – White top red bottom

Dangerous when Wet – blue background

Division 4.1 – Flammable Solid


1) Wetted explosives- wetted with liquid to suppress explosive properties

2) Self-reactive materials- decompose due to high transport temperatures or contamination

3) Readily combustible solids – cause fire through friction


Examples: magnesium, nitrocellulose

Division 4.2 – Spontaneously Combustible material;


1) Pyrophoric material – can ignite w/in 5 minutes of contact with air

2) Self-heating material – self-heats with air


Examples: aluminum alkls, charcoal briquttes, magnesuim alkyls, phosphorus

Division 4.3 – Dangerous when wet


Becomes spontaneously flammable or gives off toxic gas when contacted by water


Examples: calcuim carbide, magnesium powder, potassium metal alloys, sodium hydride

Class 5 – Oxidizers and Organic Peroxide


Major Hazards


5.1 – Supports Combustion, intensifies fire

5.2 – Unstable/Reactive Explosives



Yellow with Flaming ‘O’


Division 5.1 – Oxidizer – yeilds oxygen, can cause or enhance combustion of other materials


Examples: ammonium nitrate, bromine trifluorioide, calcuim hypochlorite


Division 5.2 – Organic Peroxide – Contains a bivelent [O-O] structure

Cannot transport type A organic peroxides


examples: dibenzoyl peroxide, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, peroxyacetic acid

Class 6 – Poison (Toxic) and Poision inhalation


Major Hazard – toxic and infectious




white with skull and crossbones



Division 6.1 – Poisonous Materials – anything but gas that is known or thought to be toxic


Examples: aniline arsenic comounds, carbon tetrachloride, tear gas candles, hydrocyanic acid


Division 6.2 – Infetious Substances – a viable microorganism or toxin that cause disease (infectious substance/etiologic)


Examples: anthrax, botulism, rabies, tetanus



Class 7 – Radioactive


Major hazard – Radioactive poisonous burns




yellow top, white bottom with a propeller


Key Words: _____



Key Words of definition is .002 mirocurie per gram


examples: cobalt, uranium, hexafluoride, yellow cake

Class 8 – Corrosive


Major Hazard – burns/emulsification skin damage




white top, black bottom, broken test tubes dumping on hand and metal bar



A corrosive material is a liquid or solid that causes irreversible damage


Examples: nitric acid, phosphorus trichloride, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid

Class 9 – Miscellaneous



Black and white verticle stripes on top – white bottom


Definition – a material that is a hazard but doesn’t fit in other classes


Examples: adipic acid, PCBs, molten sulfer

Other Regulated Materials (ORM-D)

No Placard (Labels Only)


Limited hazard


Examples: fingernail polich, small arms ammunition

Forbidden –

no placard because they are never transported



Marine Pollutat – has an adverse affect on aquatic life


Dangerous – two items are more than 1,001 lbs

Elevated Temperature Material – 


placard: HOT with a #


1) Liquid at 212 F

2) Liquid with flash point at 100 F


Intentionally shipped above flash point – in solid state (temp above 464 F)


examples: Asphalt/tar

Hazardous Materials Incident Emergencies have the potential for doing great harm since:


1) thier effects are far ______ and ______

2) Long term effects on the ______, _____, and ______

3) responders must be specifically ____ and ______


1) far reaching and severe

2) environment, people, property

3) trained and equipped



Community locations where hazardous materials are manufactured, transported, stored, used, disposed of:


(8 examples)

1) Warehouses

2) tank farms

3) Weapons depots

4) Hospitals

5) Laboratories

6) Truck Terminals

7) Flight Line areas

8) maintenance facilities

Pre-incident plans



NOT subject to regulations affecting transported materials.


LERD – Local emergency response plan – will help develop a pre-incident plan


Make one BEFORE the incident


Radioactive Containers –


Protective overpacks (type A) smaller quantities

packages must maintain shipping properites


Casks (type B) – large transport systems (trains/trucks) – have reinforcing rings and cooling fins

Type B – Gets accidental damage testing – including a 30 foot drop.


Pressurized products –


Cylinders – rounded ends and without welded seams


High Pressure Cargo Tank – transports liquefied gas. Round ends (cigar)

More Type B shipping containers


Pressure Rail Car – Single protective housing on top that contains all valves (ladder to top)


High Pressure Tube Trailer – group on 2 – 20 stainless steal cylinders. Compressed Gas not liquid


Tube Module – cylinders in an 8×8 pen frame box. compressed not liquid gas

Cryogenic Containers –  tank within a tank – insulated carry refrigerated liquids


Cryogenic Liquid Cargo tank –  has 2 door box on back end. Cylinder shape with end jutted out over wheels


Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car – The work box in in the middle, no climbing on top.

Corrosive Liquid Cargo Tank – the tank is within the wheel well, has overturn protection


Non-pressure Liquid Cargo Tank –  Tank even with outer wheels, Has a vapor recovery line, all the valves are easy access at the bottom (carries Gasoline)


Non -pressure Tank Cars –  has a large area up top but it isn’t as tall off the car.

Dry bulk Cargo Tank -; has V’s at the bottoms all over.

NFPA 704 System – is used on fixed facilities


Red – Flammability (4 is very flammable)

Yellow – Reactivity (4 is most reactive)

Blue – Health (4 is most dangerous)

White – Special Hazards (not numbered)


(white uses the crossed out w for reactive with water and the OX for reative with Oxygen)




This system doesn’t tell what is inside

Military Hazardous Material Markings –


Class 1, Division 1 – Mass Detonation hazard (dynamite) Octagon

Class 1, Division 2 – Explosion w/ fragmentation hazard (flare) An X

Class 1, Division 3 – Mass Fire (fire grenade) upside-down triangle

Class 1, Division 4 – Moderate Fire (distress signal) Diamond

Special Warnings


Red man – Highly toxic

Yellow Man – harassing agents

White man- white phoshorus munitions


Red with crossed out bucket – apply no water

Blue with mask – wear protective breathing apparatus

Special Hazared Communication Markings


PCB labels

HMIS marking system


Pipeline Markers – made of metal (POE)




P – Product

O – Owner

E – Emergency phone #



signal word (warning)


Container Marking – containers often are stenciled w/ what is inside them.



all employees have a ‘right to know‘ what materials are in their workspace.





1) Manufacturers name and location

2)Name and family of chemical

3) Hazardous ingredients

4) Physical data

5) Fire and explosive data

6) Health Hazard data

7) Spill or leak procedures

8) Special protection information

9) special precautions to be taken

Shipping Papers


1) Prer shipping name

2) Hazard Class and Division

3) Product ID number


4) Packing groups



Call them 24/7 if shipping papers are not available

Ways to ID Hazardous Materials using normal senses


(3 Ways – examples)


Serious Limitations

If you are close enough to see or smell a material, you may have endangered yourself and be at risk of injury


visible corrosive actions

Chemical reactions

pooling liquids

Condensation lines on pressure tanks

Injured victims or casualties

fire or vapor cloud



Hissing or pressure releases



fire or vapor cloud

Gas leaks



Targets/indicators of terrorist/criminal attacks


(9 examples)

Places of public assembly

Public Buildings

Mass transit systems

Places with high economic impact

telecommunications facilities

places with historical or symbolic significance

military installations


industrial facilities

Chemical Terrorist attack


Signs and symptoms take only minutes to hours


Can have:


Colored residue

Dead foliage

Pungent odor

Dead insect and animal life

Biological Terrorist Attack


Signs and symptoms take days to weeks


No characteristics because they are normally colorless an odorless


Migration of infected individuals make attack widespread


Can transmit disease from person to person

Specific Hazards in a Facility


NFPA 704 on storage container





ID hazardous materials BEFORE and incident occurs


Specific Hazards of Transportation


Placard or label missing

Hazard class but no ID

Mixed loads with only one placard

error in placarding or labeling

shipping papers not accessible


To get UN/NA ID numbers for Transporation




Shipping Papers

To get names of hazardous materials in facility




Markings on containers


Emergency planning documents (LERP)


but ID the hazards BEFORE the incident

Precautions to protect yourself


Best way: Evacuate


2nd Best: In-place protection


stay inside away from doors and windows

shut off all air systems


Precautions when providing emergency medical care

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