US History Reconstruction Vocab

Flashcard maker : Sam Arent
Literal Reconstruction
Pertaining to written documents about post Civil War resolutions.
Presidential Reconstruction
was the President’s idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
10% Plan
This was Lincoln’s reconstruction plan for after the Civil War. Written in 1863, it proclaimed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the 1860 election pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation, and then formally erect their state governments. This plan was very lenient to the South, would have meant an easy reconstruction.
Freedmen
men and women who had been slaves
Radical Republicans
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
Wade-Davis Bill
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy…Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
Iron-Clad Oath
Required every white male to say they had never borne arms against the Confederacy or supported the Confederacy. It wsa a key factor in removing ex-confederates from politics during reconstruction
Andrew Johnson
17th President of the United States. Took over the presidency from Abraham Lincoln after he was assassinated.
Thirteenth Amendment
Abolished Slavery
Congressional Reconstruction
The return of 11 ex-Confederates to high offices and the passage of the Black Codes by southern legislatures angered the Republicans in Congress so that they adopted a plan that was harsher on southern whites and more protective of freed blacks.
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Freedman’s Bureau
provided: food, clothing, jobs, medical care, schools for former slaves and the poor whites
Fourteenth Amendment
Made \”all persons born or naturalized in the United States\” citizens of the country
Impeachment
a formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Fifteenth Amendment
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Scalawags
southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
Carpetbaggers
northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society of white Southerners in the United States that terrorized black people.
Force Acts
the government banned the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent someone from voting because of their race. Other laws banned the KKK entirely and brought forth military help to enforce these laws.
Redeemer Governments
Conservative white democrats many of them planters or businessmen who reclaimed control of South following the end of reconstruction
Credit Mobilier Scandal
This scandal occurred in the 1870s when a railroad construction company’s stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the Union Pacific Railroad for railroad construction for their own personal use. To avoid being convicted, stockholders even used stock to bribe congressional members and the vice president.
Samuel J. Tilden
Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 – August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century.
Thomas Nast
United States political cartoonist (1840-1902)
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
Election of 1876
Ended reconstruction because neither canidate had an electorial majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Social Norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
Institutionalization
a condition that occurs when an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, and acquires immortality
Legalization
the act of making lawful
Segregation
a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
Color Line
barrier preventing blacks from participating in various activities with whites
Jim Crow
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
Plessy v. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal (1896)
\”Separate but equal\” doctrine
the doctrine established by Plessy v Ferguson (1896) that African Americans could constitutionally be kept in separate but equal facilities
Sharecropping
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
W.E. B. DuBois
He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.
Tuskegee Institute
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper
\”The Talented Tenth\”
The thought that one tenth of African-Americans were talented enough to create a viable, independent, educated culture
Poll Tax
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
Scott Joplin
United States composer who was the first creator of ragtime to write down his compositions (1868-1917)
Jack Johnson
First African American boxer to win the World Heavyweight title (1908), represented idea of the \”New Negro\” in early-1900s American culture.

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