US history final exam

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miners, cowboys, farmers
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3 groups of Americans that settled in the west after the civil war
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Homestead Act 1862
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gave 160 acres of western land to farmers who promised to live on the land for at least 5 years
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how did the national government helped expand railroads?
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gave millions of acres of land grants to complete the transcontinental railroad in order to connect the east with the west
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how did immigrants help expand railroads?
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Chinese and Irish immigrants built the western and eastern legs of the transcontinental railroads
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3 ways western expansion during gilded age impacted native americans
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1. US indian policy changed from a huge “indian country” to small reservations as americans took more land; indians were asked to assimilate to white culture 2. indians & americans clashed in series of wars (wounded knee, little big horn) 3. Americans destroyed the supply of buffalo
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William jennings bryan
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A presidential candidate in the 1896 election; represented both democratic and populist parties; his cross of gold speech made him a national figure in the argument for bi-metal money system (lost to mckinley in 1896)
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what populists demanded during gilded age
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government regulation of railroads and banks, national income tax, direct election of US senators, bi-metalism (gold and silver currency)
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4 industries that helped push US into an industrial revolution during gilded age
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railroads, oil, steel, electricity (R.O.S.E.)
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monopoly
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a company that controls most or all of an indutry
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what were Carnegie and Rockefeller’s monopolies
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Carnegie- steel Rockefeller- oil
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what were “new” immigrants
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immigrants from southern and eastern Europe rather than Northern Europe-over 23 million came to america during gilded age
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how did cities change during gilded age
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skyscrapers expanded height of cities; urbanization & immigration led to growth in size; mass transit was added, suburbs grew around central business district of cities; ethnic neighborhoods formed among immigrant groups;tenement apartments built for poor immigrant workers, crime & disease grew with cities growth
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how did knights of labor and american federation of labor differ?
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knights allowed any type of worker to join; AFL only allowed white, skilled workers to join (AFL was more successful)
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most famous “boss” of a political machine
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Boss tweed of NY’s Tammany Hall machine
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why were machine bosses typically seen as corrupt
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machines used fraud to win elections; used political influence for personal gain (graft) and took bribes, defrauding city govs out of millions of dollars
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what do credit mobiller and whiskey ring have in common
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both were political scandals during Grant’s administration, both involved politicians taking bribes from railroad companies(CM) and alcohol distillers (WR)
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patronage
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appointing government workers in the civil service because the are loyal political party members, not because they have earned it/are qualified; often called spoils systme
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how did the pendleton act of 1883 try to end patronage
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created an exam that civil service employees had to pass before they could get their jobs; created a merit-based system
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poll tax
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yearly taxes that must be paid in order to vote;high fees that kept most poor black sharecroppers from voting
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literacy test
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voters must pass a reading test to be able to vote; kept most AA’s from qualifying to vote
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grandfather clause
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law that allowed poor whites to not have to pay a poll tax or pass a literacy test if their father or grandfather could vote prior to 1867
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plessy vs. ferguson 1896
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supreme court case that said that segregation was legal as long as the options for AAs were equal
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muckraker
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a journalist who exposed the negative parts of american society during the gilded age
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what role did upton sinclair play in progressive era
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wrote the jungle, exposing unsanitary meatpacking plants; led to the passage of the meat inspection act and pure food and drug act
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how did america become more democratic in the progressive era
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state gov allowed citizens to create initiatives, vote in referendums, and vote for recalls; women gained the right to vote (19th amendment); americans were able to vote for their senators (17 amendment)
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reasons for spanish american war in 1898
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yellow journalism; Spain’s brutality towards cuban people; expansion of USS Maine; willingness to show off the strength of the new american navy; desire for imperialism
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causes of the Philippine american war
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usa took the Philippines after the Spanish american war but did not offer the Philippines its independence causing an uprising & 3 year war
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which US president used “big stick” diplomacy to build panama canal
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teddy roosevelt
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Roosevelt corollary to monroe doctrine
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foreign policy document that declared the US was the “police power” of the western hemisphere and would protect the area from European intervention
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reasons US entered WW1
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unrestricted submarine warfare (freedom of the seas); sinking of the Lusitania; Germany’s Zimmerman Note to Mexico; President Wilson’s desire to “make the world safe for democracy”
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ways US mobilized for war
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created the selective service act (draft); war industries board to direct the economy; rationing; committee on public information (propaganda)
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how did WW1 impact woman
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women who were already working were able to get better jobs in war-related industries; they helped grow “victory gardens”; helped sell war bonds; served as nurses in the Red Cross
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How did the war impact AAs
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fought in segregated units; the few that were drafted were allowed to fight (most served as laborers or cooks in the army or navy); Great migration allowed blacks to move into the north for better paying factory jobs
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why was eugene debs jailed during WW1
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he was the leader of the american socialist party and during the warm he violated the espionage and sedition acts by encouraging drafted soldiers not to fight; his arrest was part of the first red scare in US history
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what were some of wilson’s 14 points?
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1. created a league of nations 2. divided Europe into new nations that respect nationalities and ethnicties 3. freedom of the seas 4. no secret treaties 5. reduce militarism 6. readjust colonial posessions
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why did the senate reject us membership in the league of nations
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the reservationists and irreconcilables did not like Article X because they feared that joining would take away congress’ power to declare war
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what did Calvin Coolidge mean by the term “business of american is business”- in terms of the role of american gov in 1920s?
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the us gov should not control the economy; a return to “pro-business” policies to promote economic growth; low taxes; and no new progressive reforms
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1 difference between the american industrial revolution of 1870 and the american industrial revolution in the 1920s
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1870 focused on ROSE while the industry of the 1920s focused on consumer goods. also, in 1870 industrial revolution had more monopolies that were broken up by the time of the 1920 industrial boom
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harlem renaissance
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celebration of AA culture through new artistic, literary, and musical forms
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famous members of the harlem renaissance
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louis armstrong-musician DUke ellington- musician ella fitzgerald- entertainer langston hughes- author
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18th amendment
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prohibiton
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radio or “talking” movies
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most popular form of media in the 1920s
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things reacted against by rural americans in the 1920s
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immigration, non-protestants, communists, socialists, anarchists, drinking, scientific ideas like evolution, flappers, the Harlem Renaissance
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Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
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two Italian immigrants and anarchists who were accused of murder & executed even though there was lack of evidence
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how did weak industries contribute to the outbreak of the great depression
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railroads, steel, cotton textile, oil industries were all suffering during 1920s and began laying off employees well before the crash in October 1929
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how did over production/under consumption contribute to the outbreak of the great depression
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companies were making too many consumer goods and there were not enough buyers in late 1920s
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how did farming contribute to the outbreak of the great depression
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farmers struggled in the 1920s because of the decline in demand for crops after WW1; also had heavy debts and lost their farms to the banks (foreclosure)
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how did uneven distribution of wealth contribute to the outbreak of the great depression
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70% of americans were poor and not able to spend much money in 1920s
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how did buying on margin contribute to the outbreak of the great depression
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when a person borrows money to pay for a stock in hopes that the stock will make money
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2 reasons for the dust bowl of 1930s
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over-farming in plains;heavy droughts, lack of trees to block the winds, heavy windstorms, loose topsoil
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how did hoover try to fight the effects of teh great depression?
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his initial response was that people should work together to fish their way out (rugged individualism); reassured Americans that good times were coming & rejected the active government intervention in the economy during the early years of the depression; formed the Reconstruction Finance Corps which loaned money to keep businesses open; created jobs through the Hoover Dam project
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New deal
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FDR’s program to end the depression
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what are some characteristics of the new deal?
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active gov policies to fight depression, gov spending, deficit spending, job programs, relief efforts, long term reforms, welfare programs
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first action FDR took as president to address great depression
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bank holiday
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FDR’s radio communication to american people about his plan to fight the depression
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fireside chats
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Federal deposit Insurance corporation
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new deal program that protected americans’ bank accounts from bank failures
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works progress administration
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largest, most comprehensive job-creation program of the new deal, creating relief and jobs for over 8 million american including artists, musicians, construction workers, teachers, and doctors
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wagner act
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guaranteed union workers the right to strike and collectively bargain as well as outlawed company practices that discouraged union membership
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3 totalitarianism dictators
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Hitler- Germany Mussolini- Italy Stalin- Soviet Union Hideki Tojo- Japan Franco- Spain
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similarites between women during WW1 and WW2
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worked factory jobs, served in the military in clerical jobs, helped ration goods & plant victory gardens, received unequal paay
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differences between women during WW1 and WW2
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WW2; 6 milllion women entered the work force who never worked before and in WW1;factory jobs were done almost exclusively by women who were already working in lower paying jobs WW2; women were pilots in army & navy; special non-combat units were created in the military just for women, and women used daycar centers for their children
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D-Day
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European battle planned by Dwight Eisenhower and allowed the Allies to launch an invasion of Nazi-occupied France and push towards Germany from the west
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manhattan projecy
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code name for secret project to develop an atomic boms
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los alamos
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where the atomic bombs were secretly tested (operation trinity)
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potsdam declaration
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warning President Truman gave to the Japanese before dropping the atomic bomb

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