Us History Chapter 6 Test Questions

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Edwin L. Drake
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successfully used steam engine to drill for oil, removing oil from beneath earth’s surface. made it practical
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Bessemer Process
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a cheap and efficient process of makin steel developed around 1850
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Thomas Alva Edison
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became a pioneer on the new industrial fronteir when he established the world’s first research lab in New Jersey
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Christopher Sholes
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invented the typewriter and changed the world of work
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Alexander Graham Bell
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unveiled the invention of the telephone, along with thomas Watson in 1876. oped worldwide communication networks
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Oliver Hudson Kelley
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started the patrons of husbandary which is an organization for farmers
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Grange Farmers’ Alliance
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purpose was to provide a social outlet and educational forum for farmers and their families
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populism
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the movement of the people was born with the founding of populist party in 1892
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bimetallism
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a monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks
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gold standard
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backing dollars soely with gold
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William McKinley
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from ohio, was nominated for president
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William Jennings Bryan
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the editor of omaha world herold. was nominated to run as democratic candidate and is endorsed
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Homestead act
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a law that provided 160 acres of land free to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of the household
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Exoduster
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african americans who moved from the post-reconstruction south to kansas
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soddy
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a sod house that was warm in winter and cold in sumer. small and offered little light or air
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morril act
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gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges
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bonanza farm
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created by railroad companies and investors, was an enormous single-crop spread of 15,000 – 50,000 acres
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Great Plains
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the grassland extending through the west central portion of the united states
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Treaty of Fort Laramie
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treaty in which the sioux agreed to live on the reservation along misouri river, was forced on leadership of the sious in 1868
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Sitting bull
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leader of hunkpapa sious, never signed treaty of fort laramie
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George A. Custer
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reported that the black hills had gold “from the grass roots down”
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assimilation
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a plan under which the native americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture
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dawes act
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aimed to “americanize” the native americans
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Battle of Wounded Knee
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brought the indian wars- and an entire era- to a bitter end
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Longhorn
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sturdy, short-tempered breeds accustomed to dry grasslands of southern spain (cows)
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Chrisholm Trail
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the major cattle route from san antonio, texas, through oklaholma to kansas
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Long Drive
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overland transport of the animals which ofter lasted about three months
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Andrew Carnegie
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private secratary to local superintendent of the pennsylvania railroad. replayed messages that unsnarled tangle of trains
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vertical integration
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when a company expands business into areas that are at different points of the same production path
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horizontal integration
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when a company expands business into different products that are the same industry
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social darwinism
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an economic and social philosophy- holding that a system of unrestrained competition will ensure survival of the fittest
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John D. Rockfeller
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corporations developed by him took a different approach to mergers. by joining with competing companies in trust agreements
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Sherman Antitrust Act
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made it legal to form a trust that interferred with free trade between the states or with other countries
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Samuel Gompers
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led cigar makers’ international union to join another craft union in 1886
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American Federation of Labor (AFL)
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focused on collective bargaining or negotiation between representatives of labor and management to reach written agreements on wages, hours and working conditions
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Eugene V. Debs
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attempted to form such an industrial union, the american railway union
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Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
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aka “wobblies”, organized by a group of radical unionists and socialists. gave dignity and solidarity to unskilled workers. welcomed african americans, etc..
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Mary Harris Jones
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the most prominent organizer in the women’s labor movement. supported the great strike
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steel manufacturing and processing
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what business did andrew carnigie dominate?
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natural selection and survival of the fittest
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what does the theory of social darwinism advocate?
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higher or fair wages, negotiate wages, security for workers to protect their rights, good working conditions, benefits like health insurance and sick days.
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What did labor unions advocate?
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eploitation and unsafe working conditions, 7-day work week, 12 or more hours a day, no vacations or sick days, no reimbursement for injuries, etc.
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what conditions did many factory workers face in the late 19th century
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national labor unions, knights of labor, american federation of labor, american railway union, industrial workers of the world
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what different types of unions emerged during the nation’s industrial boom?
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organized unions and carried on strikes, etc.
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what role did women play in the labor movement?
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they feared it turned to the sherman antitrust act
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How did management and the government react to the union activity?
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existed on the great plains, they hunted and planted crops, settled in small viliages, gathered wild foods, hunted buffalo, traded tools and clothing
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what were the characteristics of the Plains Indians culture? (where, what they did, etc. )
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plains believed land couldn’t be owned, white settlers believed owning land would give them stake in the country.
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how did the culture of white settlers differ from that of the plains indians?
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streamed westward along railroad and wagon trails to claim the land
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why did white settlers continue to push westward
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they passed a law/act that designed entire great plains region as a reservation for native americans
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how did the gov. attempt to deal with the growing conflict between native americans
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it was native american land and there was also a lot of Gold and the whites wanted it
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why did the black hills become contested territory between native americans and whites?
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to “americanize” the native americans
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what was the goal of the dawes act?
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hunters were ruining their main source of food, clothing, shelter and fuel
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why was the destruction of the buffalo so detrimental to the native american way of life?
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the cowboys used the spanish ranchers ideas for clothing food and vocabulary
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what influence did the spanish ranchers have on the american cowboy
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great demand for beef, railroads made it easier to transport
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how did the growth of railroads and cities impact the cattle business
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they are educated in business and run profitable businesses
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how did the cowboy’s life differ from popular conception?
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dry summers, harsh winters, and overgrazing of the land and barbed wire was very expensive
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what factors helped bring an end to open range.
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it gave transportation to those areas and people wanted to settle near the railroads because of that
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how did the transcontinental railroad open the west for settlement
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created yellowstone national park, forced railroads to give up remaining claim to western lands
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what steps did the gov. take to preserve the nation’s dwindling open land space
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soddies- sod houses
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what forms of shelter did the plains settlers develop
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built soddies, invented steel plow, mechanical reaper, made life easier on plains
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what technology did the settlers rely on to help tame the prarie
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education, excessive prices for farmers to ship goods, went into debt
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what hardships did farmers face in the late 1800’s
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east of mississippi: society stood on 3 legs (land water and timber). west of mississippi: 2 legs were removed (water and timber). was the driving force of great plains history
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explain the “3 leg metaphor”
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greenbacks were retired and pulled out of circulation, people weren’t in favor of that. farmers who borrowed oney had to pay back loans and were recieving less money
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what economic problems did farmers face during the late 1800s
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formed grange in which they fought the railroads and united together to get through to get what they asked for
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how did farmers try to address their problems and grievances?
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gold bug democrats nominated own can diclare, lost support in cities wehre people fear inflation.
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why did populist movement collapse
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invention of the steam engine to drill for oil “black gold”
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what led to the nation’s oil boom
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made steel production cheaper and more efficient
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how did th ebessemer process fuel steel production
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impact railroads used steel, canned goods, innovative construction, steel cables, skyscrapers
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what were some new uses for steel in the US
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electric power ran numerous machines, fans, printing presses, street cars for transportation
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how did the harnessing of electricity transform american business
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type writer and telephones were created so people could communicate and type at home and work. created new jobs for women, freed some factory workers
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how did new inventions and products affect people at home and at work

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