US History: Chapter 21

Flashcard maker : Jessica Forbes
Plessy v. Ferguson
the Louisiana law did not violate the 14th Amendment
3 ways WWII help set the stage for the civil rights movement
– the demand for soldiers due to shortage of white male soldiers
– the termination of discriminatory policies in within the army
– civil rights organizations actively campaigned for African American rights
Thurgood Marshall
first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States.
Rosa Parks
arrested for refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger
the Montgomery Improvement Association
organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott
the Little Rock Nine
9 black teenagers who volunteered to integrate Central High school in Little Rock.
Eisenhower’s response to the Little Rock crisis
Eisenhower placed the Arkansas National Guard under federal control and ordered soldiers to protect the Little Rock Nine
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
– headed by MLK
– purpose was to carry on non-violent protests against discrimination
Martin Luther King, Jr
an African American civil rights leader
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
an organization formed to coordinate sit-ins and other protests to give young African Americans a larger role in the civil rights movement
to protest at lunch counters that served only whites
freedom riders
– Goal: to provoke a violent reaction that would convince the Kennedy Administration to enforce civil rights laws
– Reaction: Kennedy Ad. sent 400 US marshals to accompany the freedom riders
James Meredith
integrates Ole Miss
March on Washington
Goal: to persuade Congress to pass the civil rights bill
Freedom Summer project
Goal: influence Congress to pass a voting rights act
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, gender, or religion
Fannie Lou Hammer
voice of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
the Selma Campaign
Goal: for Congress to pass voting rights
– television revealed the police brutality
Voting Rights Act of 1965
eliminated literacy test as a voting requirement
de facto segregation
Segregation by tradition or custom (North)
de jure segregation
segregation by law (South)
Malcolm X
– spokesman for Nation of Islam: all whites are evil
– pro segregation
– black superiority
– African Americans should use self defense
Nation of Islam
a religious group founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion
Stokely Carmichael
head of the SNCC who first fought by means of non-violent ways, but later made a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
Black Power
– the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked
– urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
reactions to MLK’s death
Kerner Commission
group set up to investigate the causes of race riots. urged nation to
– create new jobs
– construct new housing
– and end de facto segregation
Civil Rights Act of 1968
banned discrimination in housing
affirmative action
policy intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities

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