US History 1301 Test 1

Flashcard maker : Elizabeth Hill
Hernando Cortes
well educated conquistador that traveled to Cuba to become famous but left due to it already being conquered; conquered Mexico and Aztec Indians
used by Spanish to reward conquistadors; Indians used as slaves, and many died due to European diseases so more Indians would be brought in to be slaves
Gold, God, Glory
phrase used to represent what explorers were looking for when they came to America; they came for money, to spread the gospel, and for fame
Henry VIII
English Tudor King; took advantage of the weakened feudalistic system and strengthened monarchy power; \”defender of the faith\”
Elizabeth I
\”Virgin Queen\”; most powerful of all English monarchs; developed the market economy which layed ground for the colonial process
Development of Market Economy
ended feudalism, brought mercantilism, piracy, and made England prosperous: established by Elizabeth I
first english colony established by the Virginia Company; the virtual dictator was John Smith;
Headright System
granted to colonists; head of the household received 50 acres of land plus 50 for family members and 50 plus if he brought servants; indentured servants came with the land
Indian World View
believed in a creator (higher power) and in mother earth; no ownership of land everything was ‘the earth’s’
Powhatan Confederacy
Algonquian Indian group settlements in Virginia ruled by Powhatan
Puritan Work Ethic
Puritan belief that your whole life revolved around work and working got you into heaven
started by John Calvin; now contradiction between serving God and making money
Jonathan Edwards
greatest preacher in America; \”Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God\”
Great Awakening
religious revival started by George Whitefield
Idea of Womanhood
every American woman had to stay home and learn French
Enlightenment Ideas
*universal laws of nature *natural rights *natural law and deity *beginning of Deism – supported by Issac Newton and John Locke
George Washington
American general; eventually led the American army for the American revolution
Martha Custis
George Washington’s wife
French and Indian War
1754-60; French and their Indian tribes opposed the British and ended in the Treaty of Paris; war gained British territorial gains
Ohio Valley Importance
large area below the great lakes; controlled by France and also claimed by Virginia – French had alliances with Huron and Algonquian Indians
Ft. Duquesne
French Fort that was raided by George Washington but Washington was defeated
\”Society of Friends\”; started by George Fox during the Great Awakening
Boston Massacre
1770 – sons of liberty surrounded customs house and assaulted red coats and killed five men
Crispus Attucks
runaway slave killed in the Boston Massacre
Patrick Henry
led the opposition against the stamp act of 1765; \”Give me Liberty or Give me death\”; worked along with Samuel Adams
Committees of Correspondence
spread anti-British propaganda after the Boston Massacre
Quartering Act
Act that forced colonists to house red coats in their houses
Proclamation of 1763
cut off western settlement for colonists
Stamp Act
taxed all paper goods – mainly affected lawyers
Stamp Act Congress
group of lawyers that reacted to the Stamp Act
Samuel de Champlain
French Explorer; founded Quebec
coureur de bois
French fur trappers; fur trapping was the basis of the French economy
end of Feudalism ; commercialism
House of Burgesses
government set up for the Virginia company
Half-Way Covenant
partial church membership that allowed members to have ‘freedom’ outside the church but still be members they just weren’t allowed to partake in the Lord’s supper
John Calvin
founder of Calvinism during the Great Awakening
Puritan View of the Indians
the Indians were inferior to them and not equal
Isaac Newton
Enlightenment; universal laws of nature
Oliver Cromwell
Puritan leader of the English Civil War; overthrew the monarchy and dictated England till the monarchy was restored
religious belief that God created the world but then became uninvolved
Navigation Acts
acts that forced all the colonial trade to be with England ; *colonists couldn’t manufacture their own goods *manufactured goods had to be bought with gold or raw materials
belief that all immigrants to America had to have the Anglo culture and worldview of America (westernization)
Samuel Adams
leader of the committee of correspondence; leader in the Boston Tea party; John Adam’s cousin
Fort Duquesne
french fort that was captured by the british during the French and Indian war
Albany Plan of Union
proposal to unify the thirteen colonies; made by Benjamin Franklin
King Privy Council
the British crown’s private council
John Locke
enlightenment thinker and philosopher ; \”mind is a blank slate’
James Otis
lawyer who opposed the stamp act
\”Two Treatises of Government\”
John Locke’s political philosophy
Sons of Liberty
American patriots that originated in pre-independence
Sugar Act
tax on sugar
Currency Act
regulated paper money in the colonies – sought to protect British merchants
Townshend Revenue Act
raised revenues to the colonists so to pay governors and lawyers so they would remain loyal to Great Britain
Thomas Jefferson
author of the Declaration of Independence
John Adams
obnoxious radical spokesman that led the Continental Congress
Intolerable Acts
harsh laws passed after the Boston Tea Party on the colonists; closed the port of Boston till the colonists payed for all the tea dumped into the harbor
1st and 2nd Continental Congress
conventions where delegates met to make plans against the British; the first was to petition the British with a set of grievances; the second issued the declaration of independence and started the revolutionary war
Declaration of Rights and Resolves
statement of grievances made against the intolerable acts
\”common sense’
pamphlet written by Thomas Paine made to call the colonists to arms for the war

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