US History 1 first test (colonies)

Flashcard maker : Carmen Dawson
Roanoke
a failed colony on roanoke island, mysteriously disappeared
Jamestown
the first successful English colony in the new world (settled in 1607), the capital of Virginia, at first many die from disease and starvation but then discover tobacco
headright system
a way to get people to come to Jamestown: started selling people land (before all owned by the Virginia Company)
opechancanough
NA chief, brother of Powhatan, led resistance against the English, killed by the English
Navigation acts
recquired tobacco to be shipped only to england in english ships which decreased the number of shippers competing for tobacco and increased the tobacco in the english market
Governor Berkley (of Virginia)
favored his friends (the elite) and gave them all positions of power and all the good land
Nathaniel Bacon
cousin of Berkley, led rebellion against the elite and Berkley, also led attacks against NA, drove Berkley and his men away, burned Jamestown down, died soon after so Berkley returned
Bacon’s Rebellion
the non-elite in Virginia were angry since Berkley didn’t give them any political power and left them no land, so Bacon rebelled against them
Roger Williams
Salem minister, said Puritans hadn’t done enought to seperate from England, to escape arrest fled and founded Providence, believes in religious freedom
american exceptionalism
the american belief that we’re somehow different or maybe even better from everybody else
indentured servitude
people who were too poor to pay for their crossing to the New World could sell themselves into servitude for a certain amount of time and then they were freed
Anthony Johnson
a freed black man who became very rich and powerful and even owned slaves of his own, at one point even went to court against a white man and won
free blacks
at the very beginning, when whites first brought slaves over from africa, blacks were like indentured servants: were freed after a certain amount of time, over time, as slavery became more and more cemented into the colonies’ culture, blacks were no longer freed, and freed blacks lost most, if not all, of their rights
puritans
very religious, believe in predestination, thought Anglican Church hadn’t reformed enough so wanted to reform the church, thrown out of england, mostly \”middlers\”, came to New England to openly practice their religion and escape oppression
Citty Upon A Hill
the puritans wanted to be an example of the way things \”should\” be and wanted everybody around to watch them and learn from them
separatists
extremely radical protestants that wanted to completely seperate from the church of england
covenant
a contract with god, puritans believed that they had a covenant with god and that if they didn’t succeed in the New world god would punish them
A Modell of Christian Charity
a speech by Winthrop in which he talks about the goals of the puritans settling in the New World, highlights \”brotherhood\”
half-way covenant
the children of partial members of the puritan church could be baptised so that there would be an increase in church members
Anne Hutchinson
said that she had the power of prophecy, accused ministers of being phonies/sinful which made the men in charge very angry, got exiled from NE, took refuge in RI
Witchcraft
as paranoia increased in NE, they turned to witchcraft to explain bad happenings, believed \”witches\” worked for satan, killed those who didn’t confess
John Winthrop
wrote \”A Modell of Christian Charity\”, led many puritans to NE, served as governor for many years
Stono rebellion
slaves in the deep south rebelled, trying to get their freedom, but were unseccessful
rice and indigo
the staple crops of the deep south
quakers
believed that everybody is \”spritually equal\”, mostly on the poorer side, dressed/lived simply, pacifists, believed in relgious toleration
James II
king of england, catholic, wanted more control over the colonies: sent malitia to govern them, set up Dominion and increased taxes
Glorious Revolution(s)
William and Mary were invited by parliament, made James II flee, took over but parliament still had more power than the monarch, re-established protestantism, colonies went back to being as independent as they were before, compromised: crown interferes a little, but colonies still have control over their own affairs
William of Orange
took over being King of England when James II fled, a protestant
Mary Stuart
the wife of William of Orange
Jacob Leisler
led rebellions against James II and his policies in NY, became governor of NY when the Dominion fell, calvinist, militant, divided NY along ethnic and class lines (poor dutch generally liked him, rich English generally didn’t)

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