US 2 Test Ch 16-19

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In attempting to establish a reconstruction policy after the Civil War,
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Congress and the president disagreed about who had the authority to devise a plan of reconstruction.
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Pardons granted to rebel soldiers under the terms of Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction were important in that they
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restored property (except slaves) and political participation.
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Members of Congress hoped Lincoln would not veto the Wade-Davis Bill because they wanted to
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guarantee freedmen equal protection before the law.
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Ex-slaves believed that ownership of land
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was a moral right and was linked to their freedom.
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“Sherman land” and the establishment of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
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created an expectation among ex-slaves that they would become independent citizens and landowners.
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Following emancipation, many ex-slaves aspired to
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reunite family members sold away.
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Some ex-slaves who had formerly worshiped in biracial Methodist churches joined the African Methodist Episcopal Church, an all-black church from the North, because
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they wanted religious autonomy and escape from white oversight.
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Reformers were shocked by President Andrew Johnson’s quick reconstruction of ex-Confederate states because
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his reconstruction plan seemed to contradict earlier statements in which he claimed a willingness to destroy the southern planter aristocracy.
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Although Andrew Johnson had left the Democratic Party before becoming president, he seemed more a Democrat than a Republican as president because
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he advocated states’ rights and limitations on federal power, especially in the economic realm.
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Abraham Lincoln’s and Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction plans both promised reconciliation and the rapid restoration of civil government in the South; they also shared an emphasis on
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pardons for most former rebel soldiers and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.
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During the Reconstruction era, southern black codes
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restricted freedmen’s economic opportunities and civil rights.
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The black codes were essentially an attempt to
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subordinate blacks to whites and regulate the labor supply.
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The Civil Rights Act of 1866
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made discrimination in state laws illegal.
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The Fourteenth Amendment dealt with voting rights for blacks by
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giving Congress the right to reduce a state’s representation in that body if the state refused to give all of its adult male population, including ex-slaves, the right to vote.
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The voting rights provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment proved a major disappointment to
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Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other advocates of female suffrage.
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The impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson
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effectively ended Johnson’s interference in reconstruction.
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The Fifteenth Amendment
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extended black male suffrage to the entire nation.
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The constitutional amendment that prohibited states from depriving citizens of the right to vote on the basis of their “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
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was undermined by literacy and property qualifications in southern states.
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The Ku Klux Klan developed into a paramilitary organization, but it began as
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a social club for Confederate veterans who wanted to restore white supremacy.
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As new constitutions were ratified in the South in the late 1860s, local and state Republican governments focused on
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public education, the defense of civil rights, the abolition of racial discrimination, and the creation of a diversified economy.
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The system of agricultural labor that emerged after 1865 often pitted ex-slaves and their expectations for freedom against former slave masters who wanted to restore the plantation system. In this struggle,
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ex-slaves could decide who would work, for how long, and how hard, but still remained dependent
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The system under which farmers rented small pieces of land, paid their rent with a portion of their crops, and were provided mules and tools by their landlord was known as
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sharecropping
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President Ulysses S. Grant’s administration saw
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corruption at all levels of government, a severe economic depression, labor violence, and an attempt to annex Santo Domingo to provide the freedmen with a new home.
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When southern Republicans pleaded with Congress for federal protection from the racism and violence of the Ku Klux Klan, Congress
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responded by passing the Ku Klux Klan Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1875
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Supreme Court decisions in the years following the Civil War largely
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undermined reconstruction.
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In the Slaughterhouse cases (1873) and in United States v. Cruikshank (1876), the Supreme Court
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restricted the ability of the federal government and Congress to protect individuals from discrimination by other individuals.
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By the early 1870s, the congressional reconstruction goals of 1866
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had been mostly abandoned by Northerners.
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Redeemers were
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southern Democrats who wanted to restore white supremacy in the South.
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By the early 1870s, Democrats had adopted a two-pronged strategy to defeat the Republicans. That strategy consisted of
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polarizing the political parties on the issue of color and relentlessly intimidating black voters.
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In the presidential election of 1876,
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the Democratic candidate won the popular vote but fell one vote short of victory in the electoral college, while the Republican candidate initially fell nineteen electoral votes short of victory.
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In the Compromise of 1877,
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southern Democrats accepted a Republican president in exchange for federal subsidies and the removal of federal troops from the South.
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The Compromise of 1877 essentially
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spelled the end of reconstruction and of the Republicans’ commitment to the civil rights of blacks.
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Congressional reconstruction did not meet all of its goals, but among those it did meet were
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the legacy of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, and the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
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By the end of the Indian Wars, the Native American population in the continental United States had
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fallen to 250,000 from an estimated 15 million at the time of first contact with Europeans.
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Under the “outing system”
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Indian children were forced to live with white families over summer vacation.
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The Indian wars on the Great Plains were
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wars that began when Euroamerican settlers ran over Native American lands.
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General William Tecumseh Sherman summed up the U.S. government’s policy toward Native Americans when he wrote:
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“Remove all to a safe place and then reduce them to a helpless condition.”
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The Treaty of Fort Laramie
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was violated by the U.S. government after gold was discovered in the Black Hills.
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The Dawes Allotment Act (1887)
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broke up reservations and assigned individual pieces of land to Native Americans.
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Geronimo was
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an Apache warrior and chieftain who led raiding parties and killed ranchers on both sides of the Mexican border.
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The Ghost Dance
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was a religious ritual that was suppose to resurrect fallen warriors and rid the Indians of white intruders.
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The U.S. army gunned down unarmed Sioux at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota, in 1890 primarily because
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the soldiers feared an uprising provoked by a militant interpretation of the Ghost Dance religion.
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The Comstock Lode was
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the richest vein of silver ore found on the North American continent.
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The easiest way to get rich in the silver mining industry proved to be
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selling claims to land or forming mining companies and selling stock.
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The wealth produced in the Nevada mining industry primarily
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enriched speculators in San Francisco and other cities.
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Although the Chinese were thought to be hard workers, anti-Chinese prejudice prevented them from working
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in the mines
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Virginia City, Nevada, and other mining centers can best be described as
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sprawling industrialized communities.
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Between 1860 and 1880, the population of Californios (Mexican residents of California)
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fell by more than 60 percent.
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Of the workforce that built America’s first transcontinental railroad, Chinese laborers made up
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90 percent
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The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
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had led to a sharp decline in the Chinese population of the American West by 1900.
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In the three decades after 1870, hundreds of thousands of Americans migrated to the West to
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own their own land.
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Compared to the mining West, life in the agrarian West was
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equally speculative and exploitative.
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The Homestead Act of 1862 promised
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160 acres free to any citizen or prospective citizen who settled on land west of the Mississippi River for five years.
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Between 1870 and 1900, the trans-Mississippi West
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increasingly saw family farms give way to commercial farming.
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Women on the frontier
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were forced to work hard at even the simplest tasks.
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To encourage railroad construction in the decades after the Civil War, state and federal governments
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gave railroad companies 180 million acres of public land.
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The invention of barbed wire revolutionized the cattle industry by
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making it possible for ranchers to fence in their cattle.
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African American cowboys in the West were
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ignored by the popular fiction of the time, despite their substantial presence in the region.
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The term “Exodusters” refers to
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the freed African-Americans who moved west and settled in Kansas.
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Between 1870 and 1900, the proportion of those who lived on farms in the United States fell from 80 percent to 66 percent. Yet this period witnessed
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the growth of agriculture through commercialization and expanding urban markets.
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Henry Miller and Charles Lux can best be described as
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the Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller of the far West.
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By the late nineteenth century, farmers were no longer the self-sufficient yeomen anchoring the Republic described by
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Thomas Jefferson
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The proliferation of dime novels and outfits like William F. Cody’s Wild West Company
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mythologized and romanticized life in the Old West.
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The Gilded Age can be described as
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an era marked by personal greed and a corrupt partnership between business and politics.
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A key factor in the rise of the Gilded Age was
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the growth of industrialism in the United States.
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In the second half of the nineteenth century, American life came to be dominated by the country’s first big business,
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railroading
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Railroad construction in nineteenth-century America was boosted significantly by
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monetary aid and land grants from federal and state governments.
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Vertical integration
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places all aspects of the business, from mining raw materials to marketing and transporting finished products, under the control of the chief operating officer.
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Carnegie Steel achieved the tremendous productivity that Andrew Carnegie insisted on by
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forcing employees to work long hours under extremely dangerous conditions for low pay.
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Before the advent of the automobile, crude oil was used mainly
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for lubrication and lighting in the form of kerosene.
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John D. Rockefeller organized Standard Oil as a trust. That decision was made to
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control the key elements of production and so corner the market for oil.
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By the 1890s, Standard Oil
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had employed both horizontal and vertical integration to control more than 90 percent of the oil business.
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Ida M. Tarbell’s “History of the Standard Oil Company” in McClure’s Magazine depicted John D. Rockefeller as
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a ruthless, unscrupulous malefactor who had used practically every dirty trick in the corporate book to gain control of the oil industry.
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Alexander Graham Bell
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used a complicated organizational structure in his new company that allowed both local and cross-country communication.
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At the beginning of the twentieth century, electricity
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was utilized mostly in urban areas of the United States.
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Prominent business leaders of the late nineteenth century, such as J. P. Morgan,
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despised competition and tried to substitute consolidation and central control whenever they could.
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To achieve his stunning reorganization and consolidation of businesses in the late nineteenth century, J. P. Morgan
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at times formed “a community of interest,” comprised of a few handpicked directors.
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Railroad companies controlled by J. P. Morgan sometimes issued watered stock, a practice that
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kept investors happy but caused overcapitalization and debt for the railroads.
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J. P. Morgan acquired the core of what would be the largest corporation in the world when he purchased
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steel interests formerly controlled by Andrew Carnegie.
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The Supreme Court used a novel interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment to help big business near the end of the nineteenth century. The Court did this by
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elevating property rights over all other rights.
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After Reconstruction, the term solid South referred to
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the states of the old Confederacy, which voted Democratic in every election for the next seventy years.
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In the late nineteenth century, the notion that black men were a threat to white women in the South contributed significantly to
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an increase in lynchings across the South.
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Denied the right to vote during in the late nineteenth century, American women
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found ways to affect the political process though the antilynching, suffrage, and temperance movements.
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The presidents who served in the last part of the nineteenth century—Rutherford B. Hayes through William McKinley—
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were overshadowed by business development and party politics at state and local levels.
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In the last decades of the nineteenth century, national politics in the United States was dominated by
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dynamic party bosses.
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The Republican Party chose Ohioan James A. Garfield as its presidential candidate in 1880 because of his affiliation with
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None of the above
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The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 established the Civil Service Commission and
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made it impossible to remove people in civil service jobs for political reasons.
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The president who lost the election at the end of his first term and was re-elected to a second term four years later was
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Grover Cleveland
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By the 1880s, the tariff posed a threat to America’s prosperity because
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it created a surplus that was not used to produce goods and services.
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The Supreme Court’s decision in Wabash v. Illinois (1886), which reversed its ruling in Munn v. Illinois (1877),
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led to passage of the first federal law regulating the railroad industry.
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The Interstate Commerce Commission, the nation’s first federal regulatory agency,
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was so weak in its early years that it served as little more than a historical precedent
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Both the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act
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testified to the nation’s growing willingness to use federal measures to intervene in big business on behalf of the public interest.
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During the economic depression in the winter of 1894-95, president Grover Cleveland hoped to increase the nation’s flagging gold reserves by
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making a deal with a private group of bankers, headed by J. P. Morgan, to purchase gold abroad and supply it to the government.
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At the end of the nineteenth century, the Brooklyn Bridge stood as a symbol of
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the ascendancy of urban America.
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Significant urban growth in the late nineteenth century meant that by 1900, more than one million people were living in
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New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia.
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The astonishing growth in urban population between 1870 and 1900 was largely the product of
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the movement of people into cities from other areas of the country and from abroad.
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The world economy at the turn of the twentieth century can best be described as
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an industrial core, an agricultural domain, and a third world tied to the industrial core by economic colonialism.
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In the 1870s, U.S. industrialists hired cheap labor from around the world because
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railroad expansion and low steamship fares enabled immigrants to flock to America.
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By 1900, the majority of immigrants to the United States
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lived in cities because jobs were available there and because they did not have the money to buy land.
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Technological advances and mechanization allowed U.S. industrialists to
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replace skilled laborers with lower-paid unskilled laborers from southern and eastern Europe.
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Racism in late-nineteenth-century America was most evident in
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violence toward blacks and the economic scapegoating of Asians on the West Coast.
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Southern blacks migrated to northern cities in the 1890s
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for economic opportunities and safety.
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Congress approved a literacy test for immigrants in 1896
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as a means of limiting the influx of “backward” people into the country.
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The transportation innovation that first allowed late-nineteenth-century cities to expand to the suburbs was
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horsecar
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In his best-selling How the Other Half Lives (1890), Jacob Riis
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forced middle-class Americans to acknowledge the degraded reality of the poor.
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The backbone of the American labor force throughout the nineteenth century was
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common laborers
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The U.S. garment industry began to change in the 1850s as
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independent tailors were replaced by sweatshop workers.
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Leading up to World War I, the percentage of children under fifteen engaged in paid labor
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increased decade by decade.
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In the late nineteenth century, married black women often supplemented their family income by working
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outside the home as domestics.
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The advent of the adding machine, typewriter, and cash register had the greatest impact on
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literate white women.
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By the end of the nineteenth century, most white native-born women who worked held jobs
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in offices
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The opening of department stores in the late nineteenth century went hand in hand with
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a new consumer culture and the material promise of the times.
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The main lesson workers learned from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was that
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they had little power individually, but could perhaps gain power if they joined a union.
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The Knights of Labor
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was the first large-scale organization for American workers.
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During the 1880s, the Knights of Labor advocated for
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public ownership of the railroads, an income tax, equal pay for women, and the abolition of child labor.
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Samuel Gompers, the founder of the American Federation of Labor,
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focused on higher pay and better working conditions.
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The Haymarket affair of 1886
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began as a rally of laborers organized by radicals.
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One outcome of the Haymarket affair was
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that many skilled workers turned from the radicals to the American Federation of Labor.
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By 1870, the live-in servant in the North
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was enabling middle-class white women to explore opportunities outside the home.
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Working-class courtship rituals in urban, industrial America
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shifted from family-arranged arrangements to informal meetings at the dance halls and other commercial retreats.
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Beginning in the 1870s, American men of all classes were united in their passion for
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baseball
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In the late 1800s, Coney Island symbolized the
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rise of mass entertainment in America.
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The modern skyscraper emerged in the 1890s primarily as a consequence of the
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advent of structural steel.
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New York City’s Central Park was planned as
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a retreat from the bustle of the city.
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Two key elements of the public school system in American cities were
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free tuition and open access to all children.
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By the end of the nineteenth century, American libraries
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made up the most extensive free public-library system in the world.
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In the post-Civil War era, the city boss
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oversaw the building of the city and provided social services for new residents
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By the turn of the twentieth century, most big-city governments were run
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more by compromise and the accommodation of powerful political forces than by boss rule.

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