Urinary System Medical Terminology

dialysis
Mechanical filtering process used to remove metabolic waste products from blood, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly.
dia
through, across
-lysis
separation; destruction; loosening
electrolytes
Solutions that conduct electricity, such as acids, bases, and salts (sodium, potassium)
electr/o
electricity
metabolism
Sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism
meta-
change, beyond
-ism
condition
pH
Symbol for degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance
urologist
Physician who specialize in diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the female and the male urinary system.
incontinence
overactive bladder
in-
in; not
-continence
to hold back
urogynecologist
Urologist that specializes in treating urinary problems involving the female reproductive system
pediatric urologist
Urologist that specializes in diagnosing and treating urinary problems in children.
nephrology
Is a sub specialty or branch of internal medicine.
nephr/o
kidney
-logy
study of
CKD
chronic kidney disease
PKD
polycystic kidney disease
acute renal failure
Sudden and often temporary loss of kidney function.
kidney stones
or renal calculi, are small, hard ”rocks” that form when chemicals in urine become so concentrated they form solid crystals.
high blood pressure
hypertension
urinary system primary function
remove waste products of metabolism from the blood by excreting them in the urine
Organs of the urinary system
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
important functions of the kidneys
regulating the body’s tissue fluid and maintaining a balance of electrolytes and an acid-base balance in the blood
cyst/o
bladder
-scopy
visual examination
cystoscopy
visual examination of the bladder
vesic/o
bladder
-cele
hernia, swelling
vesicocele
a small blisterlike elevation of the skin containing clear fluid
glomerul/o
glomerulus
-pathy
disease
glomerulopathy
any disease, especially any noninflammatory disease, of the renal glomeruli
meta/o
opening meatus
-us
condition, structure
meatus
an opening or passage, especially one leading to the body surface
hydr/o
water
-osis
abnormal condition (used primarily with blood cells)
hydronephrosis
accumulation of urine in the renal pelvis caused by obstruction, forming a cyst
ren/o
kidney
renal
pertaining to the kidney; called also nephric
-al
pertaining to
pyel/o
renal pelvis
-plasty
surgical repair
pyeloplasty
Surgical reconstruction of the renal pelvis and ureter to correct an obstruction at the ureteropelvic junction.
ur/o
urine, urinary tract
-emia
blood condition
uremia
Elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood, also called azotemia.
urin/o
urine, urinary tract
-ary
pertaining to
urinary
pertaining to urine – containing or secreting urine
ARF
acute renal failure
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
What is normal systolic bp
upper (less than 120)
What is normal diastolic bp
lower (less than 80)
What does bp stand for?
blood pressure
hypertension
high blood pressure
AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure
less than 120 / less than 80
hyper-
excessive, above normal
-tension
to stretch
hydr/o-
water
ureter/o
ureter
-sis
state of; condition
-stenosis
narrowing, stricture
ureterostenosis
Stricture of a ureter.
azot-
nitrogenous compounds
azotemia
an excess of nitrogenous waste products in the blood.
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
lith
stone, calculus
lithiasis
a condition marked by formation of calculi and concretions.
dia-
through, across
nephropathy
any disease of the kidneys
-pexy
fixation (of an organ)
nephropexy
surgical fixation of a floating or hypermobile kidney
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
nephroptosis
downward displacement of a kidney, usually found in young adult women, especially those who are thin and long-waisted; it can occur when kidney supports are weakened by a sudden strain or blow, or are congenitally defective
-tripsy
crushing
lith/o
stone, calculus
-uria
urine
olig
scarity
oliguria
diminished urine secretion in relation to fluid intake
an-
without, not
poly-
many, much
anuria
complete suppression of urine formation by the kidney
polyuria
excessive excretion of urine, such as with diabetes mellitus
supra-
above, excessive, superior
ren
kidney
suprarenal
pertaining to one of the small glands just above each kidney
azorturia
increase of nitrogenous substances, especially urea, in urine
azol
nitrogenous compounds
cystocele
bulging of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina as a result of weakening of supportive tissue between the bladder and the vagina
diuresis
increased formation and secretion of urine
di-
double
ur
urine
-esis
condition
dysuria
painful or difficult urination, typically caused by a urinary tract condition, such as cystitis
dys-
bad; painful; difficult
edema
abnormal accumulation of fluids in the cells, tissues, or other parts of the body that may be a sign of kidney failure or other disease
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
Kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer adequately filter blood and eventually requires dialysis or renal transplantation for survival; also called chronic renal failure (CRF).
CRF
chronic renal failure
enuresis
Involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should be established; also called night-time bed-wetting or nocturnal enuresis.
en-
in, within
hypospadias
Abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis.
hyp/o
under, below, deficient
-spadias
slit, fissure
interstitial nephritis
Form of nephritis in which pathological changes in renal interstitial tissue result in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function
-itis
inflammation
nephrolithiasis
Formation of calculi in the kidney that results when substances that are normally dissolved in the urine (such as calcium and acid salts) solidify
renal hypertension
High blood pressure that results from kidney disease
urinary tract infection
Infection of the kidneys, ureters, or bladder by microorganisms that either ascend from the urethra or spread to the kidney from the bloodstream.
UTI
urinary tract infection
blood urea nitrogen
Lab test that measures the amt of urea (nitrogenous waste product) in the blood and demonstrates the kidneys’ ability to filer urea from the blood from excretion in urine.
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
C&S
culture & sensitivity
culture & sensitivity
Lab test that isolates and grows colonies of microorganisms to identify a pathogen and to determine the location, size, shape, and possible malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB)
Radiographic exam to determine the location, size, shape, and possible malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
KUB
kidneys, ureters, bladder
pyelography
Radiographic study of the kidneys, ureters, and usually, the bladder after injection of a contrast agent.
-graphy
process of recording
intravenous pyelography
Radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract.
retrograde pyelography (RP)
Radiographc imaging in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters to provide detail visualization of the urinary structures and to locate urinary tract obstruction.
RP
retrograde pyelography
IVP
intravenous pyelography
renal scan
Nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance injected intravenously that concentrates int he kidney.
urinalysis (UA)
Physical, chemical and microscopic analysis of urine
UA
urinalysis
voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)
Radiography of the bladder and urethra during the process of voiding urine after filling the bladder with a contrast medium.
VCUG
voiding cystourethrography
catheterization
Insertion of a catheter (hollow flexible tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid, most commonly through the urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine.
lithotripsy
Method of removing stones b crushing them into smaller pieces so that they can be expelled in the urine.
extracorporeal
Use of powerful sound wave vibrations to break up stones in the kidney
extra-
outside
corpor
body
-eal
pertaining to
litho/
stone, calculus
nephroloithotomy
Surgical procedure that involves a small incision int he skin and insertion of an endoscope into the kidney to remove a renal calculus.
-tomy
incision
rental transplantation
Organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage disease; also called kidney transplantation
ureteral stent
Insertion of a thin tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney.
antibiotics
Treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic process.
antispasmodics
Decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder (caused by UTIs and catheterization) by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, allowing normal emptying of the bladder.
diuretics
Block reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys, increasing the amount of salt and water excreted int he urine (causes reduction of fluid retained in the body and prevents edema).
hydroenphrosis
An excessive accumulation of urine in the renal pelvis as a result of obstruction of a ureter.
hydroureter
distention of the ureter with fluid, due to obstruction.
calculus
an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body, chiefly in hollow organs or their passages.
hemodialysis
involves passing the blood through an artificial kidney for filtering out impurities.
Peritoneal dialysis
Involves introducing fluid into the abdomen through a catheter.
azoturia
an excess of urea or other nitrogen compounds in the urine.
retrograde pyelography
pyelography in which contrast material is injected into the ureters from an endoscope in the bladder.
cysto
cystoscopy
ESWL
extracorporeal shock-waves lithotripsy
TURP
transurethral resection of the prostate
US
ultrasound, ultrasonography
WBC, wbc
white blood cell
cholecystectomy
the surgical removal of the gallbladder
choledocholithiasis
the occurrence of calculi (see cholelithiasis) in the common bile duct.
cholelithiasis
the presence or formation of gallstones; they may be either in the gallbladder (cholecystolithiasis) or in the common bile duct (choledocholithiasis)
hematuria
the discharge of blood in the urine, making the urine either slightly blood-tinged, grossly bloody, or a smoky brown color.
nocturia
Purposeful urination at night, after waking from sleep; typically caused by nocturnal urine volume in excess of bladder capacity or incomplete emptying of the bladder because of lower urinary tract obstruction or detrusor instability.
urinary system
Responsible for producing, storing, and excreting urine.
What does the ureters transport?
urine
What are the units of function in the kidney?
The nephrons
What are nephrons composed of?
glomerulus
Which organ is bean-shaped?
The kidney
The kidney is separated into 3 areas or regions, what are they?
the cortex, the medulla, and the renal pelvis
urinalysis
diagnostic physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of a urine sample (specimen)
acute glomerulonephritis
inflammation and swelling of the glomeruli of the kidneys.
chronic glomerulonephritis
a slowly progressive, noninfectious disease that can lead to irreversible renal damage and renal failure
Acute glomerulonephritis is also known as what?
Bright’s Disease
Acute glomerulonephritis affects who?
children and adolescents
dialysis is treatment for what?
renal failure
Nephrotic Syndrome is also know as what?
protein-losing kidney
Nephrotic Syndrome (Nephrosis)
a collection of symptoms which occur because the tiny blood vessels (the glomeruli) in the kidney become leaky
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis
When do kidney stones form?
When there is excessive uric acid or calcium in the blood.
When does treatment begin with kidney stones?
With pain relief, small stones may pass spontaneously.
True or False. Large kidney stones may require surgery or lithotripsy.
True
True of False. Infectious Cystitis and Urethritis are inflammation of the urinary bladder and urethra.
True
What are the symptoms of infectious cystitis and urethritis?
Urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria, and even incontinence.
What are the treatments for infectious cystitis and urethritis?
antibiotics and urinary antiseptic therapy such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim DS, Septra DS) sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), and nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin)
What are signs and symptoms of diabetic nephropathy?
Urinary retention, hypertension, nausea, and protein in urine.
What disease is a hereditary and appears later in life?
polycystic kidney disease
True or False. Treatment of end-stage renal disease include dialysis and/or kidney transplant.
True
True or False. Neurogenic bladder may include difficulty emptying the bladder or urinary incontinence.
True
True of False. Catheterization either intermittent of indwelling are not necessary for neurogenic bladder?
False
With stress incontinence does the patient experience leakage of urine on coughing, sneezing, laughing, lifting, or running?
Yes
With renal cell carcinoma , malignancy occurs in adults and is also called what?
hypernephroma
What is a malignant tumor of the kidney in very young children called?
Wilm’s tumor
True or False. With renal cell carcinoma, the chief symptom is weight loss and pain of the flank area.
True.
What is the most common site of malignancy of the urinary system?
Carcinoma of the bladder
Occurs more frequently in men and persons over the age of 50, especially industrial workers exposed to dyes and leather.
Carcinoma of the bladder
Signs and symptoms of ______ _____ _____ _____ include hematuria, dysuria, nocturia, and urinary frequency.
Carcinoma of the bladder
What is the most common diagnostic procedure and may also be used to remove the tumor for carcinoma of the bladder?
cystoscopy with biopsy