Urinary System Medical Terminology

dialysis
Mechanical filtering process used to remove metabolic waste products from blood, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly.

dia
through, across

-lysis
separation; destruction; loosening

electrolytes
Solutions that conduct electricity, such as acids, bases, and salts (sodium, potassium)

electr/o
electricity

metabolism
Sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism

meta-
change, beyond

-ism
condition

pH
Symbol for degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance

urologist
Physician who specialize in diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the female and the male urinary system.

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incontinence
overactive bladder

in-
in; not

-continence
to hold back

urogynecologist
Urologist that specializes in treating urinary problems involving the female reproductive system

pediatric urologist
Urologist that specializes in diagnosing and treating urinary problems in children.

nephrology
Is a sub specialty or branch of internal medicine.

nephr/o
kidney

-logy
study of

CKD
chronic kidney disease

PKD
polycystic kidney disease

acute renal failure
Sudden and often temporary loss of kidney function.

kidney stones
or renal calculi, are small, hard ”rocks” that form when chemicals in urine become so concentrated they form solid crystals.

high blood pressure
hypertension

urinary system primary function
remove waste products of metabolism from the blood by excreting them in the urine

Organs of the urinary system
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

important functions of the kidneys
regulating the body’s tissue fluid and maintaining a balance of electrolytes and an acid-base balance in the blood

cyst/o
bladder

-scopy
visual examination

cystoscopy
visual examination of the bladder

vesic/o
bladder

-cele
hernia, swelling

vesicocele
a small blisterlike elevation of the skin containing clear fluid

glomerul/o
glomerulus

-pathy
disease

glomerulopathy
any disease, especially any noninflammatory disease, of the renal glomeruli

meta/o
opening meatus

-us
condition, structure

meatus
an opening or passage, especially one leading to the body surface

hydr/o
water

-osis
abnormal condition (used primarily with blood cells)

hydronephrosis
accumulation of urine in the renal pelvis caused by obstruction, forming a cyst

ren/o
kidney

renal
pertaining to the kidney; called also nephric

-al
pertaining to

pyel/o
renal pelvis

-plasty
surgical repair

pyeloplasty
Surgical reconstruction of the renal pelvis and ureter to correct an obstruction at the ureteropelvic junction.

ur/o
urine, urinary tract

-emia
blood condition

uremia
Elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood, also called azotemia.

urin/o
urine, urinary tract

-ary
pertaining to

urinary
pertaining to urine – containing or secreting urine

ARF
acute renal failure

ESRD
end-stage renal disease

What is normal systolic bp
upper (less than 120)

What is normal diastolic bp
lower (less than 80)

What does bp stand for?
blood pressure

hypertension
high blood pressure

AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure
less than 120 / less than 80

hyper-
excessive, above normal

-tension
to stretch

hydr/o-
water

ureter/o
ureter

-sis
state of; condition

-stenosis
narrowing, stricture

ureterostenosis
Stricture of a ureter.

azot-
nitrogenous compounds

azotemia
an excess of nitrogenous waste products in the blood.

-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

lith
stone, calculus

lithiasis
a condition marked by formation of calculi and concretions.

dia-
through, across

nephropathy
any disease of the kidneys

-pexy
fixation (of an organ)

nephropexy
surgical fixation of a floating or hypermobile kidney

-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement

nephroptosis
downward displacement of a kidney, usually found in young adult women, especially those who are thin and long-waisted; it can occur when kidney supports are weakened by a sudden strain or blow, or are congenitally defective

-tripsy
crushing

lith/o
stone, calculus

-uria
urine

olig
scarity

oliguria
diminished urine secretion in relation to fluid intake

an-
without, not

poly-
many, much

anuria
complete suppression of urine formation by the kidney

polyuria
excessive excretion of urine, such as with diabetes mellitus

supra-
above, excessive, superior

ren
kidney

suprarenal
pertaining to one of the small glands just above each kidney

azorturia
increase of nitrogenous substances, especially urea, in urine

azol
nitrogenous compounds

cystocele
bulging of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina as a result of weakening of supportive tissue between the bladder and the vagina

diuresis
increased formation and secretion of urine

di-
double

ur
urine

-esis
condition

dysuria
painful or difficult urination, typically caused by a urinary tract condition, such as cystitis

dys-
bad; painful; difficult

edema
abnormal accumulation of fluids in the cells, tissues, or other parts of the body that may be a sign of kidney failure or other disease

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
Kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer adequately filter blood and eventually requires dialysis or renal transplantation for survival; also called chronic renal failure (CRF).

CRF
chronic renal failure

enuresis
Involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should be established; also called night-time bed-wetting or nocturnal enuresis.

en-
in, within

hypospadias
Abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis.

hyp/o
under, below, deficient

-spadias
slit, fissure

interstitial nephritis
Form of nephritis in which pathological changes in renal interstitial tissue result in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function

-itis
inflammation

nephrolithiasis
Formation of calculi in the kidney that results when substances that are normally dissolved in the urine (such as calcium and acid salts) solidify

renal hypertension
High blood pressure that results from kidney disease

urinary tract infection
Infection of the kidneys, ureters, or bladder by microorganisms that either ascend from the urethra or spread to the kidney from the bloodstream.

UTI
urinary tract infection

blood urea nitrogen
Lab test that measures the amt of urea (nitrogenous waste product) in the blood and demonstrates the kidneys’ ability to filer urea from the blood from excretion in urine.

BUN
blood urea nitrogen

C&S
culture & sensitivity

culture & sensitivity
Lab test that isolates and grows colonies of microorganisms to identify a pathogen and to determine the location, size, shape, and possible malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB)
Radiographic exam to determine the location, size, shape, and possible malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

KUB
kidneys, ureters, bladder

pyelography
Radiographic study of the kidneys, ureters, and usually, the bladder after injection of a contrast agent.

-graphy
process of recording

intravenous pyelography
Radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract.

retrograde pyelography (RP)
Radiographc imaging in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters to provide detail visualization of the urinary structures and to locate urinary tract obstruction.

RP
retrograde pyelography

IVP
intravenous pyelography

renal scan
Nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance injected intravenously that concentrates int he kidney.

urinalysis (UA)
Physical, chemical and microscopic analysis of urine

UA
urinalysis

voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)
Radiography of the bladder and urethra during the process of voiding urine after filling the bladder with a contrast medium.

VCUG
voiding cystourethrography

catheterization
Insertion of a catheter (hollow flexible tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid, most commonly through the urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine.

lithotripsy
Method of removing stones b crushing them into smaller pieces so that they can be expelled in the urine.

extracorporeal
Use of powerful sound wave vibrations to break up stones in the kidney

extra-
outside

corpor
body

-eal
pertaining to

litho/
stone, calculus

nephroloithotomy
Surgical procedure that involves a small incision int he skin and insertion of an endoscope into the kidney to remove a renal calculus.

-tomy
incision

rental transplantation
Organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage disease; also called kidney transplantation

ureteral stent
Insertion of a thin tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney.

antibiotics
Treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic process.

antispasmodics
Decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder (caused by UTIs and catheterization) by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, allowing normal emptying of the bladder.

diuretics
Block reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys, increasing the amount of salt and water excreted int he urine (causes reduction of fluid retained in the body and prevents edema).

hydroenphrosis
An excessive accumulation of urine in the renal pelvis as a result of obstruction of a ureter.

hydroureter
distention of the ureter with fluid, due to obstruction.

calculus
an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body, chiefly in hollow organs or their passages.

hemodialysis
involves passing the blood through an artificial kidney for filtering out impurities.

Peritoneal dialysis
Involves introducing fluid into the abdomen through a catheter.

azoturia
an excess of urea or other nitrogen compounds in the urine.

retrograde pyelography
pyelography in which contrast material is injected into the ureters from an endoscope in the bladder.

cysto
cystoscopy

ESWL
extracorporeal shock-waves lithotripsy

TURP
transurethral resection of the prostate

US
ultrasound, ultrasonography

WBC, wbc
white blood cell

cholecystectomy
the surgical removal of the gallbladder

choledocholithiasis
the occurrence of calculi (see cholelithiasis) in the common bile duct.

cholelithiasis
the presence or formation of gallstones; they may be either in the gallbladder (cholecystolithiasis) or in the common bile duct (choledocholithiasis)

hematuria
the discharge of blood in the urine, making the urine either slightly blood-tinged, grossly bloody, or a smoky brown color.

nocturia
Purposeful urination at night, after waking from sleep; typically caused by nocturnal urine volume in excess of bladder capacity or incomplete emptying of the bladder because of lower urinary tract obstruction or detrusor instability.

urinary system
Responsible for producing, storing, and excreting urine.

What does the ureters transport?
urine

What are the units of function in the kidney?
The nephrons

What are nephrons composed of?
glomerulus

Which organ is bean-shaped?
The kidney

The kidney is separated into 3 areas or regions, what are they?
the cortex, the medulla, and the renal pelvis

urinalysis
diagnostic physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of a urine sample (specimen)

acute glomerulonephritis
inflammation and swelling of the glomeruli of the kidneys.

chronic glomerulonephritis
a slowly progressive, noninfectious disease that can lead to irreversible renal damage and renal failure

Acute glomerulonephritis is also known as what?
Bright’s Disease

Acute glomerulonephritis affects who?
children and adolescents

dialysis is treatment for what?
renal failure

Nephrotic Syndrome is also know as what?
protein-losing kidney

Nephrotic Syndrome (Nephrosis)
a collection of symptoms which occur because the tiny blood vessels (the glomeruli) in the kidney become leaky

pyelonephritis
inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis

When do kidney stones form?
When there is excessive uric acid or calcium in the blood.

When does treatment begin with kidney stones?
With pain relief, small stones may pass spontaneously.

True or False. Large kidney stones may require surgery or lithotripsy.
True

True of False. Infectious Cystitis and Urethritis are inflammation of the urinary bladder and urethra.
True

What are the symptoms of infectious cystitis and urethritis?
Urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria, and even incontinence.

What are the treatments for infectious cystitis and urethritis?
antibiotics and urinary antiseptic therapy such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim DS, Septra DS) sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), and nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin)

What are signs and symptoms of diabetic nephropathy?
Urinary retention, hypertension, nausea, and protein in urine.

What disease is a hereditary and appears later in life?
polycystic kidney disease

True or False. Treatment of end-stage renal disease include dialysis and/or kidney transplant.
True

True or False. Neurogenic bladder may include difficulty emptying the bladder or urinary incontinence.
True

True of False. Catheterization either intermittent of indwelling are not necessary for neurogenic bladder?
False

With stress incontinence does the patient experience leakage of urine on coughing, sneezing, laughing, lifting, or running?
Yes

With renal cell carcinoma , malignancy occurs in adults and is also called what?
hypernephroma

What is a malignant tumor of the kidney in very young children called?
Wilm’s tumor

True or False. With renal cell carcinoma, the chief symptom is weight loss and pain of the flank area.
True.

What is the most common site of malignancy of the urinary system?
Carcinoma of the bladder

Occurs more frequently in men and persons over the age of 50, especially industrial workers exposed to dyes and leather.
Carcinoma of the bladder

Signs and symptoms of ______ _____ _____ _____ include hematuria, dysuria, nocturia, and urinary frequency.
Carcinoma of the bladder

What is the most common diagnostic procedure and may also be used to remove the tumor for carcinoma of the bladder?
cystoscopy with biopsy

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