Unit 9: Medieval Christian Europe, Part II

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Christine de Pisan
Christine de Pisan
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(1364-c. 1430) was a French author who wrote a biography of Charles V of France, poems of courtly love, and other works.
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Dante Alighieri
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(1265-1321) was a philosopher, writer, and poet who was deeply involved in Italian politics, including the battles between the popes and monarchs of his time. He held political offices at different times throughout his life. Although he wrote many poems and other works, he is known best for Divine Comedy.
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flying buttress
flying buttress
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a structure that supports a wall or building from the outside
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Geoffrey Chaucer
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(1343-1400) was the first important poet of his time to write in English. At various times during his life, he worked as a copywriter, member of Parliament, and justice of the peace. His keen observations of many different types of people were reflected in his famous work, Canterbury Tales.
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Gothic style
Gothic style
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type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, characterized by flying buttresses, ribbed vaulting, thin walls, and high roofs
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icon
icon
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a conventional religious image typically painted on a small wooden panel and used in the devotions of Eastern Christians
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illumination
illumination
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a gold or colored decoration in an old book
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scholasticism
scholasticism
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in medieval Europe, the school of thought that used logic and reason to support Christian belief
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Thomas Aquinas
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(1225-1274) was a philosopher, theologian, and monk who helped bridge the gap between medieval faith and the philosophy of reason promoted by Greek philosophy. He also explained the idea of natural law, that there are universal laws based on reason that are independent of laws passed by government.
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vernacular
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everyday language of ordinary people
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How did the development of universities in medieval Europe strengthen the Church and unify society?
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Universities grew up around cathedrals, and courses of study helped educate clergy.
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How did the development of universities affect members of the growing middle class?
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It provided them an opportunity for advancement.
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Which precedent did Christian scholars set?
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the use of reason to support belief
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What was the effect of stained-glass windows in Gothic churches?
What was the effect of stained-glass windows in Gothic churches?
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They supplied observers with information about European Christian beliefs.
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Which is the best example of the way medieval literature reflects its culture?
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Poem of the Cid is a thrilling war tale that reflects the Christian values shared by most Europeans of many cultures.
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Which statement best describes the way Gothic cathedrals reflected the culture of the Middle Ages?
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Their light-filled interiors reflected the longing for religious knowledge and purity.
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Which effect did the weakening of the Byzantine empire have on knowledge and learning in Western Europe?
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Scholars who fled Constantinople took with them knowledge that helped spark the Renaissance.
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Why were Byzantine scholars so important to Western Europe?
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They helped preserve ancient Greek and Roman ideas.
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What were specific characteristics of Gothic architecture?
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flying buttresses, ribbed vaulting, thin walls, and high roofs
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Which manner of writing enabled a great deal of literature to reach a wider audience in the late Middle Ages?
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vernacular language
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Black Death
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an epidemic of the bubonic plague that ravaged Europe in the 1300s
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epidemic
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outbreak of a rapidly spreading disease
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longbow
longbow
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a large wooden weapon (called a bow) that shoots arrows and was used for hunting and fighting in the past
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How did the Hundred Years’ War contribute to the decline of the medieval era?
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It led to the collapse of the feudal system.
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How did the second Great Schism help lead to the end of medieval Europe?
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It caused people to question the authority of the Church.
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Which circumstance caused the second Great Schism within the Roman Catholic Church?
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the election of multiple popes by different factions
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Which characteristic of the Avignon papacy drew harsh criticism?
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lavish lifestyle
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Which statement best summarizes an important cause of the Hundred Years’ War?
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Economic rivalry led England and France to war.
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How did the Black Death contribute to the decline of medieval feudalism?
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by reducing wealth of minor lords
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Which need did the first universities in medieval Europe seek to meet?
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training for members of the clergy
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Which of the following was a medieval Christian scholar who believed that reason and faith could reinforce each other?
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Thomas Aquinas
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Which medieval author wrote an epic tale about Christian pilgrims that reflected many societal roles of the period?
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Geoffrey Chaucer
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Which type of architecture best characterizes the work of late medieval Europe?
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Gothic cathedrals
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How did the bubonic plague spread to medieval Europe?
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through trade ships
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Which idea did the late medieval Church label as heresy?
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that the Bible, not the Church, was the source of truth
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Which event most contributed to the decline of the Middle Ages?
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the Hundred Years’ War
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How did the Church respond to John Wycliffe’s call for reforms, such as translating the Bible into English?
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The Church labeled Wycliffe a heretic after his death.
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How did the Hundred Years’ War affect medieval Europe?
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The longbow and cannon made knights and castles less important.
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Which of the following did the Byzantines most contribute to the Renaissance?
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a diverse body of knowledge
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Which geographic feature(s) supported productive trade for Russian civilization?
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Volga and Dnieper Rivers
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Which most directly contributed to the rise of the Russian Orthodox Church?
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Byzantine empire
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Which leader introduced tsarist absolute rule in Moscow?
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Ivan the Great
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Which group brought Mongol rule to Russia and Eastern Europe?
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Golden Horde
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South Slavs, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes all helped settle which region?
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the Balkans
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Avignon
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the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in this French city rather than in Rome.
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Bubonic Plague
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Black Death that ravaged Europe in the 1300s
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Byzantine Empire
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Historians’ name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from ‘Byzantion,’ an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.
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Cyrillic
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relating to the Slavic alphabet derived from the Greek and traditionally attributed to St. Cyril; in modified form, still used in modern Slavic languages
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Golden Bull of 1222
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a charter King Andrew II of Hungary and his lords set forth, containing reforms to better protect individuals’ civil liberties, and strictly limited royal power.
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Golden Horde
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(1251) The grandson of Genghis Khan, Batu Khan, advanced far into eastern Europe and established this rule in Russia. As a result, Russia experienced a cultural decay and isolation from Europe.
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Great Schism
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The separation of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church (1054 CE), A period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
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Ivan the Great
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(1462-1505) was one of the most powerful Russian rulers. He consolidated his power by winning the voluntary allegiance of Russian princes and preventing further Mongol invasions.
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Kiev
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capital of medieval Russia and of present-day Ukraine
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Mongol Empire
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emerged from the unification of nomadic tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction
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Moscow
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under the Mongols this place became Russia’s political and spiritual center. In 1380, the princes led other Russians in defeating the Golden Horde at the battle of Kulikovo.
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“Summa Theologica”
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The best-known work of Thomas Aquinas. Although unfinished, it was a compendium of all of the main theological teachings of the Catholic Church.
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Tsar
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In medieval Russia this title referred to a supreme ruler, particularly the Byzantine emperor, who was considered the head of the Orthodox Christian world.
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Essay Preparation: Be able to describe governments that existed in Medieval Europe. Be able to provide examples of both the positive and negative contributions.
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Feudal System: a political and social system based on the granting of land in exchange for loyalty, military assistance, and other services serf: a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord vassal: in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty
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Which medieval art forms served educational and decorative purposes? Select all that apply.
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stained-glass windows and tapestries
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How did epic poems reflect the culture of medieval Europe?
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They reflected themes of loyalty and heroism that were prized in Europe.
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Medieval illuminated manuscripts provide insight into which of the following? Select all that apply.
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daily medieval life and religious devotion
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Which of the following purposes did early medieval universities serve? Select all that apply.
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prepared clergy and trained men to serve in bureaucracies
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How did the Hundred Years’ War affect the medieval structure of feudalism, in which vassals owed military service to the king?
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The need for a larger, standing army with greater mobility made the vassal system obsolete.
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Which of the following became a significant threat to Church power as a result of the Great Western Schism?
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Reformers began to challenge the traditional role of the Church.
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Which describes a way in which Russia’s geography influenced the development of its civilization?
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South-flowing rivers connected it economically and culturally to the Byzantine empire.
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How did Byzantine Christianity influence Russian Orthodox Christianity?
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It set the pattern for close ties between Church and state.
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Which of the following was one way Ivan III and Ivan IV strengthened their authoritarian rule?
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They limited the power of the boyars.
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Which of the following was one way the histories of medieval Poland and Hungary were similar?
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Both had been powerful Roman Catholic kingdoms that were conquered by different ethnic groups.
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Which statement best summarizes the effects of Mongol rule on Russia?
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The Mongols were lenient and tolerant rulers, but they isolated Russia from the advances taking place in Western Europe.

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