Unit 7

PSA test
medical test that measures a substance called prostate-specific antigen, which is made by the prostate
Guaiac slide test
most often used used and commercially available (Hemocult/ColoScreen); fecal blood loss <5ml/day results in a positive test; detects occult blood; used to detect upper GI ulcer; 3 stool specimens required
Proctosigmoidoscopy
Is examination of the distal sigmoid colon, the rectum, and the anal canal using a flexible endoscope. Ulcerations, punctures, lacerations, tumors, hemorrhoids, polyps, fissures, fistulas, and abscesses can be detected
Colonoscopy
the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
metastasis
Spread of cancer cells beyond their original site in the body
benign
Harmless; favorable; kindly, gentle or beneficial; not cancerous
sarcoma
a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including hard tissues, soft tissues, and liquid tissues.
tumor, cancer
carcinoma
A cancer of the epithelial tissues; includes skin, breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancers.
melanoma
A tumor of high malignancy that starts in melanocytes of normal skin or moles and metastasizes rapidly and widely
pap smear
test for early detection of cervical cancer; scraping of cells removed from cervix for examination under microscope
cirrhosis
A chronic liver disease characterized pathologically by liver scarring with loss of normal hepatic architecture and areas of ineffective regeneration
alveoli
Microscopic air sacs in the lung where diffusion of the respiratory gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs
gastritis
a common inflammation of the stomach lining
carcinogens
Substances that cause cancer
hematuria
The presence of blood in the urine
cilia
Tiny hairlike extensions of cells that line the respiratory tract. The cilia move in a wave-like fashion to help eliminate dust and germs from the body.
Chronic Bronchitis
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by excessive production of mucus and chronic inflammatory changes in the bronchi, resulting in a cough with expectoration for at least 3 months of the year for more than 2 consecutive years.
Emphysema
A serious disease that destroys lung tissue and causes breathing difficulties.
peptic ulcer
An ulcer of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum, caused by the action of highly acid gastric juice.
irritable bowel syndrome
a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea
psoriasis
chronic skin condition producing red lesions covered with silvery scales.
Osteoarthritis
What disorder causes joint stiffness that worsens with repetitive motion, crepitus, effusions, and swelling and commonly affects the knees, hips, and spine?
Fibromyalgia
Pain in the fibrous tissues and muscles (a common condition characterized by widespread pain and stiffness of muscles, fatigue, and disturbed sleep)
Osteoporosis
A condition resulting from a loss of minerals in which the body’s bones become weak and break easily.
Lung Cancer
Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchial tubes.
Colon cancer
Cancer of the large intestines
breast cancer
a carcinoma that develops from the cells of the breast and can spread to adjacent lymph nodes and other body sites
prostate cancer
A form of male reproductive cancer that begins in the prostate gland; usually occurs in older men. Symptoms include urinating during the night, a weak flow of urine, painful urination, blood in urine, & problems maintaining an erection.
pancreatic cancer
usually fatal because there are no symptoms until the cells have metastasized
hodgkins disease
is a form of cancer in the lymph nodes that is characterized by painless swelling of the lymph nodes.
non-Hodgkin lymphoma
is a cancer that starts in cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body’s immune system. Lymphocytes are in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues (such as the spleen and bone marrow)
Leukemia
This is a cancer of the blood-forming organs. Bone marrow, spleen, lymph system, characterized by abnormal increase of WBCs. Most common form of cancer in children.
Cervix cancer
the normal cells of the cervix first gradually develop pre-cancerous changes that turn into cancer
Ovarian Cancer
Epithelial tumors start from the cells that cover the outer surface of the ovary. Most ovarian tumors are epithelial cell tumors.
◾ Germ cell tumors start from the cells that produce the eggs (ova).
◾ Stromal tumors start from structural tissue cells that hold the ovary together and produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.
uterus cancer
is a cancer of the muscle and supporting tissues of the uterus
liver cancer
Involves a primary tumor of the liver that usually arises in the setting of chronic liver disease.
stomach cancer
Usually spreads before found — hard to detect
brain cancer
This tumor arises form astrocytes, meninges, nerve cells. Most primary cancers metastasize to this location during the progression of the cancer. Symptoms are dependent on location of the tumor but include headache, seizures, intracranial pressure, cognitive and emotional impairment, and decreased motor and sensory function. Surgical resection with chemo/radiation usually indicated.
bladder cancer
Painless hematuria should make you think of what diagnosis?
kidney cancer
the only malignancy in which removing the primary tumor in the setting of metastatic disease can improve overall outcome rather than just reduce local symptoms.
Symptoms: bloody urine, back pain, weight loss, fatigue, fever
skin cancer
Melanoma.
a harmful, malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes, including repeated severe sunburns or long-term exposure to the sun.
oral cancer
cancer anywhere in the mouth; most are squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue and mouth floor; the majority attributed to smoke and smokeless tobacco
larynx cancer
Tumor in voice box
testicular cancer
A cancerous lump or swelling in the testicle, a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum.

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