Unit 7 52

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treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
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Psychotherapy
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an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the clients problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
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eclectic approach
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sigmund freuds therapeutic technique. freud believed the patients free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the therapists interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the paitent to gain self-insight; involves several years of several sessions a week
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psychoanalysis
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in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden material
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resistance
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in psychoanalysis, the analysts noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviours and events in order to promote insight
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interpretation
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in psychoanalysis, the patients transfer to analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
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transference
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most used approach in therapy
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biopsychsocial
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attempts to combine a selection of assorted techniques into a single coherent system
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psychotherapy intergration
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dreams underlying censored meaning
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latent content
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influenced by frued; therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seek to enhance self insight; involves sessions once a week for a few weeks or months
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psychodynamic therapy
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a variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the clients awareness of underlying motives and defences; often include psychoanalytic and humanistic
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insight therapies
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a humanistic nondirective therapy, developed by carl rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients growth (also called person-centered therapy)
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client-centered therapy
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empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates and clarifies. a feature of rogers client centred therapy
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active listening
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a brief variation of psychodynamic therapy that has been effective in treating depression
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interpersonal psychotherapy
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a caring, accepting, non-judgemental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed to be conductive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance. you create thins by paraphrasing, inviting clarification and reflecting feelings
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unconditional positive regard
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therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviours. it doubts the healing power of self awareness and assume that problem behaviours are problems and can be eliminated. rather than looking for inner causes, therapists maladaptive symptoms as learned behaviours that can be replaced by constructive ones
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behaviour therapy
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a behaviour therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning, to envoke new responces to stimului, that are triggering unwanted behaviours, includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
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counteractingconditioning
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behavioural techniques, such as systematic desensitisation, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
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exposure therapies
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a type of exposure therapy that associates a plesant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli, commonly used to treat phobias
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systematic desensitization
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an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as air plane flying, public speaking or spiders
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virtual reality exposure therapy
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a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behaviour (such as drinking alcohol)
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aversive conditioning
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therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking, and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
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cognitive therapy
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a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeated behaviour)with behaviour therapy (changing behaviour)
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cognitive behaviour therapy
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therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individuals unwanted behaviour as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
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family therapy
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a procedure for statistically combining the results or many different research studies
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meta-analysis
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clinical decision-making that intergrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
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evidence based practice
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prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patients nervous system
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biomedical therapy
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the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behaviour
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psychopharamacology
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drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
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anti psychotic drugs
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is caused by a long term use of anti psychotic drugs; involuntary movements of facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long term use of a anti psychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors.
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tardive dyskinesia
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drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
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anti anxiety drugs
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drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
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anti depressant drugs
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a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
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electroconvulsive therapy
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the application of repeated pulses or magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
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surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behaviour
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psychosurgery
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created by egas moniz; a now rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. the procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centres of the brain
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lobotomy
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reinforcing desired behaviours and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviours or punishing them.
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behaviour modification
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an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behaviour and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
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token economy
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with cognitive therapy, beck and his colleagues have sought to reverse clients catastrophizing beliefs about themselves , situations and futures.
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Becks therapy for depression
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created psychoanalysis
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sigmund freud
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frued first used this tactic but found it unsucessful
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hypnosis
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having the patient clear their mind and relax and then say what ever pops to their mind, stories and ect
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free association
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emphasizes peoples inherent potential for self fulfillment. they help people grow in self awareness and self acceptance
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humanistic therapy
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Humanistic:focus on present and future; concious thoughts; taking immediate responcibility for ones feelings and actions; promoting growth; considered clients psychoanalytic: focus on past and childhood experiences and feelings; unconcious thoughts; taking time to uncover responcibilty and reasons for feelings; curing illness; considered paitents
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difference between humanistic and psychoanalysts
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phobias and sexual disorders
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maladaptive symptoms
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created classical conditioning
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pavlov
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did the alarm bed wetting classical conditioning experiement
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O.H mowrer
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created exposure therapies
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joseph wolpe
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relaxing muscle group after muscle group until you achieve a drowsy state of complete relaxation and comfort
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progressive relaxation
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created operant conditioning
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B.F skinner
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teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations.
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stress inoculation training
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anxiety and mood disorders share a common problem
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emotional regulation
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does not provide the same degree of therapist involvement with clients but may be no less effective
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group therapy
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propose to manipulate peoples invisible energy feilds
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energy therapies
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aim to unearth \”repressed memories\” of early child abuse
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recovered-memory therapies
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engage people in reenacting the supposed trauma of their birth
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Rebirthing therapies
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has an assistant touch the typing hand of a child with autism
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facilitated therapies
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forces people to rehearse and \”process\” their traumatic experiences
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crisis debriefing
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developed by francine shapiro; eye movement desensitization and reprocessing; a therapy used by many people but is dismissed as a sham
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EMDR
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also known as hypnosis
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animal magnetism
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also known as sad; depression caused by not enough exposure to light
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seasonal affective disorder
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used to counter act sad
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light therapy
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hope for demoralized people, a new perspective and an empathetic trusting caring relationship
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psychotherapy similarties
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bond between therapist and client
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therapeutic alliance
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disorders in which hallucinations or delusions indicate some loss of contact with reality
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psychoses
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solid as thorazine; an antipsychoitc drug that dampens responses to irrelevant stimuli
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chlorpromazine
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and over reactive dopamine systems contributes to
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schizophrenia
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some can produce sluggishness, tremors, and twitches
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anti psychotic drugs
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patients exhibiting negative systems of schizophrenia, such as apathy and with drawl often do not respond well to
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conventional anti psychotic drugs
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auditory hallucinations, and paranoia. treated well with anti psychotic drugs
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positive symptoms of schizophrenia
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treats negative systems of schizophrenia
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atypical anti psychotics
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atypical anti psychotic; also called clozaril
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clozapine
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diabetes and obesity
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risks of antipsychotic drugs
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alcohol, xanax and ativan; they depress neural activity; should not be in combination with alcohol
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antianxiety drugs
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a new antianxiety, antibiotic drug that acts upon a receptor that facilitates the extinction of learned fears; it helps relieve the symptoms of PTSD and OCD
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D-cyloserine
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they reduce symptoms with out resolving any under lying problems or issues
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anti anxiety drug critism
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can produce a psychological dependence
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xanax
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causes increased anxiety, insomnia and other symptoms
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with drawl from anti anxiety drugs
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the new drug for anxiety disorders
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antidepressants
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increasing the availability of norepinephrine or serotonin, neurotransmitters that elevate mood
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antidepressant works by
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also known as fluoxetine; whichpartially blocks the reabsorption andd removal of serotonin from synapses
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prozac
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they slow the synaptic vacuuming up of serotonin. include zoloft, prozac, and paxil
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selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors
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dry mouth, weight gain, hypertension, dizzy spells and diminished sexual desire; take 4 weeks to work
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side effects of SSRI’s and anti depressants
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the birth of new brain cells, perhaps reversing stress-induced loss of neurons
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neurogenesis
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aerobic exercise, cognitive therapy
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other ways to treat depression
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anti anxiety drugs which treat the limbic system
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bottom up treatment
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cognitive behaviour therapy which treats the frontal lobe activity
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top down treatment
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discovered by john cade; an effective mood stabilizer for those suffering the highs and lows of bipolar disorder; unknown why it works
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lithium
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also works to treat mood swings and manic experienced with bipolar disorder with an unknown cause
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depatoke
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for patients with extreme depression who have not responded to drug therapy; once seen as barbaric, would strap patients down and shoot volts of 100 into the patients brain and the would experience racking convulsions. now a anaesthetic and muscle relaxant is provided and only 30-60 seconds of shocks are administered
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ECT
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repetitive transcranial magneticstimulation; the application of repeated pulses of megnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity; performed on wide awake patients and has no side affects or memory loss
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rTMs
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for people with depression of do not respond to druge and rreject ECT; an electrode is planted and a pacemaker stimulator is used
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deep brain stimulation
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decreased a persons misery, or tension, but also produced a permanently lethargic, immature uncreative person
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lobotomy effects
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an intergrated biosphyscholosocial system
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human being
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identifying and redirecting negative thoughts
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anti-rumination
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Of the following individuals, who is most likely to benefit from use of lithium
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Miranda, who experiences periods of extreme sadness, followed by episodes of optimistic overexcitement
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Tardive dyskinesia is associated with the long-term use of which type of drugs
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antipsychotic
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The patient you admitted to the unit has paranoid schizophrenia. Your orders call for 150 mg of Seroquel and 1-2 mg of this antianxiety medication to relax the patient and help with sleep. This medication is
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Ativan
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Roxanne suffers from bulimia. At the eating disorders clinic, her therapist believes in utilizing only empirically supported treatments such as
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cognitive-behavior therapy
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This therapy is empirically supported for treating depression
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behavior therapy and cognitive-behavior therapy
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Which of the following factors is NOT a therapeutically effective component of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
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rapidly moving one’s eyes
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Good therapies share much in common, including
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hope for demoralized people
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When people’s symptoms of psychological distress are at their worst, anything they do to alleviate the condition is likely to be followed by improvement rather than further deterioration. This is best explained b
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regression toward the mean
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As a parent, you are skeptical of treatments that sound too good to be true. When you arrive at the psychologist’s office, you ask about what is the empirically supported treatment for bed-wetting as your 6-year-old son has been having difficulties. You learn that _________________ is the empirically supported treatment
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behaviour modification
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Dr. Salazar is conducting his last therapy session with Delores, a client he has been seeing for two years. If you were to ask Dr. Salazar about the effectiveness of the therapy, he would likely report that
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Though Dr. Salazar might report his therapy was effective, any of this contrary evidence could be true
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The placebo effect best illustrates the importance of _____________ in therapeutic outcomes
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cognitive processes
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The introduction therapeutic drugs and community-based treatment programs in the ___________ helped to empty large mental hospitals as well as mark an era of improved treatment
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1950’s
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Interpersonal psychotherapy is a variation on psychodynamic therapy. It is different because
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its goal is symptom relief in the here and now, and it focuses primarily on current relationships
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Nancy’s therapist is an active listener who often paraphrases what she says. He does not judge her and is quite open to her exploration of her weaknesses. He gives her appropriate validation and encourages her to reflect on her feelings. He wants to deepen her self-understanding. Her therapy is most likel
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client-centered
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Who emphasized the importance of active listening in the process of psychotherapy
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carl rogers
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The goal of stress inoculation training is to reduce incapacitating anxiety by encouraging people to say positive things to themselves during anxiety-producing situations. This best illustrates a form of
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cognitive therapy
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Beck’s therapy, which teaches people new and more adaptive ways of thinking and acting, and is based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions is calle
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cognitive therapy
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Several years after his wife’s death, Mr. Sanchez remains incapacitated by feelings of guilt and sadness. To reduce Mr. Sanchez’s depression, a therapist is actively encouraging him to stop blaming himself for his inability to prevent his wife’s death. The therapist’s approach is most representative of
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cognitive therapy
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To help Adam reduce his fear of dogs, a therapist encourages him to physically relax and imagine that he is walking toward a friendly and harmless little dog. The therapist’s technique best illustrates
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systematic desensitization
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A therapist who uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic methods is said to be using a(n) ______________ approac
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eclectic
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Mental health reform came about from ____________ in France and ____________ in the United States
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Pinel; Dix
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At his weekly therapy session, Henry became agitated at his therapist, saying that she was controlling, domineering, and trying to ruin his life with all of her mothering. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates
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transference

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