UNIT 6 SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

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Social Stratification
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The ranking of individual or categories of people on the basis of unequal access to scarce resources and social rewards
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Social Inequality
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The unequal sharing of social rewards
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Caste
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Is a system in which scarce resources and rewards are distributed on the basis of ascribed statuses (closed)
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Endogamy
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Marriage within one’s group
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Exogamy
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Marriage outside one’s group
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Class system
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Is a system in which scarce resources and rewards are determined by achieved statuses (open)
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Socioeconomic Status
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Is the rating that combines social factors such as level of education, occupational prestige and place of residence with the economic factor of income in order to determine an individual’s relative position in the stratification system (SES)
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Social Mobility
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Is the movement between or within social classes or strata
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Vertical Mobility
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Is movement between or within social classes or strata
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Horizontal Mobility
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Is mobility within one class
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Intergenerational Mobility
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Is a form of vertical mobility in which status differs between generations in the same family
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Poverty
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Is the standard of living that is below the minimum level considered decent and reasonable by society
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Poverty Level
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Is the minimum annual income needed by a family to survive
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Life Chances
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Is the likelihood individuals have of sharing in opportunities and benefits of society
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Transfer payments
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Are a principle way in which the government attempts to reduce social inequality by redistributing money among various segments of society
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Wealth
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Is the value of everything one owns and money earned through salaries and wages
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Power
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Is the ability to control others’ behavior with/without their consent
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Prestige
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Is the respect, honor, recognition or courtesy one receives from other members of society
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Reputational Method
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Is a technique used to rank individuals according to social class. This is done by asking individuals in the community to rank other community members based on what they know of their character and life style
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Subjective Method
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Is a technique used to rank individuals according to social class in which the individuals themselves are asked to determine their own social rank
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Objective Method
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Is a technique used to rank individuals according to social class in which sociologist define social class in term of factors such as income, occupation and education
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Functionalist Theory
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States that certain roles in society must be performed if the system is to be maintained. Rewards are given for their performance
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Conflict Theory
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States that competition over scarce resources is the cause of social inequality
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Lyndon B. Johnson
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American President, who in 1964, declared \”war on poverty\” in an attempt to eradicate the problems of persistent poverty faced by about 55 million Americans at that time.
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Harijans
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India’s caste system, there are the lowest caste, or outcasts of society. The Indian Constitution of 1950 outlaws discrimination against Harijans.

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