Unit 6 – Conducting Research, Organizing, and Presenting Ideas

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promulgating
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making known by open declaration; publishing; proclaiming
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Answer True or False. Besides encyclopedias, other reference works include biographical references, atlases, almanacs, yearbooks, and specialized dictionaries.
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true
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The recommended number of sources for a research paper is
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a minimum of eight, with two being magazine/newspaper articles.
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A recommended action is to _________________ a number when you write each source on a(n) _______________.
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appoint 3-by-5-inch note card
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When you search on a library computer for sources for your research paper, you may search by the topic or a _______________, by the author’s _______________, or by the ______________, call number, or series.
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keyword name title
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Answer True or False. Tertiary sources are recommended sources for research papers.
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false
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a third-hand account of a primary source
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tertiary source
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an index of magazine, newspaper, and journal articles
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Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature
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secondary source
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written text about primary source
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original source; author of poem, novel, experiment, or original scientific research
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primary source
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Number the following steps in following a research plan, with 1 being the first step and 6 being the last step. Consult a general reference work.
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2
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Number the following steps in following a research plan, with 1 being the first step and 6 being the last step. Appoint a number to each source.
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6
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Number the following steps in following a research plan, with 1 being the first step and 6 being the last step. Compose a list of all resources with the author, the title, the copyright year, the publisher, and their location and the call number.
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5
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Number the following steps in following a research plan, with 1 being the first step and 6 being the last step. Locate magazine/newspaper articles on your topic.
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4
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Number the following steps in following a research plan, with 1 being the first step and 6 being the last step. Locate books on your topic.
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3
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Number the following steps in following a research plan, with 1 being the first step and 6 being the last step. Conduct interviews.
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1
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Answer True or False. If you find a source you trust, you should use it for 95% of the information for a research paper you are writing.
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false
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Like a badger digging a hole for his home, it is good if you are _______ in your pursuit of sources from which to mine facts for your research paper.
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persistent
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You may organize ideas for a research paper by first creating a(n) _______________ and then a conceptual ___________________ or a(n) ____________________.
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outline map timeline
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A complex _____ is a deduction an author makes.
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interference
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Factual ____ are certainties that are derived from referenced sources.
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data
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Answer True or False. If you check two secondary sources listed by a primary source and find that they corroborate the information contained in the primary source, you could rightfully believe that the primary source has accurate information.
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true
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Answer True or False. If information is relevant, that means that it is always accurate.
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false
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Answer True or False. If information is accurate, it follows that it is relevant.
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false
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Answer True or False. If information is relevant and accurate, it is good to use for your research paper.
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true
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Answer True or False. An inference would appear in a source listed by an author.
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false
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By rewording research questions, you can turn them into _______ that form the basis of an outline for organizing information for a research paper.
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statements
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To separate facts from complex inferences, you can 1) check the provided ______________, 2) check other sources, 3) examine the __________________, and 4) perform critical thinking and reasoning.
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sources wording
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bibliography
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a list of source materials that are consulted in the preparation of a work
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hodgepodge
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an unlike mixture; jumble
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paraphrase
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restate a text or passage for clearness; reword
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quotation
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a passage of a book, speech, etc. that is copied exactly
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summarize
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to make a summary of; state or express in a concise form
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works Cited page
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lists both print and nonprint sources in alphabetical order
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When you _______ information, you change it so it reflects your writing style and the rhetorical pattern.
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paraphrase
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When you paraphrase, you are working towards making the text ____________.
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clearer
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When you _____ information, you shorten it to help create a more cohesive text.
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summarize
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Arrange the following steps involved in summarizing information in the correct chronological order, with 1 being the first step and 4, the last. Deciding or evaluating which points in a passage are the most important.
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3
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Arrange the following steps involved in summarizing information in the correct chronological order, with 1 being the first step and 4, the last. Thinking critically about what you have just read in a source and translating it.
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1
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Arrange the following steps involved in summarizing information in the correct chronological order, with 1 being the first step and 4, the last. Identifying what part of a topic a passage that you read is by analyzing it.
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2
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Arrange the following steps involved in summarizing information in the correct chronological order, with 1 being the first step and 4, the last. Combining or synthesizing the important points and recording them on a note card.
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4
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On note cards, you should include the following: 1) part of the topic, 2) a number that identifies the _______________, 3) the ____________ number paragraph occurred on, if there is one, and 4) a __________________ of the main points.
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source section summarization
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A quote is a second-party _____________ of your work.
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endorsement
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Copy quotes __________________ for ______________ and include the exact ___________________.
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word word punctuation
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Answer True or False. A quote could be an entire sentence, a few words or the conclusion of a sentence.
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true
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Answer True or False. A quote should not be longer than four lines of copy.
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true
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When you write a research paper, you should always accurately ____ the information you find.
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cite
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One of the reasons you want to accurately cite sources is so you don’t get accused of _______.
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plagiarism
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The recommended style of citing sources used during the gathering of information for middle and high school students is that of the ______________.
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MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
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Answer True or False. The CMS style for citing sources of researched information is the Chicago Manual of Style.
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true
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Answer True or False. When you use the MLA Handbook for citing the sources of the information you gathered during research, you do not have to be careful about your punctuation, capitalization, and the use of underlines.
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false
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Match the following MLA contents with the type of publication. name of the person spoken to and the date
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personal interview
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Match the following MLA contents with the type of publication. author’s name, article title in quotes, underlined title of online magazines, date of latest update, page numbers, title of sponsoring organization
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Internet article
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Match the following MLA contents with the type of publication. author’s last name followed by his first name and then the other author’s names, with first names first and last names last, plus other information
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book with 2-3 authors
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Match the following MLA contents with the type of publication. title of film with director’s name and names of actors and actresses, distributor’s name, year released
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movies, slide programs, and videotapes
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Match the following MLA contents with the type of publication. author’s name, title of article, title of periodical, pages story is on, date of publication
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signed article in a monthly magazine
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Match the following MLA contents with the type of publication. author’s name, title of work, title of anthology, publisher, location of publisher
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single work of an anthology
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Part of a sentence, an entire sentence or just a few words can constitute a _________.
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quotation
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A distinguishing difference between a fact and an inference is
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an inference is an opinion and should never be used.
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An important component of note cards you write during research is stating concisely the main _______.
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points
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If you find an article, a book, or a report written about a primary source, then that entity would be considered a(n) ______________ source.
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secondary
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One locates factual data-objective certainties-in
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sources
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If your teacher tells you to paraphrase a paragraph he/she is telling you to…
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reword it
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A style for citing the sources of researched information whose abbreviation is CMS is the ________ Manual of Style.
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Chicago
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If you ______ information, you combine pieces of information to make a more understandable whole.
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summarize
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When you are following your research plan, you should assign a(n) _____ to each source as you write it on a 3-by-5 inch note card.
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number
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Answer True or False. One method of distinguishing a fact from an inference is to examine the context.
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false
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Answer True or False. The MLA Handbook requires that for a film source, you list the film’s title, the name of the director, the names of the actors/actresses, the distributor, and the year of release.
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true
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Answer True or False. According to the MLA Handbook, the main components you list about an encyclopedia source are the site’s host, the date, and the page address.
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false
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Match the following. Changing a research question into a statement helps you form the basis for a(n) ___________.
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outline
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Match the following. One way to check whether information is _______________ is to see whether other sources corroborate the primary source’s information.
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accurate
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Match the following. Sources that are ___________________ are ones that relate to the topic.
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relevant
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If you want to save time and copy a page from a textbook word for word for a science research paper without crediting it, you could be accused of _______________.
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plagiarism
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A research paper should be based on the information found in at least _______ sources.
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eight
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The style most frequently used by middle-and high-school students to list their sources is the _____ style.
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MLA
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When you commence following your research plan, the first step you should take is to
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conduct interviews
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A goal of paraphrasing is to make the meaning _______.
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clearer
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Sources that are not recommended as good origins for information are _____ sources since they are too distant from primary sources.
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tertiary
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If you list on a Works Cited page the name of a person you spoke with and the date you spoke with them, you would be citing a personal ________.
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interview
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Arrange the following steps in the process of determining whether you need to modify your major research question to refocus your research plan, with 1 being the first step and 3, the last. Read information to see if it aligns with your research plan.
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1
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Arrange the following steps in the process of determining whether you need to modify your major research question to refocus your research plan, with 1 being the first step and 3, the last. Double check secondary sources to make sure they verify primary sources.
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2
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Arrange the following steps in the process of determining whether you need to modify your major research question to refocus your research plan, with 1 being the first step and 3, the last. Perform critical thinking and reasoning to decide whether to modify your major research question.
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3
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Match the following. If you find too much information when you are conducting your research, you need to ________________________ the scope of your major research question.
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narrow slightly
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Match the following. If you find too little information when you are conducting your research, you need to ___________________ the scope of your major research question.
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broaden slightly
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Match the following. If you cannot find any information when you follow your research plan, you probably need to _______________________ your major research question.
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substantially change
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cogent
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convincing or believable by virtue or forcible, clear, or incisive presentation
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evidence
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ground for belief; proof
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theory
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a proposed explanation used to explain a class of phenomena and a proposed answer that remains unproven
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Theories and _______ are often co-dependent.
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evidence
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Theories are proposed ______ to questions.
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answers
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A theory may be defined as
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a proposed explanation used to explain a class of phenomena and a proposed answer that remains unproven.
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A visual method of understanding the relationship between a theory and evidence is a ___________.
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pyramid
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When you are trying to discern the difference between theories and evidence, it is a good idea to employ _______________.
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critical thinking and reasoning
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An important aspect of possible evidence is to analyze whether the evidence is ___________.
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current
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If you found what you believe is evidence from a music chat room, an important consideration is whether the source is _____________.
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reliable
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An initial important criteria as to whether a possible piece of evidence is strong is whether it supports your
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working thesis statement
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Evidence should be considered strong if it has the quality of being ___________.
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objective
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If you obtain an opinion from an expert and wish to utilize it as evidence, it would be best if you included it in your research paper as a(n) _____________.
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quote
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Answer True or False. If you find among your possible evidence a quote from a nuclear physicist that is not in layman’s terms or everyday language and you believe only other nuclear physicists will understand what she is talking about, you should include it in your research paper.
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false
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Answer True or False. Including two facts derived by a Boy Scout who performed cursory surveys of four people’s opinions about the state of the country would be good in a research paper about American’s political beliefs.
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false
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Answer True or False. If five dieticians performed research on the best diets for controlling diabetes on 5,000 people over a period of 10 years with a control group of 2,500 volunteers whose diets are equivalent to those of most Americans and 2,500 volunteers who consumed an experimental diet designed to help control the disease, you might decide that the evidence they present in a medical journal article was valid, sufficient, and come from a reliable source.
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true
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Answer True or False. If you included a quote from a fan of the Jonas Brothers about music in a research paper, your teacher might tell you that the quote is too subjective.
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true
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To create a ______________ argument, it is necessary to present ________________ evidence.
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cogent strong
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If you critique your research process and discover that the evidence you are accessing is neither valid, reliable or sufficient nor does it support your working thesis statement, you should
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modify your major research question to refocus your research plan.
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Answer True or False. The research process is a static one that never changes and does not need revision.
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false
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If you find too much information about your topic, you may need to _______ the major research question.
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narrow
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The evidence in an argumentative speech that contained mostly quotes by a professor at an art school on the topic of astronomy would be considered as
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weak evidence
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The research process is definitely a(n) ______ one that occasionally needs revamping.
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dynamic
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Evidence and ______ are often co-dependent; without the former, the latter could not be proved and without the latter, the former would sometimes not be gathered.
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theories
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If you find only five facts as you do your research, you might decide to _______ the major research question.
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broaden
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One of the priorities of conducting research is determining whether the information in the sources you are reading _______ your working thesis statement.
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supports
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It is a good idea to include evidence in an argument that
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supports the thesis statement
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When you include the _______________ of an expert as evidence, you should do it as a(n) _______________.
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opinion quote
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If you wanted to represent the relationship between a theory and the evidence, you might want to draw a ___________.
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pyramid
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Match the following. A proposed explanation for a class of phenomena is ______________.
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theory
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Match the following. When analyzing evidence, ask yourself, “Is it a fact or a(n) ____________?”
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opinion
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Match the following. A visual representation of the relationship between a theory and evidence may be shown by a(n) _____________.
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table
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Match the following. Generally, evidence is _____________ in scope than a theory.
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narrower
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Match the following. Usually, ___________ are proven according to other sources.
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facts
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Match the following. Convincing or believable by virtue of a forcible, clear, or incisive presentation is __________.
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cogent
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If evidence is ________, then that is an indication that it is strong.
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current
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An unproven answer that is a proposed solution to a problem is called a(n) _______.
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theory
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When seeking evidence, ask yourself, “Is the possible evidence a fact that my ________ will understand?”
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readers
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It is unlikely that you will obtain _______ evidence from Facebook.
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reliable
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Critical thinking and ________ are important processes in determining whether a piece of information is a theory or evidence.
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reasoning
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A ______ argument is supported by strong evidence.
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cogent
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Generally, a two-second survey of three people conducted by an employee at 7-Eleven would not create _________, reliable facts.
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valid
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If evidence is ________, then it is considered to be strong.
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objective
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If you go on the Internet and cannot find any information on your topic of the origin of Montana blues, you may want to ________ your major research question.
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broaden
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An extended written/oral presentation’s framework is composed of a topic, a working ______________ statement, a(n) _______________, and a(n) _______________.
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thesis research plan outline
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When you write an extended written/oral presentation, your thesis statement should contain a(n) ______.
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opinion
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Personal opinions are like the ____ of a pizza — they give your extended written/oral presentation zest or spark.
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spices
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Echoing your personal opinions in an extended written/oral presentation helps support _______ and ______, that will attract readers to your side.
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rhythm repetition
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Making _____ appeals helps develop and support your personal opinions in an extended written/oral presentation.
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emotional
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Each component or “ingredient” of an extended written/oral presentation has its ______.
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purpose
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As the amount of supportive evidence for your working thesis statement grows in ________, the passion you have for your personal opinions will ________________.
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quantity increase
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The gulf between your evidence and your personal opinions may be smoothed out for readers via
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transitional words and phrases
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If you don’t find _____ evidence to support your working thesis statement, revise your major research question to refocus your research plan.
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sufficient
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It is a good idea to use your personal opinions to continue to build a(n) _____ approach in your extended written/oral presentation.
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conclusive
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Answer True or False. Most of the time, you will be capable of choosing a topic for an extended written/ oral presentation that you have an interest in.
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true
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Answer True or False. Readers will respond positively to personal opinions that are supported by weak evidence.
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false
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Answer True or False. Most of the evidence you include in an extended written/oral presentation should support your working thesis statement.
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true
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Match the following. format that presents an obstacle and an answer
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problem-solution
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Match the following. format that shows differences
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cause-and-effect
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Match the following. with the analytical rhetorical pattern, you may use these formats
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cause-and-effect and descriptive
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Match the following. examples and details given in this format
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descriptive
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Match the following. events are listed in sequence
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time/order
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Match the following. formats that may be used with an argumentative rhetorical pattern
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problem-solution
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Match the following. format in which something is posed and a reply is provided
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question-and-answer, problem solution, and descriptive
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Match the following. a reason and an effect are presented in this type of format
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cause-and-effect
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Match the following. formats that you may use with an illustrative rhetorical pattern
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comparison/contrast, time/order, and descriptive
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A rhetorical pattern that highlights comparisons and employs examples, definitions and comparisons is the ______ rhetorical pattern.
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illustrative
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To include complexity in an extended written/oral presentation, an author might choose to use _______ or _________.
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irony paradox
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If a writer wants his readers to explore the possibilities, he might interject _______ in an extended written/oral presentation.
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ambiguity
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The presence of __________ in an extended written/oral presentation makes the writing more lively and builds ______________ among readers.
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contradiction trust
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A straightforward rhetorical pattern that emphasizes the author’s argument in favor of his thesis statement is called a(n) _______ rhetorical pattern.
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argumentative
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Utilizing _______ or _______ can put an extended written/oral presentation on shaky ground since the readers may or may not agree with the author’s more radical argument.
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sarcasm overstatement
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Rhetorical patterns depend upon both anticipated and provided _______.
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actions
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A(n) _______ rhetorical pattern explains each step of a subject or a process so that readers can understand them.
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analytical
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discrepancy
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the state of being disagreeing, difference; inconsistency
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disparging
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critical, derogatory,unflattering
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You might use the ______ Method to compare and contrast evidence by going back and forth between facts from different sources that differ.
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Pendulum
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If you discover evidential discrepancies when conducting your research for an argument, you might include then as ____________.
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opposing views
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In the _________ Method of comparing and contrasting, you would list all of the evidence from one source and then all of the evidence from another source that are comparable.
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Block
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Providing ______ opinions can back up certain evidence you present and help sway readers to agree with your thesis statement.
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personal
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To include evidential complexities and discrepancies from multiple sources, the author may be forced to ______ readers about sources, weave complexities together, insert personal opinions, and maintain organization.
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inform
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When you include opposing views in an argument, you earn the readers’ _________.
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trust
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Discrepancy is another word for
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difference or inconsistency
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Two skills you will need to practice to successfully “weave” an argument are
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patience and planning
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Answer True or False. The word disparaging means “giving praise to something.”
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false
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Answer True or False. Just like a weaver does if she runs out of a certain thread color, you must be flexible if you encounter an obstacle in finding evidence.
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true
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Answer True or False. You do not have to name the sources of evidential complexities and discrepancies.
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false
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One way to refute a counterargument is to claim that your opponent’s counterargument bears no _______ to the topic.
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relevance
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Another method of refuting a counterargument is to reach a compromise and claim that the opponents are _______ correct.
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partially
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A third way to refute a counterargument is to claim that your opponent’s claim
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is insufficient
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Match the following definitions to their possible organizational patterns for arguments. [–] CON idea-> refutation, CON idea 2-> refutation, and CON idea 3-> refutation
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1. Pattern #3
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Match the following definitions to their possible organizational patterns for arguments. [–] PRO idea 1, PRO idea 2, and CON idea-> refutation
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2. Pattern #1
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Match the following definitions to their possible organizational patterns for arguments. [–] CON idea-> refutation PRO idea 1 and PRO idea 2
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3. Pattern #2
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Answer True or False. Discounting your opponents as people is advisable.
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false
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Answer True or False. Discounting specific ideas of your opponents is advisable.
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true
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bibliographic notes
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notes that have several sources or comments that evaluate sources
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bibliography
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a list of source materials that are consulted in the preparation of a work or that are referred to in the text
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complexity
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the state of being complex; intricacy
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content note
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offers comments, explanations or information used with parenthetical documentation
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endnote
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an explanatory note listed at the end of a paper
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footnote
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an explanatory note listed at the end of a paper
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parenthetical documentation
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an acknowledgement of where information was obtained: usually, the author’s name and the page number the information appeared upon
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style manual
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a book that explains the rules for writing and designing a presentation
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work cited page
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lists print and nonprint sources in alphabetical order
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explanatory note listed at the end of the paper
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endnote
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an acknowledgement of where you obtained documentation
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parenthetical documentation
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list of print and nonprint sources
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Works Cited page
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a list of source materials used in preparation of a work
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bibliography
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offers comments, explanations, or information used with parenthetical documentation
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content note
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explanatory note listed at bottom of page
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footnote
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explains rules for writing and design of a presentation
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style manual
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If an author’s name and the year a work was published is listed in parenthetical documentation, it is in the
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author-date system
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If a number referring to the source on the Works Cited page and a page number is listed in parenthetical documentation, it is in the
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number system
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Notes that either have several sources or comments that evaluate sources are
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bibliographic notes
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When an author and the year of publication of his work are given in the author-date system, the writer is using __________.
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parenthetical documentation
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The usual length of a research paper is
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8-12 pages
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The usual length of an argument is
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1 1/2-2 pages
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If a student is writing her first research paper, it is a good idea if she constructs a _______________.
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sentence outline
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Answer True or False. An abundance of components ensures that your presentation has sufficient complexity.
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false
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Answer True or False. You should have a minimum of three supporting points in an argument, with each highlighting a different topic.
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true
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Paragraph 1 of argument
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introduction of problem
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Paragraphs 7-8 of argument
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results if problem not solved
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Paragraphs 9-10 of argument
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conclusive approach towards proving thesis statement
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Paragraphs 4-6 of argument
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extent of problem-who it affects; requires sources
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Paragraphs 11 of argument
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restatement of thesis statement and summarization of main ideas
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Paragraphs 2-3 of argument
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history of problem
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If you encounter the sentences “The feud between the two factions simmered for generations. It finally erupted in a terrible violent action” in a text, you could say that it was in a
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cause-and-effect format
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An argument should contain a(n) ________ of three supporting points.
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minimum
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A format that presents an inquiry and provides a reply is the
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question-and-answer format
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Personal _______________ and evidence may be melded together by transitional ________________ and phrases.
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opinions words
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The making of ________ appeals helps create and support your personal opinions in a presentation.
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emotional
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Three ___________ are the minimum number that should be found in an argument.
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supporting points
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Whenever you write an extended written/oral presentation, you need to engage in ________________ thinking and ______________.
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critical reasoning
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Match the following. _______________ notes with more than one source or comments that evaluate sources
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bibliographic notes
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Match the following. __________ the number system of parenthetical documentation
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source on Works Cited page and page number
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Match the following. ____________ notes collected together at the conclusion of a paper
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endnotes
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Match the following. ___________________ a format that delineates differences
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comparison/contrast
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Match the following. ____________________ the usual length of an argument is how many pages
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1 1/2 to 2 pages
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Match the following. _____________________ a format that may be utilized with an argumentative, rhetorical pattern
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descriptive
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Match the following. A sound fact is one that is
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valid
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Match the following. When choosing evidence, who will need to understand it
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audience
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Match the following. A word that describes the changing research process
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dynamic
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Match the following. Evidence that emerges from a dependable source
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reliable
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Match the following. Describes an argument that is backed up by strong evidence
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cogent
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Match the following. An author’s name and the page of the source that is being referred to or an author’s name and the year of the publishing of his work
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parenthetical documentation
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Match the following. Presents a dilemma and bestows an answer
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problem-solution format
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The average _______ of a research paper is eight to 12 pages, while it is 1 1/2 to 2 pages for an argument.
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length
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You can win the readers’ ______ if you encompass opposing views in your presentation.
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trust
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A reference that enables you to understand how to design and write a presentation is a(n)
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style manual
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The provision of anticipated and provided actions are forwarded by
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rhetorical patterns
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The ______ of an extended written/oral presentation contains a working thesis statement, an outline, a research plan, and a topic.
answer

framework
question

Paragraphs 9-10 should work towards a(n) _______ approach in an argument.
answer

conclusive
question

Emphasizing your personal opinions in the form of _______ can backfire, causing your readers to think you might be bluffing.
answer

overstatement
question

Drawing a ________ can help you perceive the relationship between a theory and its evidence.
answer

pyramid
question

Sources that are not recommended as good origins for information are _____ sources since they are too distant from primary sources.
answer

tertiary
question

Co-dependency often exists between theories and ________.
answer

evidence
question

Indisputable facts and details are used as _______ to prove a thesis statement.
answer

evidence
question

Blatantly including exact passages of a critical review in a critical review you are composing for English class would be considered ______.
answer

plagiarism
question

The presence of actions, both predictable and given, in a presentation are made possible by ______________.
answer

rhetorical pattern
question

When you write a research paper, you should always accurately ____ the information you find.
answer

cite
question

is paraphrasing
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rewording
question

all researched information must be
answer

cited
question

determining whether a piece of information is a theory or evidence requires critical
answer

reasoning
question

to include evidential complexities and discrepancies, you may have to maintain
answer

organization
question

sources the farthest from primary sources are
answer

tertiary sources
question

sources relate to the topic
answer

relevant
question

action to take if too much evidence is found during research
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narrow the scope of you major research question
question

as you start your research plan, you need to conduct a(n)
answer

interview
question

a second-party endorsement of a research paper’s content is a(n)
answer

quote
question

While readers take a fact at face value when it is presented, a complex ________ made by an author is something he creates after examining facts.
answer

inference
question

A quote can consist of
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several words, part of a sentence or an entire sentence
question

If you find an article on a novel whose author just received the Pultizer Prize for it, the article would be considered a(n) _____________.
answer

primary source
question

An important component of note cards you write during research is stating concisely the main _______.
answer

points
question

explanatory note listed at the end of the paper
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endnote
question

an acknowledgement of where you obtained documentation
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parenthetical documentation
question

list of print and nonprint sources
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Work Cited page
question

a list of source materials used in preparation of a work
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bibliography
question

offers comments, explanations, or information used with parenthetical documentation
answer

content note
question

explanatory note listed at bottom of page
answer

footnote
question

explains rules for writing and design of a presentation
answer

style manual
question

If you have as sources three books, two CDs, four magazine articles, and an Internet article, you should include in your research paper a bibliography.
answer

true
question

Turning research questions into statements can help you devise an outline.
answer

true
question

If you need to learn how to write and design a presentation, you should consult a ___________.
answer

style manual
question

Most middle-and-high-school students utilize the APA style manual to check how to write and design presentations.
answer

false
question

When you paraphrase, you are working towards making the text ____________.
answer

clearer
question

When following a research plan, you can find factual data in ________ located in libraries and on the Internet.
answer

sources
question

Just because a piece of information is relevant to your topic does not mean that it is authentic or accurate.
answer

true
question

Binding pieces of information together to make a whole is ____________.
answer

summarizing

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