Unit 6 – History Test Questions

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In Horatio Alger’s books, the hero is successful primarily as a result of his
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hard work and talent
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“The President of the United States…hereby is authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof…is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes…to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one eighth of a section; To each single orphan child under eighteen years of age, one eighth of a section… Every Indian born within the territorial limits of the United States to whom allotments shall have been made…who has voluntarily taken up, within said limits his residence separate and apart from any tribe of Indians therein, and has adopted that habits of civilized life, is hereby declared a citizen of the United States.” The Dawes Severalty Act, 1887 United States, Statutes at Large, 24:388 ff. During the late 19th century, western Native American life was most affected by
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post-Civil War migrations of whites.
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The term vertical integration refers to
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control of all aspects of an industry, from production of raw materials to delivery of finished goods
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“The President of the United States…hereby is authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof…is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes…to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one eighth of a section; To each single orphan child under eighteen years of age, one eighth of a section… Every Indian born within the territorial limits of the United States to whom allotments shall have been made…who has voluntarily taken up, within said limits his residence separate and apart from any tribe of Indians therein, and has adopted that habits of civilized life, is hereby declared a citizen of the United States.” The Dawes Severalty Act, 1887 United States, Statutes at Large, 24:388 ff. The primary goal of the government policy cited above was to
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end tribal identities
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The major goal of the Social Gospel movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was to
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draw the attention of Protestant churches to the plight of the urban poor
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Which of the following pairs of immigrant groups were most prominent in the construction of the first transcontinental railroad?
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Chinese and Irish
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Although the Sherman Antitrust Act was originally intended to inhibit the growth of business monopolies, courts initially used its provisions successfully against
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labor unions
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What do the names “Robber Barons” and “Captains of Industry” reveal about Americans’ perceptions of industrialists during the late 1800s?
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These names show that some Americans approved of these men and their practices, while others condemned them
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“The price which society pays for the law of competition… is great; but the advantages of this law are also greater… [W]hether the law be benign or not, we must say of it; It is here; we cannot evade it;… it is best for the race, because it ensures the survival of the fittest in every department.”
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Social Darwinism
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All of the following contributed to the rise of big business EXCEPT
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a. laissez-faire economic policy b. horizontal and vertical integration c. interlocking directorates **d. the Northern Securities decision of 1904** e. formation of monopolies
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Which of the following best describes the main idea of Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth?
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Wealthy individuals should use their wealth for social betterment
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The method of mass production that developed during the nineteenth century was a process that
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relied on the use of power-driven machinery
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“The President of the United States…hereby is authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof…is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes…to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one eighth of a section; To each single orphan child under eighteen years of age, one eighth of a section… Every Indian born within the territorial limits of the United States to whom allotments shall have been made…who has voluntarily taken up, within said limits his residence separate and apart from any tribe of Indians therein, and has adopted that habits of civilized life, is hereby declared a citizen of the United States.” The Dawes Severalty Act, 1887 United States, Statutes at Large, 24:388 ff. Historically, struggles between American Indian tribes and the federal government have stemmed from
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the Constitution’s failure to precisely define the relationship between American Indian tribes and the national government.
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The federal government responded to the Pullman strike by
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issuing an injunction ordering the end of the strike
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Which African American leader championed vocational training for blacks, raised funds from white philanthropists, and sought new career opportunities for blacks to improve their status in the late 19th century?
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Booker T. Washington
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The People’s Party (Populist) advocated which of the following?
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An increase in the money supply
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Which of the following statements regarding the American Federation of Labor is true?
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It excluded unskilled workers
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“Granger Laws” did which of the following?
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Allow for regulation of shipping rates
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“If they dare to come out in the open field and defend the gold standard as a good thing, we will fight them in them to the uttermost. Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by the commercial interests, the laboring interests, and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” William Jennings Bryan, 1896
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Midwestern farmers
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The Populist Party developed as a reaction to the growth of corporate power in agriculture and
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Economic instability in the farming sector.
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Jim Crow laws were designed to
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Segregate blacks from whites.
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An example of patronage would be…
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appointing a friend to a political position
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The most resented form of 19th-century government corruption was in
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Big business
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What is the artist’s opinion of Boss Tweed?
What is the artist's opinion of Boss Tweed?
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The artist doesn’t like Tweed
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The passage of the Pendleton Act was a direct result of the
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assassination of James A. Garfield
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William McKinley (1897-1901)
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25th President: Republican, supported gold standard, protective tariff, assassinated during his second term
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Politics and Business
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They remained seperate
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Pendleton Act of 1883
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Fill some government jobs on the basis of competitive exams and established Civil Service Commision
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1896 election
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William Jennings Bryan (Populist) lost to McKinley (Republican) the “silver issue” dominating the campaign; McKinley won, the Populists disappeared, the GOP became the party who represented the interests of the corporations and the wealthy, and a realignment occurred.
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What reason was given by President Cleveland for intervening with federal troops in the Pullman Strike of 1894?
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The strike interfered with the United States’ mails and interstate commerce.
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In its decision in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court held that?
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Separate but equal facilities for different races were constitutional.
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Stalwarts, Half-Breeds, and Mugwumps were?
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Factions of the Republican party that fought over issues like civil service reform
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The strength of the Democratic party in the Gilded Age lay with?
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White southerners and northern urbanites
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Depression of 1893
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Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
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Gilded Age Politics
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Pro-business, weak federal government, machine politics, triumph of urban-industrial interests
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Agrarian
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Concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
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What did Grover Cleveland think was the way to deal with the Depression of 1893-1897?
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Defend the gold standard and bolster government gold reserves
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Booker T. Washington believed that the best way for blacks to improve their status in the United States was to?
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Accommodate themselves to segregation and disfranchisement while at the same time working hard and proving their economic value to society
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Mark Twain called the era following the Civil War the “Gilded Age” because?
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The glitter and flashiness of the time seemed to mask the ugliness and crass materialism that lay beneath the surface
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Credit Mobilier
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A political scandal of the Grant era in which U. S. Congressmen were bribed not to investigate the illegal practices of a railroad construction company.
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Jim Crow Laws
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State and local laws that discriminated against African Americans by denying them access to “white-only” railroad cars, restaurants, and other public facilities
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Mugwumps
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These progressive Republicans did not like the dishonest policy of the conservative Republicans and, therefore, supported Democratic candidate, Grove Cleveland, for president in the 1884 election.
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Whiskey Ring
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This group of distillers bribed federal agents to avoid paying the Treasury Department millions of dollars in excise taxes.
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Stalwarts
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The regular and conservative branches of the Republican party in the 1880s
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Plessy vs. Ferguson
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This Supreme Court case approved of the practice of segregating public facilities provided that they were separate but equal.
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Mark Hanna
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He was the Republican leader who managed President McKinley’s 1896 campaign.
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McKinley Tarriff
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This 1890 law was devised to cut surplus revenue and continue protection for American industries. The average duty rate of over 50% angered Latin Americans and Europeans
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Greenback Party
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This group demanded the circulation of paper money and other reforms
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Half-Breeds
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The more liberal faction of the Republican Party in the 1880s
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What was the biggest reason why labor unions suffered lack of members in relation to immigrants?
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Due to nativism and and discrimination immigrants were not allowed to join.
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What effect did the large number of immigrants cause to the labor force in the late 1800s?
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Large numbers caused a devaluing of workers cutting pay and conditions.
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Why is the impact of political machines on society often hard to assess?
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While political machines were involved in corruption, they also provided necessary services to help immigrants assimilate into society.
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Settlement Movement
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A reformist social movement, beginning in the 1880s and peaking around the 1920s in England and the US, with a goal of getting the rich and poor in society to live more closely together in an interdependent community. Its main object was the establishment of “settlement houses” in poor urban areas, in which volunteer middle-class “settlement workers” would live, hoping to share knowledge and culture with, and alleviate the poverty of, their low-income neighbors. The “settlement houses” provided services such as daycare, education, and healthcare to improve the lives of the poor in these areas.
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Immigrants
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Mostly Chinese and Irish immigrants, provided cheap factory labor. Many immigrants lived in crowded and disease-ridden tenements, worked long hours, and lived in poverty.
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Sears
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Richard Warren Sears was a railroad station agent, published catalogs offering customers a wider selection of products at clearly stated prices. The business grew quickly.
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Panic of 1893
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Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point.
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Thomas Edison
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Invented the light bulb and power plants. This led to the extension of the workday, and wider availability of electricity.
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Mass Production
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Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
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Captains of Industry
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Owners and managers of large industrial enterprises who wielded extraordinary political and economic power
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Robber Barons
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Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
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Eli Whitney
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Developed interchangeable parts
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Assembly Line
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In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
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Corporate Consolidation
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Pro-business government with little restraints on businesses because of greater economies of scale, which led to larger and larger businesses
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Holding Company
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A firm that buys up enough stocks and bonds of smaller companies to have a controlling interest.
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Monopoly
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Holding companies were monopolies that had complete control of an entire industry
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Horizontal Integration
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Illegal: A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontal integration is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
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Vertical Integration
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Legal: Allows other companies in the same industry to compete in the marketplace. One buys all the the factors of production from raw materials to the finished product.
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Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
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First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions. Prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
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Clayton Antitrust Act
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New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it’s effectiveness against labor unions
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Andrew Carnegie
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Capitalist: A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
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Gospel of Wealth
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This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy. Re-circulation of their money back into society where it could be used to support the greater good, given that they are presumed to have a penchant for management of capital.
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Labor Unions
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Formed to try to counter the poor treatment of workers.
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Haymarket Square Riot
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A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
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Samuel Gompers
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He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
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Settlement Houses
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institutions that provided educational and social services to poor people
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Jane Addams
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the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
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Accomodationist
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Term given to Booker T. Washington’s method of solving race issues–he helped blacks by promoting their economic value but not challenging white supremacy
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Battle at Little Bighorn
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Sioux tribe fights the federal army for hunting down buffalo to clear paths for the transcontinental RR
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Railroad Times
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Established the adoption of time zones
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Turner or Frontier Thesis
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declaration that the frontier and first period of American history; the frontier shaped American character and spirit, fostered democracy, and provided a refuge for urban people and reducer of economic stress
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Homestead Act
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1862 – Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it for 5 years. Encouraged westward migration.
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Morrill Land Grant Act
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Set aside land and provided money for agricultural colleges
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Dawes Severalty Act
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Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
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Billion-Dollar Congress
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Republican congress of 1890. Gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government silver purchases, and passed McKinley Tariff Act of 1890. First billion dollar budget.
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Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
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dismantling of the spoils system
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Grover Cleveland
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Democrat: The government governed best which governed least.
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Republicans
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Occupied themselves with civil service reform: Rutherford B. Hayes, James Garfield, Chester A. Arthurr
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Railroad Regulations
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enforced because of prices gouging; one of the first government attempts to get rid of corruption
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Interstate Commerce Act
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Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) – monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states – created to regulate railroad prices
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Susan B. Anthony
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social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
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Grange Movement
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A movement for social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th century
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Farmer’s Alliances
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anti-RR pools, rebates, pass Granger laws groups of farmers of those in sympathy with farming issues, whosent lectures from town to town to educate people about agriculural and rural issues,
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Populist Party
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U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
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Socialists
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Group that believed nation’s resources and industries should be owned and operated by the government on behalf of the people
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Capitalists
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People who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits.
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John D. Rockefeller
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Oil Industry
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J.P. Morgan
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Executed Vertical Integration An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies. His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901
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Henry Ford
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1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
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Joseph Ferdinand Keppler
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American cartoonist and caricaturist, who greatly influenced the growth of satirical cartooning in the United States.
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Thomas Nast
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American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist considered to be the “Father of the American Cartoon”.[1] He was the scourge of Boss Tweed and the Tammany Hall political machine. Among his notable works were the creation of the modern version of Santa Claus and the political symbol of the elephant for the Republican Party. Often portrayed the corruption of politicians.
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Ellis Island
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Arrival, registry room, legal inspection, detainees
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Nativism
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A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
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Chinese Exclusion Act
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(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
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Gentlemen’s Agreement
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President Theodore Roosevelt informal “Gentlemen’s Agreement” between the United States and Japan, whereby Japan made sure there was very little or no movement to the US. The agreement banned emigration of Japanese laborers to the US and rescinded the segregation order of the San Francisco School Board in California, which had humiliated and angered the Japanese.

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