Unit 5: Latin America and Caribbean Vocabulary

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Aztec People
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indigenous population of central Mexico
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Cortes
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Spanish explorer who conquered the Aztecs
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Incan People
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indigenous population of western South America, in the Andes Mountains
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Pizarro
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Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas
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Montezuma
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leader of the Aztec Empire
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Atahualpa
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leader of the Incan Empire
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reasons relatively small numbers of Spanish explorers were able to conquer large Latin American empires
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Europeans brought small pox to Latin America, had more advanced weapons, and persuaded enemy tribes to join them
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Columbian Exchange
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the trading of goods, live stock, agriculture, and disease between Spain and their colonies in Latin America
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indigenous population
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the native people who lived in a region before explorers arrived
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natural resources
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materials that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
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arid climate
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dry
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humid climate
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moisture in the air
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most important natural resource in Mexico and Venezuela
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oil
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urban
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related to city
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rural
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related to countryside
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tropical climate
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non-arid climate that stays relatively warm year round
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triangular trade
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the system of trade among Africa, the Americas, and Europe
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3 ways Columbian Exchange impacted Europe and Latin America
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decline of indigenous population (native people died due to European diseases like small pox and measles), agricultural changes (crops and livestock were introduced to Latin America by Europe and vice versa), introduction of horse (influenced travel, labor, and hunting)
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criollo
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person of pure Spanish descent but born in Latin America (parents came from Spain but born in Latin America)
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Toussaint L’Ouverture
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fought to free African slaves in Haiti
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Simon Bolivar
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fought for independence for many Latin American nations because he no longer wanted to be ruled by Europeans; a criollo; known as “Liberator” and “George Washington of South America”
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Miguel Hidalgo
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fought to free Mexicans from the oppression and abuse they faced at the hands of their Spanish rulers; “Father of Mexican Independence;” a criollo
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Cuban Revolution
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the overthrow of Batista in Cuba by a group of rebels led by Fidel Castro in 1959
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Fidel Castro
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young lawyer who led rebels against the dictator, Batista, in Cuba
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Communism
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government controls all businesses, farms, and schools
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Zapatista guerrilla movement
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Native Americans in Mexico in 1994 rising up against the Mexican government
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Emiliano Zapata
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Indian farmer and hero of the 1910 Mexican Revolution; Zapatista guerrilla movement named for him
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guerrilla
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small group of fighters who use surprise attacks to defeat a stronger force

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