Unit 2 social studies study guide

Terrain of Rome
Apennine Mountains run down the length of Italy like a backbone. Terrain is not as rough as Greece so city-states were not isolated from each other.

Horatius
great hero of early Rome; held back Etruscans at Tiber River bridge and saved Rome

Rome
Began as small city-state, then ruled the whole Mediterranean world. Descended from the Latins

Etruscan
people from Etruria , ( north of Rome) that took control of Rome and Latium. Ruled Rome for more than 100 years. Built up Rome, streets, temples. Skilled metal workers Rome became rich from mining and trade. Romans adapted the alphabet from them. Romans also learned engineering techniques to drain marshy areas of water. They also learned building of arch from the Etruscans. Driven out in 509 BC

Roman republic
509 BCE – 27 BCE. Republic replaces monarchy. Roman Forum. Two consuls – civil & military power, limited to 1 year terms. Senate – 300 members- all particians- made decisions. Dictator- ruler who had complete control in times of war.

Class Struggles
between Plebeians & Patricians. Tribunes – represented plebians and vetoed unjust laws against Plebeians. Creation of Twelve tablets (laws written on tablets) were first victory for plebians.

Legacy of Rome
the framers of the US Constitution adapted Roman ideas of the senate, veto, and checks on political power.

Patrician
In ancient Rome, a member of the privileged upper class

Plebeians
Roman lower class

roman dictator
meant for one man to take control in a crisis, such as war, and then give up power after 6 months

Cincinnatis
roman model dictator, organized armies, defeated the enemy, attended victory celebrations, gave up power, all with in 15 days

Tribunes
An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates.

Family in Rome
– The center of Roman Life was the family. Father was the head. Over his children, the father held broad powers analogous to imperium on the state.
-The women was always under the control of a man. She was the domesticate.

Role of Roman Women
Got to learn how to read and write; after a while, they were allowed to own businesses from a small shop to a major shipyard

Ancient Roman Religion
Merged with the Greeks’ and Etruscans’- polytheistic

Legion
A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.

Rome’s conquered lands
Let their enemies have justice; but the conquered people had to acknowledge Roman leadrship, meaning to pay taxes and supply soldiers for the Roman army. In return, Rome let them keep their own customs, money, and local governments. To some conquered people, they were granted full citizenship. These lands stayed loyal to Rome

Carthage
Founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)

The Punic Wars
A series of three wars that got Rome most control over the Mediterranean. First Punic War- Romans won; Second Punic War- Hannibal and army marched across the Pyranees through France. Hannibal won but failed to capture Rome.
Third Punic War- Rome won, completely destroying Carthage.

Imperialism
establishing control over foreign lands and peoples. Other lands, such as Greece and Asia Minor, became provinces of Rome.

Latifundia
Wealthy Romans had huge estates. People captured during wars forced to work on estates (latifundia). Small farmers could not compete and went to the cities as unemployed people looking for jobs.

trade
Conquests and control over busy trade routes brought Rome great riches

Decline of Roman Republic
spread slavery, civil war, inflation, unemployement This led to slave uprisings Citizens-soldiers were now loyal to the commanders and not the republic.

Julius Caesar
The general during the Roman Republic who took over after the civil war and established Rome as an empire. He eventually was stabbed to death by his enemies. This caused more civil wars

Pompey
Roman general and statesman who quarrelled with Caesar. Caesar crushed Pompey and his supporters and Pompey fled to Egypt where he was murdered

Mark Anthony
was Caesar’s chief assistant. He and Octavian successfully defeated the conspirators and began to rule Rome together. Lost support of the people because of his affair with Cleopatra.

Augustus
New name for Octavian. Ruled from 31 B.C. to A.D. 14. his ideas for government functioned well for 200 years He left the senate in place but created civil service – trained people who performed jobs for the gov. To make taxes fair he ordered a census.

Hadrian
He ordered the construction of this wall. He is a part of the series of good emperors. He codified Roman law, making it the same for all provinces.

Pax Romana
200 year span of peace that began with Augustus and ended with Marcus Aurelius Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to lands stretching throughout the Roman empire.

Circus Maximus
oldest, largest racetrack for chariots
begun being built around 500 BC
built by roman kings
is in between palatine and aventine hills
could hold 250,000 people
made of wood, marble, and dirt
used for battles, executions, and chariot racing

Marcus Tullius Cicero
A philosopher, politician, and passionate defender of law who attacked men like Julius Caesar when the Roman Empire was declining

Greco- Roman Civilization
The blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman traditions

Roman Philosophy
Borrowed much of it from the Greeks, The Hellenistic philosophy of Stoicism impressed Romans

Tacitus
historian, wrote bitterly about Augustus and successors, felt they destroyed Roman liberty,admired simple German culture

Roman art
Based on Greek Art- romans excelled in sculptures, and architecture

Roman Architecture
Romans used Greek inspired architecture, but also used arches, vaults, and domes (all were curved). They built over 50,000 miles of roads and over 12 aqueducts that supplied over a million people with water throughout their empire. Romulus and Remus raised by a she-wolf.

Mosaic
art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass

Engineering
application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures and machines

Roman Technology
Excelled in engineering. built great aqueducts

Roman Science
Ptolemy proposed a theory that the Earth was the center of the universe.

Roman Law
Influenced many government practices used today, including the US’s.

Early Roman empire
much diversity; different beliefs were acceptable

Religious Toleration
acceptance of religious differences

Romans conquer Judea
by 63 BC; Most Jews lived in Judea; They were devoted to their monotheistic practices- Romans excused them from worshiping Roman gods.

Messiah
the promised and expected deliverer of the Jewish people.

Death of Marcus Aurelius
180; marks the end of pax romana. For the next 100 years, political and economic turmoil rocked the roman empire

Roman empire’s political and economic turmoil
a disruptive political pattern, emperors were overthrown one after another, high taxes for the army, farmland being over cultivated.

Emperor Diocletian
reigned 284 AD – 304 AD; first divided roman empire in half, ruled eastern half. Took steps to slow inflation (rapid rise of prices) . He fixed prices for goods and services.

Emperor Constantine
founded Constantinople; best known for being the first Christian Roman Emperor; issued the Edit of Milan in 313, granting religious toleration throughout the empire

Foreign Invasions
Germanic peoples had settled on Rome’s borders learned Roman ways of life. However, when the Germanic peoples were attacked by the Huns they flooded into Rome.

Causes of the fall of Rome
bad military issues; many civil wars; heavy taxes; less patriotism

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