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Unit 2 Race, Gender, and Statrification

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Race
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Refers to the physical characteristics that distinguish one group from another.
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Ethnicity
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Refers to the distinct cultural characteristics; much more complex than race; constructs by cultural heritage.
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Majority
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dominant group; one that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in society.
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Minority
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subordinate group; one whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment.
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Social Construct of Ethnicity
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Anything we make up (race).
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Prejudice and Discrimination
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When a majority group single out a minority group for unequal treatment.
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Prejudice
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A negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups.
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Stereotype
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Over-generalizations about appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of a particular category.
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Racism
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A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.
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Discrimination
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Actions or practices of dominant group members have that are harmful impact on members of a subordinate group.
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Gender
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Personal traits and social positions members of a society attach to being female and male.
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Gender Stratification
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Unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women.
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Matriarchy
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A form of social organization in which females dominate males.
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Sexism
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Belief that one sex or the other is innately inferior or superior.
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Second Shift
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Most unpaid housework is performed by women, whether or not they hold jobs outside and the home.
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Pregnancy and raising children
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What keeps women out of the labor force at a time when their male peers are making important career gains?
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Education
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Often determines career path based on gender.
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Masculine and feminine
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Two complementary patterns of behavior.
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Structural functional approach
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The idea that social inequality benefits society is associated with the
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Liberal Feminism
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Free to develop own talents and interests; accepts the basic organization of U.S. society, but seeks to give women the same rights as men.
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Socialist Feminism
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Family form must change with some collective means of carrying out housework and childcare.
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Radical Feminism
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Seek an egalitarian, gender-free society.
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Principles of Feminism
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Taking action to increase equality, expanding human choice, eliminating gender stratification through society, ending sexual violence, promoting sexual freedom.
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Wealth
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Which is NOT a reason why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies as Marx predicted and what is no longer concentrated in the hands of a few?
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35%
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The wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (\”super rich\”) controls about ______ of the nation’s privately held wealth?
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Very conservative estimates
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Any government reports of how many homeless people are there living in any city are probably…
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Racial and ethnic
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The United States is NOT truly pluralistic because what categories do not have equal social standing?
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60%
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Approximately what percentage of U.S. women are working for income today?
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The type of work
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Which factor accounts for the GREATEST share of the difference in the earnings of working women and men in the United States?
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Women
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In today’s U.S. workforce ______ are concentrated in several categories of jobs.
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socialist and radical feminism
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Opposition to feminism is directed mostly at
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closing the gap
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Comparing the performances of female and male athletes over time shows women have been ________ with men in most athletic performances.
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patriarchy
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Which of the following concepts refers to social organization in which males dominate females?
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59%
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Women earn what share of all associate’s and bachelor’s degrees in the United States?
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limiting sexual freedom
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What do feminists not support?
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opportunities and power
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Looking back over U.S. history, we see a general trend by which women have gained…
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Las Colonias
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Settlements: a. that are often called \”America’s Third World.\” b. in Texas near the Mexican border where it is very poor. c. containing Hispanic Americans, almost all of whom are legal U.S. residents.
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feminization of poverty
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The concept that, in the United States women make up an increasing percentage of the poor.
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Rent
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In the Playspent.org game, the last screen reads, \”You made it through the month w/ $____\” (how much ever money you made it with). But what is due tomorrow?
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poverty line
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Morgan Spurlock’s \”Minimum Wage\” video living under the _______ has consequences on one’s health, relationships and their family.
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15.1%
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In 2010, about what share of the U.S. population was officially counted as poor?
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Social standing
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There are two sides of the argument as to who to blame for poverty in the United States- blame the poor or blame society. What is based only on talent and effort so the poor should work harder to get out of their situation and is NOT an argument for blaming society ?
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Very conservative estimates
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Any government reports of how many homeless people there are living in any given city are probably…
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social stratification
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Gives some people more privileges and opportunities than others
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history and around the world
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Comparing societies in___________, we see that social stratification may be universal, but a. what is unequal b. how unequal people are c. why people are unequal varies from one society to another.
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social standing
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Ravi was born into a caste system in a small village in Sri Lanka. He can expect to have the same ______ as his parents.
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The degree of status consistency
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What is higher in caste than class systems?
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social-conflict approach
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The idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with the
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intragenerational social mobility
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Which of the following concepts refers to change in social position during a person’s lifetime?
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marry and stay married
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Which of the following factors tends to raise your social standing?
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social; economic
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People of high social position are more liberal on _____ issues and more conservative on _____ issues.
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Hispanic
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People of _______ descent are the largest minority category within the U.S. population.
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13%
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According to the most recent data, African Americans accounted for about what percentage of the U.S. population?
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minorities
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46. In the United States, ___________ typically have less a. income. b. occupational prestige. c. schooling.
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Texas, New Mexico, California, and Hawaii
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Four states currently have a \”minority majority.\” Which are they?
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pluralism
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Which of the following concepts refers to a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct, but have about equal social standing?
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assimilation
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The Matsui family came to the United States from Japan thirty years ago. They now speak English at home and the Matsui children date non-Japanese students at college. This family’s story BEST illustrates which of the following concepts?
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positive
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The study on children and race relations covered in the Anderson Cooper video we watched on our day of discussing \”Race and Ethnicity\” showed that minorities are generally more ___________ about inter-racial friendships than the Caucasian children.
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reinforce each other
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The idea that prejudice and discrimination form a vicious circle means that prejudice and discrimination _________
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segregation
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In the United States during the 1930s and 1940s, the existence of the \”Negro Leagues,\” sports teams with all African-American players, is an example of
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progress
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The main argument of the contact hypothesis is that the more close contact we have with people of different racial backgrounds, the more__________ we will have in terms of race relations.
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Minimization of racism
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Which of the following \”frames\” of colorblind racism describes the misconception that racial discrimination is rare and occurs only in isolated, accidental incidents, if at all.
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The antiracism ideology
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According to O’Brien and Odell Korgen (2007), the ________ does NOT agree with the colorblind ideology. The ideologies do not complement each other.
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Colorblindness
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A summary of O’Brien and Odell Korgen’s main argument is that ___________ has resulted in declining significance of black-white contact in effecting progressive racial change. Because Americans supposedly do not notice race, crossing racial boundaries is no longer having the transforming impact it once did.
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racial microagressions
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a. They are brief and commonplace daily, verbal, behavioral, and environmental indignities. b. They can be either intentional or unintentional. c. They communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults to the target person or group.
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minorities
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According to the racial microaggressions article, which of the following statements is true about the message I am sending when I say something like, \”You are so articulate! You are a great representation of your race!\” This message assumes that _____________ are not as intelligent as whites.
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Perceived minimal harm
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Randall made what most people would call a slightly racist joke. He just thought it was a funny and harmless joke but Destiny thought it was hurtful and inappropriate. This dilemma best describes _________ of racial microaggressions
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catch 22
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In the same scenario as above, Destiny would like to confront Randall but she does not want to be stereotyped as angry or oversensitive. This dilemma best describes the ____________ of responding to racial microagressions