quickly engaged in apologetic behavior
In a study conducted by Zahn-Waxler, 5-year-old girls acted out a disagreement between two female dolls. The researchers discovered that girls who _____ were more apt to be disruptive at age 9 than other girls
Christine wears a dress, and her parents tell her how pretty she looks
Which scenario demonstrates the behaviorist theory regarding gender development?
Abida is a nurturing parent and has good communication with her children whom she never disciplines. Her parenting style is:
Preeminent Psychosocial Accomplishment
between the ages of 2 and 6; Learning when and how to express emotions. Emotional Regulation.
initiative vs guilt
Erikson called the psychosocial developmental stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age: v
one half
Compared to parents in the United States, ______ as many Canadian parents use slapping, pinching, or smacking as a form of punishment.
What is one of the functions peers provide in active play?
Regulation of which emotion is MOST emphasized in the United

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use a play face
Just as monkeys do in their rough-and-tumble play, human children:
were unlikely to draw independently at a later time
In 1973, Lepper and colleagues conducted an experiment in which children did drawings. Some of the children were promised a reward while others received a surprise reward. The researchers found that the children who received the expected award for drawing:
identifying with their father
According to Freud, little boys cope with the guilt of wanting to kill their fathers by:
professionals something something
What is the MOST probable reason child abuse is underreported?
By age ______, children can consistently apply gender labels. By age ____, children are convinced that certain toys are appropriate for one gender but not the other.
instrumental aggression
Aggression used to obtain or retain a toy or other object is called:
When parents expect unquestioning obedience from their children, their parenting style is labeled:
William’s positive self-concept
William is at the toy store and sees a construction set. He asks his dad if he can have it for his birthday. His dad asks him if he thinks he would be able to use it. William reminds his dad that he is good at building with blocks. What does this example demonstrate?
Using electronic media
Today’s children, especially those living in urban areas, spend more time _______ than playing outdoors.
They think that everyone wants to take advantage of them
How do abused children come to view other people?
Internalizing problems
_____ are marked by excessive guilt, withdrawal, or fearfulness.
evolutionary theory
Which theory states that gender role differences are rooted in a basic urge to reproduce?
Their peers
Young children usually play best with:
Young children tend to learn the most from teachers who use which style?
Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who have the ______ parenting style.
antisocial behavior, including murder
Rough and tumble play between boys and fathers may prevent _____ later on.
an externalizing problem
When 4-year-old Karen is angry, she lashes out by hitting. This is an example of:
Example of proactive aggression
hitman for the mob breaks someone’s arm to increase obedience
Reactive Aggression example
punch your spouse in the face because he cheated on you
Example of indirect aggression
spreading a rumor that your ex has an STD
The clinical term of illness or disorder of the mind referred to as:
D. Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.
The individual most likely to have grown up with permissive parents is:
has been disproved by research
The idea that child maltreatment is rare and perpetuated by disturbed strangers:
flying kites
Which is NOT a form of play engaged in by young children in all cultures?
Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn’t. Carla is at which level of Kohlberg’s view of moral development?
conventional; law and order
Leon is asked whether a person should steal food if they are starving. Leon says no because it is against the law. Leon is in Kohlberg’s _____ moral reasoning level, in the stage called _____.
the preoperational stage.
The Piagetian stage of development that is similar to Kohlberg’s stage of preconventional morality is:
functions of a family.
Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are three of the:
align themselves with their peers.
When child culture conflicts with adult morality, children will:
About _____ of school-age children live in a two-parent family.
Who described middle childhood as a time of latency?
According to Erikson, if 9-year-old Anna is successful in solving her psychosocial conflict, she should be developing a(n) ______ view of herself.
keep quiet about it.
Ten-year-old India caught Lyndsey, her best friend, lying to her own mom. India will probably:
seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.
Preconventional morality involves:
middle childhood
What period is the prime time for moral development?
industry versus inferiority
What is Erikson’s fourth stage of psychosocial development?
Child Culture
The particular rules and behaviors that are passed down to younger children from older children are what define:
Reflecting her culture
Astrid, age 6, helps her aunt make tortillas in the early morning and then she goes to school until noon. In the afternoon, she and her best friend watch their baby brothers while their mothers sell goods at the market. In the evening, her whole family talks and eats together. She knows her parents are proud of her and she feels proud too. According to the text, Astrid’s labor is:
Stepparent Family
Dimitri has been married before and has two biological children. He has just married Natasha, who has also been married before and has a biological son. Their family is an example of a:
industrious, practicing the skills valued by their culture.
More than people of any other age, children between the ages of 6 and 11 are:
differential sensitivity theory
Marissa and Jessica, sisters born two years apart, grew up in an impoverished, violent neighborhood. As adults, Marissa is chronically jobless and is addicted to drugs while Jessica is a professor of economics at a community college. Which theory might explain their different life outcomes?
being actively involved in his church.
Joel, age 8, lives in a very stressful, chaotic home where he sometimes witnesses his mother being physically abused by her boyfriend. Joel’s problems may be overcome by:
members of their own sex.
Most bullies pick on:
Children’s ideas about their intelligence, personality, abilities, gender and ethnic background form their:
functions of a family.
Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are three of the:
align themselves with their eers.
When child culture conflicts with adult morality, children will:
the universal needs of childhood.
Ajay, age 8, sleeps in the back of the shop where he works. His gets a bowl of rice with vegetables to eat. He carries heavy loads. In Ajay’s village, his siblings sometimes have nothing to eat. None of them goes to school. His employer’s son sometimes brings a book in the evening to teach Ajay to read. In making a judgment about Ajay’s situation, one must consider:
may change over time
The quality of resilience is dynamic, which means that it:
lower, at about 13 percent
While 41 percent of all U.S. births were to single mothers in 2010, the number of children who grow up in a household with a single mother who never marries is:
“I am careful not to get caught.”
The statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional level is:
no child based on race or gender
One study found that 98 percent of surveyed children believed that sports teams should exclude:
the careful consideration of all options.
Postconventional morality involves:
her peers, parents, and culture.
Adrionna has begun to participate in arguments on issues of right and wrong. She is developing her own moral thinking, guided by:
decrease her self-esteem.
Andrea is a typical 11-year-old whose growing self-consciousness and self-criticism drive her to frequently compare herself with her peers. If Andrea is like most children, such comparisons will:
genes may have a stronger effect than familial environment on talents.
Alan is an adopted child who lives with three siblings, all biological children of his adoptive parents. Alan’s math skills are far better than those of his adoptive parents or his adoptive siblings. This provides evidence that:
African Americans
In the United States, which ethnic group is MOST likely to accept and support single parents?
their self-esteem may suffer as they compare themselves with others.
Since schoolchildren judge their own talents and limitations more realistically than preschoolers:
Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane
School-age children would most admire:
Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. According to Erikson, Barbara is developing a healthy sense of _____ through these tasks.
cognitive development.
According to Kohlberg _____ is what advances a person’s morality.
It provides a crucial defense against emotional problems.
Why is it so important that children learn a sense of industry?
Jean Piaget
Lawrence Kohlberg built on the theories of ______ in his description of the stages of moral development.
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