a type of psychotherapy in which the therapist helps their patient understand how their feelings, beliefs, actions, and events from the past are influencing their current mindset.
The type treatment used will depend on the client’s problems
Assumption: Problems stem from unconscious conflicts that usually date back to childhood experiences
Aim: help patients gain insight into unconscious conflicts
Evaluation: old, outdated, and lacks empirical evidence
Patient lays on couch freely exposes thoughts, feelings, and mental images going on in their mind
Therapist must encourage the flow of associations to provide clues to what the unconscious is hiding
Patient describes the “manifest content” of the dream
Therapist uncovers the “latent content” of the dream
The patient projects or transfers unresolved conflicts and feelings onto the therapist (Could be love or hatred of a parent)
Therapist helps patients gain insight by reliving painful past relationships
Similarity to Psychoanalysis because they try to enhance self-insight by focusing on “unconscious forces” that and childhood experiences
Differs from Psychoanalysis because they talk face to face and don’t meet as much
Assumption: Problems stem from obstacles that block personal growth and potential
Aim: Focus on the present time (here and now)
Evaluation: Unstructured, vague and subjective leaving it with little empirical proof
Client Centered Therapy
Refer to people as “clients” and not patients
Non-directive Approach where therapist listens without judgment and refrains from directing the client
Unconditional Positive Regard
Important element of client centered therapy developed by Carl Rogers
Blanket acceptance and support of a person regardless of what ether person says or does.
involves echoing, restating and seeking clarification of what the client says and does, and acknowledging feelings
recognizing the clients feelings and reflecting it back to the client
Behavioral Therapies (aka Behavior Modification)
Assumption: Problems stem from destructive behaviors
Aim: Use learning principles to replace problem behaviors with constructive behaviors
Evaluation: Effective but minimizes emotions
People: Wolpe, Cover-Jones
Using classical conditioning principles to create a new conditioned stimulus
Includes exposure and aversive therapies
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.
A behavioral technique used to treat phobias in which the client is presented with the feared stimulus until the associated anxiety disappears.
use of something unpleasant, or a punishment, to stop an unwanted behavior
A system whereby participants earn generalized conditioned reinforcers (e.g., tokens, chips, points) as an immediate consequence for specific behaviors; participants accumulate tokens and exchange them for items and activities from a menu of backup reinforcers.
Assumption:Faulty thoughts, such as negative self-talk and irrational beliefs, cause psychological problems
Aims: change the faulty thoughts and replace with better ones
Evaluation: Effective but minimizes emotions
People: Ellis & Beck
Rational Emotive therapy (RET) or Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT)
Albert Ellis’s cognitive therapy to eliminate emotional problems through the rational examination of irrational beliefs.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
A group of 3-10 people meet to discuss similar problems, role play new behaviors, and receive instant feedback
Evaluation: Effective (financially & psychologically) and people realize they are not alone in their problems
Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
hopes to identify unhealthy patterns and create new healthy rules & interactions
Couples counseling is very similar
Defined: you believe it works due to the power of the mind
Clients’ and therapists’ believe the treatment will work and therefore it does
Regression towards the mean
Defined: the tendency for unusual events (including emotions) to return to their average state
Example: When things hit bottom, going to a therapist is more likely to be followed by improvement than by further descent.
No one therapy has been shown to be best in all cases but some therapies are better suited for particular disorders
Most _________ __________ are when the problem is clear cut
Evidence Based Practice
involves clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.
In short, available therapies are rigorously evaluated and then applied by clinicians who are mindful of their skills and of each patient’s unique situation.
therapist waves a finger inferno of the eyes of the client to unlock and reprocess previously frozen traumatic memories
Light Exposure Therapy
a client is exposed to daily doses of light that mimics outdoor light
used to fight against seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Assumption: biological causes exists for the disorders or behaviors
Aims: provide the right medication
Evaluation: helpful but medicine cannot solve all problems
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
How it works: treats anxiety by increasing the level of GABA and therefore depress the activity in the central nervous system
Popular Drugs: Xanax, and Valium
Negative Side Effects: addictive and only reduces symptoms in the short term
Typical Anti-Psychotic Drugs
How it works: treat schizophrenic hallucinations and paranoia by reducing dopamine activity
Popular Drugs: Thorazine
Negative Side Effects: tardive dyskinesia
Atypical Anti-Psychotic Drugs
How it works: treat all schizophrenic symptoms by blocking dopamine & serotonin
Popular Drugs: Abilify
Negative Side Effects: less harmful than typical ones
Mood Stabilizing Drugs
How it works: used to treat bipolar disorder by stabilizing Glutamate levels in order to stabilize current and future moods
Popular Drugs: Lithium & Depakote
Negative Side Effects: small difference between appropriate and toxic dosage level
How it works: Treats depression by preventing the reuptake of serotonin
Popular Drugs: Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil
Advantages: milder side effects making it the most popular anti-depressant
A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
repetitive Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
performed on wide-awake patients where magnetic energy penetrates only to the brain’s surface
does not have the side effects of ECT
In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
In psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistance, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
Get the client to feel whole again.
Virtual Reality exposure therapy
An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic stimulations of their greatest fears.
Behavior Modification: Contingency Management
Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcements from undesired behaviors.
Aaron Beck’s Depression Therapy
He would change their thinking by revealing the absurdity of their self-defeating ideas
Stress Inoculation Therapy
Teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations (i.e. saying positive things)
Seasonal Affective Disorders
A mood disorder characterized by depression that occurs at the same time every year.
A bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist a client, who work together constructively to overcome the client’s problem.
The personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.
These are physiological interventions that focus on the reduction of symptoms associated with psychological disorders. Three procedures used are drug therapies, electroconvulsive (shock) treatment, and psychosurgery.
Double blind studies
An experimental procedure in which neither the subjects of the experiment nor the persons administering the experiment know the critical aspects of the experiment.
Deep Brain Stimulation
a nonsurgical treatment to reduce tremor and to block involuntary movements in patients with motion disorders. Small electric shocks are delivered to the thalamus or the globus pallidus, rendering these parts of the brain inactive without surgically destroying them.
Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.