Unit 12 Treatment & Therapy (AP Psychology)

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Insight Therapies
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a type of psychotherapy in which the therapist helps their patient understand how their feelings, beliefs, actions, and events from the past are influencing their current mindset.
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Eclectic Approach
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The type treatment used will depend on the client’s problems
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Psychoanalytic Therapy
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Assumption: Problems stem from unconscious conflicts that usually date back to childhood experiences Aim: help patients gain insight into unconscious conflicts Evaluation: old, outdated, and lacks empirical evidence People: Freud
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Free Association
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Patient lays on couch freely exposes thoughts, feelings, and mental images going on in their mind Therapist must encourage the flow of associations to provide clues to what the unconscious is hiding
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Dream Analysis
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Patient describes the “manifest content” of the dream Therapist uncovers the “latent content” of the dream
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Transference
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The patient projects or transfers unresolved conflicts and feelings onto the therapist (Could be love or hatred of a parent) Therapist helps patients gain insight by reliving painful past relationships
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Psychodynamic Therapy
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Similarity to Psychoanalysis because they try to enhance self-insight by focusing on “unconscious forces” that and childhood experiences Differs from Psychoanalysis because they talk face to face and don’t meet as much
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Humanistic Therapies
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Assumption: Problems stem from obstacles that block personal growth and potential Aim: Focus on the present time (here and now) Evaluation: Unstructured, vague and subjective leaving it with little empirical proof People: Rogers
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Client Centered Therapy
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Refer to people as “clients” and not patients Non-directive Approach where therapist listens without judgment and refrains from directing the client
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Unconditional Positive Regard
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Important element of client centered therapy developed by Carl Rogers Blanket acceptance and support of a person regardless of what ether person says or does.
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Active Listening
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involves echoing, restating and seeking clarification of what the client says and does, and acknowledging feelings
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Empathy
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recognizing the clients feelings and reflecting it back to the client
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Behavioral Therapies (aka Behavior Modification)
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Assumption: Problems stem from destructive behaviors Aim: Use learning principles to replace problem behaviors with constructive behaviors Evaluation: Effective but minimizes emotions People: Wolpe, Cover-Jones
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Counterconditioning
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Using classical conditioning principles to create a new conditioned stimulus Includes exposure and aversive therapies
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Systematic Desensitization
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A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.
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Flooding
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A behavioral technique used to treat phobias in which the client is presented with the feared stimulus until the associated anxiety disappears.
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Aversive Conditioning
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use of something unpleasant, or a punishment, to stop an unwanted behavior
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Token Economy
Token Economy
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A system whereby participants earn generalized conditioned reinforcers (e.g., tokens, chips, points) as an immediate consequence for specific behaviors; participants accumulate tokens and exchange them for items and activities from a menu of backup reinforcers.
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Cognitive Therapies
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Assumption:Faulty thoughts, such as negative self-talk and irrational beliefs, cause psychological problems Aims: change the faulty thoughts and replace with better ones Evaluation: Effective but minimizes emotions People: Ellis & Beck
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Rational Emotive therapy (RET) or Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT)
Rational Emotive therapy (RET) or Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT)
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Albert Ellis’s cognitive therapy to eliminate emotional problems through the rational examination of irrational beliefs.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
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a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
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Group Therapy
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A group of 3-10 people meet to discuss similar problems, role play new behaviors, and receive instant feedback Evaluation: Effective (financially & psychologically) and people realize they are not alone in their problems
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Family Therapy
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Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members hopes to identify unhealthy patterns and create new healthy rules & interactions Couples counseling is very similar
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Placebo Effect
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Defined: you believe it works due to the power of the mind Clients’ and therapists’ believe the treatment will work and therefore it does
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Regression towards the mean
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Defined: the tendency for unusual events (including emotions) to return to their average state Example: When things hit bottom, going to a therapist is more likely to be followed by improvement than by further descent.
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Effective Therapies
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No one therapy has been shown to be best in all cases but some therapies are better suited for particular disorders Most _________ __________ are when the problem is clear cut
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Evidence Based Practice
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involves clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences. In short, available therapies are rigorously evaluated and then applied by clinicians who are mindful of their skills and of each patient’s unique situation.
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EMDR
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therapist waves a finger inferno of the eyes of the client to unlock and reprocess previously frozen traumatic memories
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Light Exposure Therapy
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a client is exposed to daily doses of light that mimics outdoor light used to fight against seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
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Psychopharmacology
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Assumption: biological causes exists for the disorders or behaviors Aims: provide the right medication Evaluation: helpful but medicine cannot solve all problems
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Tardive Dyskinesia
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involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
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Anti-Anxiety Drugs
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How it works: treats anxiety by increasing the level of GABA and therefore depress the activity in the central nervous system Popular Drugs: Xanax, and Valium Negative Side Effects: addictive and only reduces symptoms in the short term
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Typical Anti-Psychotic Drugs
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How it works: treat schizophrenic hallucinations and paranoia by reducing dopamine activity Popular Drugs: Thorazine Negative Side Effects: tardive dyskinesia
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Atypical Anti-Psychotic Drugs
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How it works: treat all schizophrenic symptoms by blocking dopamine & serotonin Popular Drugs: Abilify Negative Side Effects: less harmful than typical ones
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Mood Stabilizing Drugs
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How it works: used to treat bipolar disorder by stabilizing Glutamate levels in order to stabilize current and future moods Popular Drugs: Lithium & Depakote Negative Side Effects: small difference between appropriate and toxic dosage level
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SSRI
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How it works: Treats depression by preventing the reuptake of serotonin Popular Drugs: Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil Advantages: milder side effects making it the most popular anti-depressant
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Lobotomy
Lobotomy
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A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
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a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
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repetitive Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
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performed on wide-awake patients where magnetic energy penetrates only to the brain’s surface does not have the side effects of ECT
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Resistance
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In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
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Interpretation
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In psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistance, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
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Gestalt Therapy
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Get the client to feel whole again.
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Virtual Reality exposure therapy
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An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic stimulations of their greatest fears.
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Behavior Modification: Contingency Management
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Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcements from undesired behaviors.
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Aaron Beck’s Depression Therapy
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He would change their thinking by revealing the absurdity of their self-defeating ideas
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Stress Inoculation Therapy
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Teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations (i.e. saying positive things)
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Seasonal Affective Disorders
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A mood disorder characterized by depression that occurs at the same time every year.
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Therapeutic Alliance
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A bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist a client, who work together constructively to overcome the client’s problem.
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Resilience
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The personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.
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Biomedical Therapies
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These are physiological interventions that focus on the reduction of symptoms associated with psychological disorders. Three procedures used are drug therapies, electroconvulsive (shock) treatment, and psychosurgery.
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Double blind studies
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An experimental procedure in which neither the subjects of the experiment nor the persons administering the experiment know the critical aspects of the experiment.
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Anti-Depressant drugs
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Stimulants for ADD/ADHD
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Deep Brain Stimulation
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a nonsurgical treatment to reduce tremor and to block involuntary movements in patients with motion disorders. Small electric shocks are delivered to the thalamus or the globus pallidus, rendering these parts of the brain inactive without surgically destroying them.
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Psychosurgery
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Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.

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