Unit 1 Review: Essential Terms, MLA Format, Source Material, Writing About Writing (English II)

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The Essay
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A nonfiction prose composition that uses paragraphs and highly structured organizational patterns to support a directly stated thesis or main idea. Compared to fiction and poetry, which use illustration and implication to communicate universal truths or themes, this is a more formal tool used to persuade audiences through rhetoric.
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Source
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Original material, usually published, from which information is gathered for use in a research-based document (essay, research paper, or other project). The two main kinds are PRIMARY and SECONDARY: Source: https://plagiarism.arts.cornell.edu/tutorial/logistics2.cfm
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MLA (Modern Language Association)
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Style for documentation widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature. Generally simpler and more concise than other styles, this style features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work. Source: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/675/01/
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“Shows,” “Says,” “Quotes,” “Tells”
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Examples of a category of words that overused and quickly become inaccurate and lazy. Such “freshman cliches” should be replaced with more accurate, informative verbs. Examples: The author describes the slaughterhouse WHEN HE QUOTES, “It felt like an inferno” (8). (The author is writing original sentences, not quoting someone else). The author’s description of New Orleans SHOWS the reader that New Orleans can be dangerous. (The word “shows” is lazy…does the author CONVINCE the reader, SUGGEST to the reader? DEMONSTRATE? ACCUSE? CONSPIRE?)
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Essay Style Cliches
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Phrases frequently used by students that create and awkward, wordy, or confusing statements. These are errors in rhetorical judgement that often appear in first drafts but should be edited out. Examples include phrases such as – “In conclusion” -“In this essay” -“Many similarities and differences” -“These days” -“In our society today” -“Many people” – “It is up the reader to decide” -“In the __________written by ___________”
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Block Quote
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In MLA, a specific style used to cite long direct quotes that require more than 4 lines or more of an essay measuring margin to margin. Short essays (750-1000 word) are frequently NOT allowed long quotes. Source: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/03/
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Paraphrase
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Information taken from a source that is put into the essay-writer’s own words. This method of including source material must be cited just the same as material directly quoted. Source: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/
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Works Cited Page
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Page of information appearing as the last page of a research paper that contains MLA formatted bibliographic material ONLY for sources used in the paper: Source: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/05/
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Header
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The student’s last name and page number as it appears in the upper right hand corner of a research paper: Source: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
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Parenthetical In-Text Citation
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In MLA style, this is the method writers use to give credit to their sources and usually includes author’s last name and page number (if in print). This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. Source: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/
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Mechanical Error
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These happen when the basic units of a sentence–phrases and clauses–are improperly combined using incorrect punctuation. Source: Top 20 Grammar Errors: http://wac.gsu.edu/49577.html Source: PowerPoints explaining major and minor mechanical errors: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/powerpoint.htm
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Usage Errors
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Common misspellings or incorrect application of words. Examples: -Illusion/Allusion -There/Their/They’re -Its/It’s -A lot (not alot) -Supposed to, used to (not “suppose to” or “use to”) -Fewer/Less -All of a sudden (not “all the sudden”) For many more, refer to this glossary: http://public.wsu.edu/~brians/errors/errors.html
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Expletive
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Words that are used just to fill space that have no grammatical purpose and frequently serve to confuse readers. These are considered an error in rhetorical judgement, as they are often used–unsuccessfully–to provide emphasis or to create an inappropriately casual tone. Examples: In the poem IT says (“It” has no purpose. Sentence should read “The poem states…”) The author’s points THEY SAY (“they” is redundant because the word “points” should be the subject of the sentence; plus points to talk, therefore they cannot “say”)
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Major Sentence Error
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Sentence errors that contain ineffectual use of wording or mechanics (grammar and punctuation) that lead to seriously confusing or misleading meanings for readers. Source: http://www.gbcnv.edu/documents/ASC/docs/00000036.pdf
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Top Three Major Sentence Errors
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Comma Splice, Fused Sentence, Fragment. Source: http://english120.pbworks.com/w/page/19007091/Three%20Common%20sentence%20Errors
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Rubric
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A document that articulates the expectations for an assignment by listing the criteria, or what counts, and describing levels of quality from excellent to poor. Our current rubric (Mr. Ronald Donn, English II) focuses on the following graded dimensions, with each dimension scored 0-5: Focus Language Content Strategy Mechanics
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Wordiness
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Using unnecessarily complex phrases or strings of words that “beat around the bush,” often in an effort to meet an assignment’s word count. See the “Search For/Replace With” chart on page 126 of Donn’s English II Guidelines and Frameworks.
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Redundant
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Unnecessary and ineffective repetition of words and phrases, often accidental, that indicates a lack of revision and editing.
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Revision
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Changes made to large chunks of a composition or project (such as paragraphs, sections, or chapters) for the sake of re-organizing the flow of information or changing the focus of a work.
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Editing
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More detailed changes made to smaller units of a composition (such as sentences, word choice, grammar and punctuation) for the sake of clarity, accuracy, and attention to detail.
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Argument Types
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This type of writing may combine any of these major approaches to explaining or persuading audiences: Persuasion, Problem Solution, and Asserting a Position.
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Argument Type: Persuasion
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Writing meant to assess the value or worth of something and seeks to convince readers to pursue a deeper appreciation. Sample Topic: A paper pursuing the religious allegory of the Harry Potter Series
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Argument Type: Problem/Solution
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Argues that an issue exists, often societal, and presents a potential, logical hypothesis to resolve the problem. Sample Topic: A paper presenting how states might put a larger percentage of sales tax toward public safety awareness.
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Argument Type: Position
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Writing that explores two sides of an issue, inevitably arguing for one side or another (“Pro/Con” writing) and encouraging readers to take follow a CALL TO ACTION in support of the writer’s viewpoint. Sample Topic: A paper attempting to prove that block scheduling in public schools has more benefits than a seven-period day.
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Argument
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Asserts a position or point of view and supports it with evidence, including counterclaim. Argument emphasizes rhetoric and the strategic use of source material. Some examples include sermons or political speeches, is considered DIDACTIC in that it is meant to be educational, morally instructive, or correctional.
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Exposition
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Explains primarily through description, focusing on close study and examination of details of an event or idea that needs exploration and concrete evidence.
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Narrative
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Uses anecdotal evidence to support a thesis, using storytelling either episodically or by relying on fictional techniques of character, plot, irony, foreshadowing, flashback, and symbolism.
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Cause Effect
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Supports thesis through exploring how one thing leads to another, often attempting to reveal previously unexamined processes.
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Process
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Often thought of as “How-To” writing, this writing focuses on instructional writing meant to correctly achieve a goal that requires step-by-step guidance
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Comparison
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Writing that seeks to explore similarities between two or more different things, most likely with the purpose of supporting a thesis that asserts RELEVANT similarities between seemingly dissimilar things.
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Literary Analysis
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Breaking down of texts into formal or social elements, most likely with an emphasis on the artistic qualities of an text. Some such writings focus on the the role the reader plays in making meaning (reader response), while others focus on the social importance and cultural symbolism that belongs to ideological movements or “schools” (Marxism, feminism, deconstruction, historicism), while others tend to deliberately ignore factors outside of the formal qualities of a text itself (close reading).
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Thesis
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Often appearing toward or at the end of the introduction paragraph or paragraphs of nonfiction writing, this is the sentence or sentences that contain the exact TOPIC of an essay as well as the CONTROLLING IDEA (opinion, interpretation, or argumentative claim) about that topic to be explained or argued throughout the essay.
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Integrated Quotes
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Source material DIRECTLY quoted using quotation marks or INDIRECTLY quoted using paraphrase. “Integrated” quotes are made part of one’s own writing by connecting the source material to one’s sentence both grammatically and logically. Source: http://www2.ivcc.edu/rambo/eng1001/quotes.htm
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Indirect Quote
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Using source material in the form of a paraphrase. Example: Schlosser describes the process of flavoring McDonald’s fries as a process that involves as much chemistry as culinary skill (56).
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Direct Quote
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Using source material quoted word for word, using quotation marks. Example: One economist observes simply that to “go on celebrating the marginalization” of female professors presents a real danger to university life (Bearden 90).
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Freestanding Quote
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A quote used as a sentence by itself (i.e., NOT integrated into a sentence). These are treated as a major sentence error.
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“Dialogue Tag” Quote Integration
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When source material is included using the “he said”/ “she said” style most commonly associated with speaking characters. Example: Barry Mendoza’s descriptions of the windmill are breathtaking and sinister at the same time. The author writes, “No cloud passed untorn by its splintered milling blades, nor did any passers-by” (54).
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“Claim:Proof” Quote Integration
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Integrating quotes by following an imperative or demonstrative assertion, declaration, or claim with the quote that serves as an example. For instance: The journalist leaves no doubt in her readers’ minds that she is the true expert beekeeper: “I can tell you if it’s going to rain tomorrow just by listening to the hive outside my window” (Herrod 119).
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Fully Integrated Quote
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The most sophisticated of the three major ways to integrate quotes within one’s paragraph, this use of soure material results when the writer weaves BRIEF, carefully selected source material in the grammar, sound, and sense of the sentence. The quotes are treated as a natural part of a sentence and require NO EXTRA PUNCTUATION other than the quote marks and the required MLA parenthetical citation. Three examples: In “Masque of the Red Death,” Edgar Allen Poe’s “voluptuous scene” foreshadows the grisly deaths of every masquerader in the castle (1). When Prufrock mourns “muttering retreats / Of restless nights” (Eliot 5-6), he invites the reader both to envy and pity him at the same time.
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Rhetorical Appeals (Aristotle’s Three Appeals)
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The major ways in which writing appeals to an audience: LOGOS, ETHOS, PATHOS
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LOGOS
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Appeal to logic (reason-based arguments, rational evidence such as statistics, numeric values, and provable fact, balanced presentation of opinion)
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ETHOS
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Appeal to an author’s authority or credibility (author’s experience and/or documented knowledge, the quality of writing, the trustworthiness of an author’s character)
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PATHOS
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Appeal based on emotional response (powerful diction, use of examples that provoke hope, fear, pity, etc., appeals based on compassion for one’s fellow human beings)
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Rhetorical Figures of Speech
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Also known as “rhetorical devices,” the practically unlimited writing techniques used to persuade readers through giving writing and speech a recognizable physical pattern that translates into effective communication. These include popular “figurative language” such as personification, metaphor, exaggeration, simile, and metonymy, as well poetic devices such as alliteration, repetition, rhyme, and rhythm, as well as ways of phrasing sentences and words such as oxymoron, antithesis, litotes, and aporia. Source: http://www.virtualsalt.com/rhetoric.htm
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Logical Fallacies
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Errors in reasoning both accidental or deliberately used to persuade. Source: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/659/03/
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Parallelism (grammar)
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In grammar this is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical structure. “Faulty parallelism” occurs in grammar when these parts do not balance grammatically. Example of faulty parallelism: I went home yesterday because my head hurt, my stomach ached, and my eyes were stinging very badly. The application of this technique improves writing style and readability, and is thought to make sentences easier to process. It is often achieved using rhetorical devices such as antithesis, anaphora, and climax. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallelism_(grammar)
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Parallelism (rhetoric)
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This method adds balance and rhythm to sentences, giving ideas a smoother flow and thus can be persuasive because of the repetition it employs. Source: http://literarydevices.net/parallelism/
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Voice
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An writer’s distinctive traits based on rhetorical elements of the writer’s style, such as formal or informal vocabulary, elevated or conversational tone, and variation of sentence style.
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Sentence Combining
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Technique of connecting sentences to achieve a variety of sentence length and styles. This is achieved mainly through a variety of accurate transition words, colons and semicolons, and coordinating conjunctions (“FANBOYS”).
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Conjunctive Adverb
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Transition words that provide logical connections while clarifying exact meanings of verbs. Examples: However, nonetheless, regardless, meanwhile, in addition, furthermore, and so on. Source: http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/conjunctiveadverb.htm
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Progressive Tense
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Tense of verbs that uses auxiliary (helping) verbs along with the -ing suffix: “I AM GOING to the store.” This tense is intended to show deliberate, ongoing actions, such as “The freshmen in the top rows WERE TALKING the entire time the President was giving her speech.” This tense should be avoided when the simple past or present tense can be used. NO: Emily Dickinson IS WRITING THAT flowers are like children. YES: Emily Dickinson WRITES that flowers are like children.
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Formal Style
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Style of writing where the OCCASION and the AUDIENCE of the writing call for an unbiased analysis of a topic or close reading of a text. The TONE of such writing tends to be objective, and personal anecdotal material is not appropriate. This style makes an effort to maintain the third person point of view (no “I” or “me”) and rhetorical familiarity (use of “you”) is strongly discouraged. Sentence style in formal writing tends to use more elevated diction, more subordinate clauses, and prohibits use of contractions or informal abbreviations. Such writing focuses primarily on LOGOS or analytical principles.
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Semiformal Style
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Style of writing where the OCCASION of the writing (writing to persuade or argue social issues, for example) allows for anecdotal evidence wherein the writer’s personal experiences and knowledge may be expressed through the first person. The rhetorical purpose of such writing is to balance LOGOS, ETHOS, and PATHOS. Thus, while the primary style may be formal, the subject matter (often social issues or “real-life” occasions) may call for more personal language, vernacular phrasing, and a simpler sentence style.
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Informal Style
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Writing that is conversational in nature and may include personal anecdotes and idiomatic expressions as well as more relaxed rules for punctuation (may use contractions and slang, for example). The purpose of such writing can range from pure entertainment to writing done for special occasions (speeches written for weddings, sermons, or public announcements). For example comparisons of formal and informal writing, follow this source: http://www.word-mart.com/html/formal_and_informal_writing.html
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Rhetorical Purpose
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Often referred to simply as the “purpose for writing,” this is the reason for why a text is written in the first place. The rhetorical purpose depends on many factors–primarily the SOAPSTone elements. Who is the SPEAKER, and how should he/she sound? What is the OCCASION of the writing? Is the subject universal or does it matter only to a specific AUDIENCE? Is the TONE of the writing expected to be formal or informal? These factors–plus the topic itself, of course–determine to what degree a text is meant to entertain, inform, persuade, interpret, and so on.
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“Quote Sandwich”
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A metaphor for remembering the parts of an MLA parenthetical citation. -Original writing: Poe writes. . . -Quote or paraphrase: “The clock struck 12”. . . -Parenthetical citation: (45).
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Malapropism
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Humorous but often accidental misuse of common phrases: “In this day IN age”. . .”The pleasure is all mind” Source: http://www2.fiu.edu/~hauptli/malapropisms.html
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Syntax
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Word order and arrangement of phrases and clauses in a sentence.
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Singular Pronoun Error
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Common, speech-based error in which certain singular pronouns are treated as plural. Common errors are treating “anyone,” “anybody,” “everyone,” “each,” etc. as plural. Example: “Everyone who wants to attend the dance had better bring THEIR ticket.” (Should be “bring HIS or HER ticket”)
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Plagiarism
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Using someone else’s work and claiming it as your own by deliberately or accidentally failing to give credit to the source. This is academic fraud, theft, and can be pursued in the form of disciplinary action or even legal action against the plagiarizer.

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