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Understanding Human Communication – Chapter 12

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Analogy
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Extended comparison that can be used as supporting material in a speech.
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Anecdote
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A brief personal story used to illustrate or support a point in a speech.
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Basic speech structure
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The division of a speech into introduction, body, and conclusion.
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Cause-effect pattern
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Organizing plan for a speech that demonstrates how one or more events result in another event of events.
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Citation
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Brief statement of supporting material in a speech.
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Climax pattern
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Organizing plan for a speech that builds ideas to the point of maximum interest or tension.
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Conclusion
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(of a speech) The final structural unit of a speech, in which the main points are reviewed and final remarks are made to motivate the audience to act or help listeners remember key ideas.
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Example
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A specific case that is used to demonstrate a general idea.
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Formal outline
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A consistent format and set of symbols used to identify the structure of ideas.
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Hypothetical example
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Example that asks an audience to imagine an object or event.
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Introduction
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(of a speech) The first structural unit of a speech, in which the speaker captures the audience’s attention and previews the main points to be covered.
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Narration
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Presentation of speech supporting material as a story with a beginning, middle, and end.
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Problem-solution pattern
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Organizing pattern for a speech that describes an unsatisfactory state of affairs and then proposes a plan to remedy the problem.
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Space pattern
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Organizing plan in a speech that arranges points according to their physical location.
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Statistic
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Numbers arranged or organized to show how a fact or principle is true for a large percentage of cases.
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Testimony
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Supporting material that proves or illustrates a point by citing an authoritative source.
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Time pattern
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Organizing plan for a speech based on chronology.
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Topic pattern
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Organizing plan for a speech that arranges points according to logical types or categories.
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Transition
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Phrase that connects ideas in a speech by showing how one relates to the other.
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Working outline
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Constantly changing organizational aid used in planning a speech.