Understanding Human Behavior Midterm

an intentional act in violation of a criminal code
Criminal behavior is best defined as _______.
-antisocial behavior or behavior in violation of the rights of others
-deviant behavior
-an intentional act in violation of a criminal code
-all of the above

Personality characteristics of rapists
Which one of the following would NOT be a primary concern of sociological criminology?
-Personality characteristics of rapists
-Age characteristics of murderers
-Gender of victims of agg assault
-Relationship of victim to offender

How violent individuals learn their aggressive behavior
What would psychological criminology be primarily concerned with?
-Demographic features of offenders who participate in burglary
-How violent individuals learn their aggressive behavior
-The gender of murder victims
-The time of day when burlgary most often occurs

Obtaining a child’s IQ score as he/she enters adolescence
Which of the following is least consistent with a developmental approach?
-Searching for factors that place a child at risk of engaging in serious delinquency.
-Identifying the age of onset of antisocial behavior
-Searching for protective factors in a child’s life
-Obtaining a child’s IQ score as he/she enters adolescence

just world hypothesis
The belief that most people deserve the misfortune that happens to them is know as the _______.
-fairness doctrine
-equal justice doctrine
-rationalizing attitudes
-just world hypothesis

normally underestimate the true incidence of crime
Official crime stats, such as those produced by the FBI ____.
-normally overestimate the true incidence of crime
-have been found to be highly accurate
-report approx the same amount of crime as victimization surveys
-normally underestimate the true incidence of crime

memory or recall errors, such as telescoping
One limitation of the NCVS is ____.
-it doesn’t account for the “dark figure” of crime
-it provides summary based information
-the numbers of victimizations reported
-memory or recall errors, such as telescoping

provides information on every incident in a criminal event
Compared w/ the UCR, the NIBRS ____.
-is summary based
-has a significant limitation called the hierarchy rule
-provides information on every incident in a criminal event
-includes conviction data as well as arrest data

status offenses
Actions which only juveniles are prohibited from committing (such as violations of curfew, incorrigibility, running away, truancy) are called ______.

are officially reported
It appears that a large portion of criminal homicides _______.
-go unreported
-make up much of the dark figure
-are officially reported
-are biologically motivated

drug use
MTF, ADAM, NHSDA, & DAWN are all examples of surveys dealing with ____.

decreased
When looking at 10-year trends, violent crime in recent years has ______.

Psychiatric criminology
Freud is most associated with what field?
-psychiatric criminology
-sociological criminology
-psychological criminology
-none of the above

all of the above
Psychological criminology is the science of trying to determine how criminal behavior is ____.
-acquired
-evoked
-maintained
-all of the above

Part 1 crimes
Criminal homicide, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault are all examples of what kind of crime, according to the FBI?
-Victimization crimes
-Part 1 crimes
-Part 2 crimes
-Masculine crimes

suggest that crime is committed by all socioeconomic classes
Self-report studies of criminal behavior:
-have normally been used with adult subjects
-are typically inaccurate in most areas studied
-usually attempt to measure only prior involvement in felonies
-suggest that crime is committed by all socioeconomic classes

number of criminal offenses that are not accounted for in official stats
The “dark figure” of crime is the ____.
-number of reported homicides
-increase in violent crime
-number of criminal offenses that are not accounted for in official stats
-number of victimizations reported

habitual misbehavior, especially if it involves direct and harmful actions against others
The term “antisocial behavior” is most often defined as ______.
-habitual misbehavior, especially if it involves direct and harmful actions against others
-undetected illegal or deviant behavior
-psychopathic behavior that is usually violent in nature
-illegal behavior as determined by a court of law

drug use
Since the mid 1990s, which juvenile crimes has seen the most significant increases?

most people have broken the criminal law at some point in their lives
Self-report surveys suggest that _____.
-very few women and girls (less than 1%) commit crime
-very few upper class people break the criminal law
-most people have broken the criminal law at some point in their lives
-college students are more likely to break the law than non-college students

F
T/F:
All criminal behavior has its origins in childhood.

T
T/F:
Children from lower socioeconomic status are more likely to be represented in crime statistics as opposed to those from higher socioeconomic status.

F
T/F:
Research on IQ and delinquency has not supported the relationship between the two.

T
T/F:
Parental alcoholism and depression elevates a child’s risk of engaging in antisocial behavior.

T
T/F:
Several studies have found a strong association between animal cruelty and violent behavior.

developmental pathway
The developmental perspective on crime and antisocial behavior views the life course of all humans as following a ______.
-series of distinct age-related stages of development
-developmental pathway
-trajectory of moral and physical development
-series of sequential stages of caring and empathy
-series of discernible stages of emotional development

risk factors
Those influences in a person’s life that are believed to increase the probability that an individual will engage in criminal behavior are called ______.
-self-regulatory factors
-criminogenic needs
-criminogenic determinants
-impulsive drives
-risk factors

social
Poverty is an example of a(n) _____ risk factor.
-social
-familial
-economic
-psychological
-self-fulfilling

conduct disorder
The diagnostic term which represents a cluster of behaviors in children characterized by repetitive and persistent misbehavior is called _____.
-conduct disorder
-ADHD
-antisocial personality disorder
-psychopathy
-aggression

practices; styles
Strategies employed by parents to achieve specific academic, social, or athletic goals are parental _____; whereas parental attitude toward the child and the emotional climate of the parent-child relationship refers to parental ____.
-styles; practices
-intervention; customs
-hopes; care
-tactics; disciplinary beliefs
-practices; styles

enmeshed style
When parents see an unusually large number of minor problems in their children as problematic, and then resort to authoritarian strategies to deal with the problems, it is called the _______.
-authoritarian approach
-authoritative style
-enmeshed style
-permissive practice approach
-neglecting approach

Parental monitoring
_______ refers to parents’ awareness of their child’s peer associated, free time activities, and physical whereabouts when outside the home.
-Parental watchful participation
-Parental mindfulness
-Parental watchdog approach
-Parental monitoring
-Parental observation

self-regulation
The ability to control one’s own behavior, especially in children, is called _______ by professionals.
-personal control
-self-regulation
-impulse modulation
-impulse restriction
-personal monitoring

all of the above
Poor quality preschool daycare places children at risk for _____.
-poor language skills
-inadequate social skills
-poor cognitive development
-all of the above

socially rejected by peers
Research has shown that kids who are both physically aggressive and _____ have a high probability of becoming serious delinquents.
-living in poverty
-emotionally aggressive
-socially rejected by peers
-struggling in school
-living in a single parent home

9; 16
Several studies suggest that parental monitoring is especially important between the ages of _____ to _____.
-9; 16
-6 weeks; 5
-5; 18
-12; 17
-13; 16

older siblings reinforce antisocial behavior only when the siblings have a close relationship
Research on sibling influence on delinquency indicates:
-the risk of delinquency is lower when the delinquent sibling is closer in age
-older siblings reinforce antisocial behavior regardless of the relationship b/n the siblings
-older siblings reinforce antisocial behavior only when the siblings have a close relationship
-the delinquent sibling reinforces antisocial behavior when siblings are of the same gender

Poor language development
Which of the following is not central to ADHD?
-Easily distracted
-Fidgety
-Impulsiveness
-Poor self-regulation
-Poor language development

repetitive; persistent
In the DSM IV-R, the central feature of conduct disorder is the ____ and _____ pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others.
-cruel; unusual
-aggressive; repetitive
-persistent; aggressive
-repetitive; persistent
-antisocial; aggressive

peer rejection
One of the strongest predictors of later antisocial behavior is ____.
-peer rejection
-low-quality pre-school
-lack of family cohesion
-lack of exposure to nature/outdoors
-excessive television exposure

F
T/F:
As a group, biopsychologists believe that genetics are the sole cause of criminal behavior.

F
T/F:
Most adolescent risk taking behaviors tend to continue throughout adulthood.

T
T/F:
Temperament is determined largely by genetics.

T
T/F:
Neurological dysfunction due to faulty brain development is strongly linked to pathological violence.

F
T/F:
Research on twin studies has shown that, as twin’s age, the influence of a shared environment increases while the influence of a non-shared environment wanes.

socialization
Most kids display aggression in preschool and kindergarten but reduce these behaviors during early school years primarily due to ____.
-socialization
-strict parental discipline
-developmental maturity
-fear
-psychological maturity

Genes may influence one’s susceptibility or resistance to environmental risk factors
Which statement most accurately summarizes findings on twin and adoption studies?
-Genes may influence one’s susceptibility or resistance to environmental risk factors.
-Genes do not significantly impact one’s susceptibility to environmental risk factors.

biological; social
Early onset persistent antisocial behavior seems influenced by ____ while late onset offending is influenced by ____ factors.
-biological; social
-social; biological
-parental; educational
-parental; socioeconomic
-protective; resiliency

monozygotic, monochorionic, identical twins who share an environment
Sarah and Rebecca developed from a single egg, share the same genes, and currently live at the same address, and attend the same school. They are examples of ____.
-monozygotic, dichorionic, nonshared twins
-monozygotic, monochorionic, identical twins who share an environment
-identical, dichorionic, shared siblings
-unichorionic, unizygotic, concordant, monoenvironmental siblings
-monochorionic, identical, concordant twins who shared a membrane

Serotonin
Research has suggested that which brain chemical may play a significant role in aggression and violence?

Callous-unemotional traits
Which personality feature, commonly associated with antisocial behavior, shows high hereditability and little environmental influence?
-optimism
-empathy
-schizophrenic detachment
-temperament
-callous-unemotional traits

lead exposure may be linked to antisocial behavior
The research on environmental risk factors during infancy indicates that _____.
-lead exposure may be linked to antisocial behavior
-trans fats are closely associated with delinquent behavior
-junk foods often lead to persistent and violent criminal behavior
-an organic diet can greatly reduce likelihood of antisocial behavior
-high sugar intake before age two is linked to criminal behavior

7
According to Adrian Raine, how many genes are associated with antisocial behavior in humans?
-1
-4
-7
-at least 20
-over 100

dual systems model
According to Steinberg, high risk taking during adolescence is explained by the interaction of the socioemotional and cognitive control systems. This theory is called the _____.
-dual systems model
-executive function theory
-limbic theory
-introversion/extroversion theory
-positivist model

birth complications combined with early maternal rejection predicted careers of violent crime
In their study involving 4,000 Danish babies ages birth to 34, Raine, Brennan, and Mednick found that ______.
-birth complications combined with early maternal rejection predicted careers of violent crime
-there was no correlation b/n birth complications and antisocial behavior
-early maternal rejection predicted non-violent crime
-birth complications predicted drug use
-marital discord predicted non-violent crime

percentages
Concordance rate is usually expressed in ____.

warrior gene
The MAOA-L gene has been nicknamed the ____.

amygdala; limbic
The small group of nerve cells in the brain involved in aggressive behavior is called the ____ and is part of the ____ system.
-amygdala; limbic
-frontal lobe; central nervous
-hippocampus; limbic
-atempora; activating
-lafleur; peripheral nervous

plasticity
The phenomenon in which the brain’s structure and function are affected by experience is ______.

Twins’ Early Development Study
TEDS is an acronym for ___.
-Twins’ Early Development Study
-Twins Environmental Differentiation Study
-Traditional Environmental Development on Siblings
-The Early Dizygotic Sample
-Twins Environmental Determination Study

False
True/False:
BF Skinner is considered the father of behaviorism.

False
True/False:
The scientific study of the causes, circumstances, individual characteristics, and social contexts of becoming a victim of a crime is called criminology.

True
True/False:
BF Skinner believed there were no differences b/n humans and animals when attempting to modify behavior.

True
True/False:
John B. Watson believed that a rigid scientific approach was crucial to understanding human behavior.

False
True/False:
According to the text, in order to fully understand criminal behavior, it is important to regard all individuals as passive participants in their environment.

behaviorism
Operant and social learning originated from a school of psychological thought called ______.
-psychoanalysis
-socioperant conditioning
-social learning
-behaviorism
-determinism

conceive of the person as being empty-headed
One of the problems w/ classical conditioning explanations of criminal behavior is that they _______.
-have not been empirically supported
-do not account for situational factors
-conceive of the person as being empty-headed
-do not consider biological factors
-none of the above

some hope for goal attainment
In order for frustration to occur, the person must have _______.
-some hope for goal attainment
-a specific frustration gene
-lived under dire poverty conditions
-a history of extensive failure
-an idea where to direct his or her aggression

Albert Bandura
A behavioral scientist who maintains that human behavior, including criminal behavior, is acquired primarily through observational learning or modeling is _______.
-Julian Rotter
-Albert Bandura
-Ronald Akers
-John Watson
-Erik Erikson

our expectancies and how much we value the outcome
According to Julian Rotter, whether a particular pattern of behavior will occur depends on ______.
-operant conditioning
-classical conditioning
-our ability to control biological drives
-biological programming
-our expectancies and how much we value the outcome

social reinforcements given by significant others
According to Akers’ “differential association reinforcement theory,” criminal behavior develops primarily as the result of ________.
-frustration
-heightened expectancies
-social reinforcements given by significant others
-classical conditioning
-modeling

Edwin Sutherland
Akers’ differential association reinforcement theory is based largely on the criminological theory of _______.
-Edwin Sutherland
-Albert Bandura
-Albert Cohen
-Walter Miller
-BF Skinner

most people are obedient to authority even if it causes pain to others
Milgram’s famous studies on obedience to authority indicate that ____.
-people pay little attention to authority figures once they become adults
-in general, Americans are not obedient or conforming
-most people are obedient to authority even if it causes pain to others
-children are less obedient to authority than adults
-adults are more obedient to authority than children

Situational variables are powerful determinants of behavior
Which of the following conclusions is supported by Philip Zimbardo’s Standford Prison Experiment?
-Situational variables are powerful determinants of behavior.
-An individual’s personality is more important than situational factors in determining behavior.
-Most ppl remain true to their principles, even when put into psychologically compelling situations.
-Ppl don’t easily become deindividuated.
-One’s spiritual beliefs largely determine behavior.

criminal behavior is learned like any other behavior
According to Sutherland’s theory of differential association _______.
-criminal behavior can be learned only by associating with others who are criminal
-violent behavior is biologically determined
-criminal behavior is learned like any other behavior
-criminal behavior is learned primarily through classical conditioning
-none of the above

providing appropriate models
If Bandura’s position is essentially correct, then aggressive and violent behavior can be substantially reduced by _______.
-providing appropriate models
-physically punishing children for aggressive behavior
-allowing children to blow off steam in socially desirable ways
-controlling the sale of guns and weapons in our society
-reducing high school truancy

nature of the reinforcement gained
The most important aspect of whether criminal behavior is maintained is the _______.
-personality of the person
-biological makeup of the person
-amount of reinforcement
-degree of social pressure
-nature of the reinforcement gained

normative definitions
According to Akers’ theory, groups tend to adopt certain rules of conduct concerning what is bad, right or wrong, justified or unjustified. These group attitudes are called _________.
-discriminative stimuli
-ecological norms
-normative definitions
-neutralizing stimuli
-group dynamics

reciprocal interaction
The concept that there is a continual exchange of influences b/n the environment and the person is called _______.
-nature-nurture interface
-deindividuation
-mutual interaction
-envirohumanism
-reciprocal interaction

a majority (or about 2/3)
Milgram, in his studies, found that _______ of ppl are willing to shock a victim w/ high levels of electric shock primarily on the basis of request from an experimenter.
-a majority (or about 2/3)
-a small portion (less than 10%)
-about 25%
-about half
-none of the above

reductionism
The position that complex human behavior can be best understood by first studying simple behavior patterns is known as ______.

positive reinforcement
Increasing desired behavior by distributing rewards is considered a _______ _______.

cognitive
The internal processes we generally refer to as thinking and remembering are called _______ by social learning theorists.

fundamental attribution error
A common human tendency to discount the influence of a situation and explain behavior by referring to the personality of an actor is called ______________.

deindividuation
The process whereby ppl lose their identities and feel less responsible in a crowd is called ______.

False
True/False:
Aggressive behavior is always criminal.

True
True/False:
Territoriality is a central concept in Lorenz’s theory of aggression.

True
True/False:
According to the text, DV is a common precipitating factor in road rage.

True
True/False:
The research community is sharply divided on the long-term effects of violent media on aggressive behavior.

False
True/False:
Recent research de-emphasizes the importance of environmental cues in aggressive behavior.

Refusing to speak to someone
Which of the following behaviors represents an example of passive-aggressive behavior?
-Slapping someone
-Refusing to speak to someone
-Shouting at someone
-Shooting someone
-Robbing someone

Larceny
Which of the following crimes is associated w/ instrumental aggression?
-Larceny
-Manslaughter
-Rape
-Vandalism
-Vehicular homicide

make the victim suffer
In hostile aggression, the perp’s primary goal is to ______.
-ridicule the victim
-kill the victim
-make the victim suffer
-obtain an item of value
-avenge a wrong

all of the above define aggression
According to the text, which of the following is included in a definition of aggression?
-A behavior perpetrated to destroy an object
-A behavior perpetrated w/ the intention of harming another individual physically
-A behavior attempted w/ the intention of harming another individual psychologically
-A behavior attempted to destroy an object
-All of the above define aggression

Instrumental
Most forms of white-collar crime would fall into which of the following categories of aggressive behavior?
-Instrumental
-Hostile
-Passive-aggressive
-Functional
-Ambivalent

defend and protect “staked out” territory
Lorenz believed that a principle purpose of aggression in animals is to _____.
-keep the species population down to a survival level
-kill other species
-defend and protect “staked out” territory
-demonstrate which species is the most powerful and controlling
-reproduce

instinctive
Freud believed the causes of aggression to be basically ____.
-instinctive
-learned
-an interaction b/n biological and environmental factors
-biochemical
-none of the above

reduction of aggressive energy through supervised aggressive behavior
The psychodynamic approach to the treatment of aggressive behavior would most likely emphasize _____.
-appropriate modeling
-reinforcement
-reduction of aggressive energy through supervised aggressive behavior
-avoidance of aggressive-provoking stimuli
-none of the above

all of the above
The social learning approach to the reduction of aggressive behavior would most likely emphasize:
-appropriate modeling
-reinforcement for nonaggressive behavior in situations where aggressive behavior was previously demonstrated
-punishment of aggressive models
-all of the above
-none of the above

persistent; resistant
Cognitive scripts are ____ behavioral patterns for certain situations that are _____ to change.
-available; relatively easy
-persistent; resistant
-innate; impossible
-aggressive; relatively easy
-simple; impossible

reactive aggression
The type of aggression that includes anger expressions, temper tantrums, and vengeful hostility, and more generally “hot-blooded” aggressive acts is called _____.
-proactive aggression
-mediated aggression
-aggressive mimicry
-reactive aggression
-expressive aggression

Gender differences are due to cultural and socialization processes that promote different kinds of aggression
Which statement most accurately reflects research findings on gender differences in aggression?
-Boys are generally more aggressive than girls
-Gender differences in aggression are primarily due to biology
-Gender differences are due to cultural and socialization processes that promote different kinds of aggression
-Girls are more aggressive than boys during the pre-school years only
-Boys are more overtly aggressive than girls during the pre-school years, then aggression rapidly decreases

evolutionary psychology
An approach in psychology that views human cognition and behavior in a broadly Darwinian context of adaptation to evolving physical and social environments is called ________.
-Darwinian psychology
-adaptation psychology
-positive psychology
-evolutionary psychology
-psychodynamic psychology

A scene in which the perp is punished for violent behavior
Research on media effects of violence suggests that which of the following should have the least negative effect on a child?
-A violent scene in which the child identifies w/ the perp
-A scene in which the perp is punished for violent behavior
-A scene in which the perp is rewarded for violence
-Violence in cartoons
-All of the scenarios described have the same effect on children

difference in degree
The perspective of human nature that argues that humans are intimately tied to their animal ancestry in important and significant ways is known as the __________ perspective.

road rage
The term defined as an incident in which an angry, impatient, or aroused motorist INTENTIONALLY injures or kills, or tries to injure or kill, another motorist, passenger, or pedestrian, in response to a traffic dispute, altercation, or grievance is called _______.

Rumination
________ refers to self-focused attention toward one’s thoughts and feelings. In other words, the person keeps thinking about an incident long after it’s over.

excitation transfer
After getting into a physical altercation w/ a coworker at his job site, George tailgates 2 cars on the drive home and throws a cell phone at his wife when he arrives home to find that dinner isn’t ready. The above scenario is an example of Zillman’s (1988) _________ theory which is closely associated w/ displaced aggression theory.

proactive
Bullying is an example of _____ aggression which is reward driven and more “cold-blooded.”

lax style of parenting
A mother who feels helpless that her 12 year old son is using marijuana and therefore allows the behavior to continue is exhibiting _______.
-intermittent punishment
-authoritative parenting style
-internal locust of control
-persuasive denial
-lax style of parenting

all of the above
Low parental monitoring is associated w/:
-higher levels of antisocial behavior
-higher levels of violence
-earlier initiation of drug abuse
-earlier initiation of alcohol abuse
-all of the above

Conduct disorder
ADHD frequently co-occurs w/ which diagnostic category?
-mental disorder
-conduct disorder
-status offenses
-psychopathy
-substance abuse

The exact nature of the relationship b/n poverty and violence is not well understood
Which one of the following statements is correct?
-The exact nature of the relationship b/n poverty and violence is not well understood.
-It is quite clear that poverty is the major cause of crime and delinquency.
-Poverty does not appear to be a risk factor in the development of crime.
-The current research suggests that there is no relationship b/n poverty and crime.
-Poverty, in combination w/ low IQ score, puts one at significant risk for ADHD.

Rejection by peers in elementary school
Of the following, which is associated w/ a high probability of delinquent behavior in high school?
-Parental divorce
-Lower socioeconomic class
-Rejection by peers in elementary school
-Below average intelligence
-Lack of involvement in team sports

all of the above
According to the social learning position, the manifestation of aggressive behavior depends on:
-what happens to the model as a consequence of his/her behavior.
-the reinforcement gained as a result of the behavior.
-the attention and cognitive ability of the observer when watching the model.
-all of the above.
-a and b only

Sociological
______ criminology: Examines the relationships of demographic and group variables to crime. Probes the situational or environmental factors that are most conducive to criminal action. Directs attention to topics that reflect unequal distribution of power in society.

Psychological
______ criminology: The science of the behavior and mental processes of the person who commits crime. Focuses on individual criminal behavior — how it’s acquired, evoked, maintained, and modified. Examines the social and personality influences on criminal behavior, including mental processes that mediate behavior.

Conformity perspective, nonconformist perspective, and learning perspective
What are the 3 perspectives of human nature?

Conformity
_____ perspective: Humans are creatures of conformity who want to do the “right” thing. Human beings are basically “good” ppl trying to live to their fullest potential.

Nonconformist
_____ perspective: Assumes that human beings are basically undisciplined creatures. Humans would commit crime indiscriminately w/out the constraints of the rules and regulations of society. Humans are fundamentally “unruly”.

Learning
_____ perspective: Humans are born neutral (neither inherently conforming nor unruly). Humans learn virtually all their behavior, beliefs, and tendencies from the social environment.

Official police reports, self-report studies, national or regional victimization studies, and surveillance systems
What are the predominant methods of measuring crime?

What are official police reports?
Law enforcement agencies report crime and arrests. EX= the FBI’s UCR and the NIBRS.

What are self-report surveys?
Members of a sample population are asked what offenses they have committed and how often. EX= Natl Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, NHSDA, NYSFS, ADAM, and MTF.

What are national or regional victimization studies?
Representative samples of households or businesses are asked whether and how often they have been victims of specified crime. EX= NCVS and Violence Against Women Study

What are surveillance systems?
Uses data already collected from existing agencies, orgs, and resources in the field such as hospitals, half way house, drug rehab facilities, and ethnographers. (DAWN & Pulsecheck).

What is the NIBRS?
The more updated and detailed version of the UCR. Data about incidents reported to police and arrest data. More detailed and precise info than UCR. No hierarchy rule. Distinguishes b/n attempted and completed crimes. 2 categories of offenses = Group A (serious offenses) and Group B (less serious offenses). Less agencies participate.

How does the UCR differ from the NIBRS?
Summarizes reported crime and arrest stats. Has been collected by the FBI since 1930 so data reveals trends in crime over time. It doesn’t tabulate all crimes (EX=when several different crimes are committed on one occasion only the most serious is counted). Most familiar to law enforcement agencies. Oldest and most well known source of crime data in the US. Not a lot of info is provided on the offenses other than the summary count.

What are the strengths of self-report surveys?
Data may be better approximation of true crime rates than official reports. This is one measure of the dark figure of crime which is crime unobserved or unreported to law enforcement. It may include offenses not known to police, such as victimless crimes.

What are the weaknesses of self-report surveys?
There is often distortion since individuals report their own behavior. Subjects may underreport behavior (especially more serious behavior) or have memory recall errors.

What are status offenses?
Behavior forbidden only to juveniles b/c of their age. They aren’t against the criminal code. EX= running away from home, curfew violations, underage drinking, truancy, and incorrigibility.

What are juvenile offenses?
Offenses committed by juveniles that are against the criminal code; that is, both juveniles and adults can commit them. This would include drinking and driving, sexual assault, theft, murder, and drug possession or sale.

Social risk factors, parental and family risk factors, and psychological risk factors
What 3 categories of risk factors are covered in the textbook?

What are social risk factor examples?
Peer rejection and preschool experiences, poverty and impoverished resources, antisocial peers.

What are parental and family risk factor examples?
Poor parental monitoring and supervision, parental alcoholism, lack of attachment.

What are psychological risk factor examples?
Lack of empathy, poor interpersonal skills, inadequate cognitive and language ability, a troublesome temperament, inadequate self-regulation skills.

What is ADHD?
A diagnosis consisting of difficulty staying on task, excessive motor activity, and impulsivity. Children w/ this often have impaired social skills, but they don’t generally display antisocial behavior.

What is conduct disorder?
A cluster of behaviors characterized by persistent and repetitive misbehavior, such as stealing or hurting others. Behaviors often continue throughout adulthood if not addressed at an early age.

Authoritarian parents, permissive parents, authoritative parents, and neglecting parents
What are Baumrind’s 4 parental styles?

What are authoritarian parents?
Attempt to shape, control, and evaluate the behavior of their kids in accordance w/ some preestablished, absolute standard. Numerous rules and regulations which must be rigidly observed. Discourage any verbal exchanges that imply equality b/n parent and child. Expect their kids to be obedient and unquestioningly respectful of authority.

What are permissive parents?
Display tolerant, nonpunitive, accepting attitudes toward their kid’s behavior, including expressions of aggressive and sexual impulses. Avoid asserting authority or imposing social controls or restrictions on the child’s behavior. Try to direct their kid’s activities in a rational, issue-oriented manner. Frequent decision-making exchanges and a general spirit of open communication b/n parents and kids.

What are authoritative parents?
Expect age-related ” mature” behavior from the child, and they apply firm, consistent enforcement of family rules and standards. At the same time, they encourage independence and individuality.

What are neglecting parents?
Demonstrate detachment and very little involvement in their kid’s life or activities. Neither demanding nor responsive.

What are behavior genetics?
Focuses on the role genes play in behavior. Examines the genetic and environmental sources of behavioral differences. Often through research on twin studies.

What are molecular genetics?
Focuses on the genes that predispose individuals to antisocial behavior. This research examines genes at the molecular level.

What are dizygotic twins?
Fraternal, 2 different eggs, genetically as different as non-twin siblings.

What are monozygotic twins?
Identical, same egg and share same genes.

50
Genes account for ___% of the variation in antisocial behavior.

What is concordance?
The genetics term for the degree to which related pairs of subjects both show a particular behavior or condition. It’s a key concept in twin study research and has been useful in determining the relevance of heredity to criminal behavior.

What is plasticity?
The phenomenon in which both structure and function of the developing brain is profoundly responsive to experience. It indicates that the brain is capable of growing throughout adulthood. Therefore, negative early experiences can be modified later in life.

What is serotonin?
A neurotransmitter located in the frontal lobe of the brain. Low levels have been found to promote aggression and violence.

What is the executive function?
The higher level cognitive processes that organize and plan behavior such as reasoning and logic. It’s related to problem-solving and self-control. Research studies have found a significant relationship b/n its deficits and antisocial behavior.

What is a shared environment?
Include prenatal and life experiences affecting both twins in the same way. This environment will likely promote high behavioral similarity b/n twin pairs. These environments contribute to about 15-20% of variation in antisocial behavior.

What is the dual systems model?
High risk taking during adolescence is explained by the interaction of the socioemotional and cognitive control systems. The socioemotional system matures by age 14 and involves reward seeking, social info, and emotional reactions. The cognitive control system doesn’t mature until early adulthood and includes self-regulation and impulse control. Juveniles have the impulses and emotions with the impulse control.

What is a non-shared environment?
Refer to different environments (EX= different homes, schools, activities, friendships). Accounts for roughly 30% of variation in antisocial behavior.

What is frustration-induced criminality?
When a behavior directed at a goal is blocked, arousal increases, the behavior is energized. When one employs violence to reduce frustration, the behavior will become more vigorous and this violent behavior will be reinforced.

What are crimes of obedience?
An act performed in response to orders from authority that is considered immoral or illegal to themselves or the larger community.

physiological
The following are _______ factors that have been associated w/ aggression:
-Physiological arousal seems to play a significant role in aggressive and violent behavior.
-High levels of arousal facilitate aggressive behavior in certain situations.
-Very high arousal can interfere w/ self-awareness and self-control; therefore, consequences of behavior may not be considered

What are cognitive scripts?
Patterns of behavior that ppl follow when confronted w/ an unfamiliar or new situation. May be learned by direct experience or by observing significant others. Must be rehearsed from time to time to become established.

What is weapons effect?
There mere presence of a weapon increases the probability that aggression will occur.

What is hostile attribution bias?
A person interprets the actions of others as hostile toward him/her. Ambiguous actions are interpreted as hostile and threatening by aggression-prone adults and kids. A stable attribute that continues into adulthood.

What is overt aggression?
Involves direct confrontation w/ victims, high level of arousal and violence, and a lack of social cognitions for coming up w/ nonaggressive solutions. It can begin very early in childhood, especially in boys.

What is covert aggression?
Characterized by indirect behavior, less emotions, and cognitive capabilities such as planfulness. It’s more likely to evolve over time as a strategy for interacting w/ others or obtaining material goods.

What is reactive aggression?
Includes anger expressions, temper tantrums, and vengeful hostility, and more generally “hot-blooded,” unplanned aggressive acts. It’s used in response to the actions of others or simply not getting one’s way. It appears to be a reaction to frustration and is associated w/ a lack of control due to high states of arousal. It’s a hostile act displayed in response to a perceived threat or provocation.

What is proactive aggression?
Includes bullying, domination, teasing, name-calling, and coercive acts. More driven by expectations of rewards, less emotional than reactive.

What is the UCR?
Provides info relating to crimes that come to attention of local and state law enforcement. Data obtained directly from law enforcement agencies and reported to FBI. Includes reported crime and arrest data. Reported crime data focus on 8 offenses (4 violent and 4 property), called Part 1 crimes. This section gives us crime rate, which is % of crime known to police per 100K pop. Data include city and region where crime was committed and whether crime was cleared. Arrest data, provided for Part 1 and Part 2 crimes, give us the age, gender, and race of persons arrested. Only counts those crimes observed by or reported to participating agencies.

What is the NCVS?
Annual data collection done by US Census Bureau for the BJS. It’s a survey where interviewed ppl are asked about the number and characteristics of victimizations experienced during prior 6 months. Collects info on nonfatal personal crimes (rape, sexual assault, robbery, agg and simple assault, and personal larceny) and household property crimes (burglary, motor vehicle theft, and other theft) both reported and not reported to police. Primary source of info on criminal victimization. Same houses are interviewed every 6 months for 3 years, and during each session they are asked about crime experienced over past 6 months. Victims are able to describe impact of crime and characteristics of violent offenders. Provides details of victims (such as age, race, sex, marital status, education, income, and whether victim and offender were related to each other) and about the crimes themselves. Good source of info about crime incidents, independent of data collected by law enforcement agencies throughout the country.

NCVS
“Yearly, data obtained from natlly representative sample of about 90K homes, comprising nearly 160K ppl, on the frequency, characteristics, and consequences of criminal victimization. Survey enables BJS to estimate the likelihood of victimization by rape, sexual assault, robbery, agg and simple assault, theft, home burglary, and motor vehicle theft for pop as a whole and for segments of pop such as women, the elderly, members of various racial or ethnic groups, city dwellers, and other groups. Provides largest natl forum for victims to describe impact of crime and characteristics of violent offenders.”
The info above describes the _________.

What is agentic state?
When ppl are able to disengage from their moral responsibility and act out as an agent of the perceived expert. Participants assumed experimenter was a competent expert. This allows them to believe the decision or choice is out of their hands as they are just an actor or agent for the greater authority/expert.

temperament
One’s ______ influences how he/she interacts w/ the social environment and in reciprocal fashion how the social environment will interact w/ him/her.

difficult
Kids who have ______ temperaments exhibit moodiness and/or poor impulse control.

moral disengagement
Individuals internalize moral principles that bring self-worth when they are maintained and self-condemnation when they are violated. These principles are learned through social learning. Moral principles influence the extent to which they will follow immoral or illegal orders. Bandura supposes that before a person can engage in behaviors that violate their moral principles, he/she has to disengage his/her own moral sanctions to avoid self-condemnation.
The above is an explanation of Bandura’s theory of ________.

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