UK COM 249- Final Exam

question
Edward Muybridge and Etienne Marey are famous for which of the following?
answer
They are conducted early experiments on depicting motion photos
question
Which of the following was the first major movie with multiple scenes and a plot?
answer
The Great Train Robbery
question
Who developed the earliest portable movie cameras?
answer
Augusta-Marie and Louis-Jean Lumiere
question
Who was the director of Birth of a Nation, the controversial silent film about the Civil War?
answer
D. W. Griffith
question
Among the earliest movie stars in the United States were which of the following?
answer
Florence Lawrence
question
In the 1930s and 1940s, the studios required theaters to schedule a large number of lesser movies in order to get one or to major films. This practice was known as which of the following?
answer
Block Booking
question
Movie attendance peaked in which year?
answer
1946
question
The larger number of smaller theaters ground together that replaced the larger Art Deco movie places are known as which of the following?
answer
Multiplexes
question
The film that created the idea of the summer blockbuster was which of the following?
answer
Jaws
question
Which of the following was the movie that sold the most tickets of all time?
answer
Gone With The Wind
question
As of 2006, approximately ________ percent of all households had DVD players?
answer
81 %
question
The year 2005 was noteworthy in the movie industry for which of the following reason?
answer
It was the first time in 2 decades that the annual overall box office declined
question
Ancillary markets for movies include which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
Which of the following movies proved the value of Internet promotion?
answer
The Blair Witch Project
question
Which of the following was one of the earliest rebellions against the controls of the studio system?
answer
The establishment go United Artists
question
Once it was introduced, almost every movie made used which of the following technologies?
answer
Sound
question
The blacklist of the 1940s and 1950s was driven by which of the following?
answer
A fear of communism
question
Hollywood's response to the rise of television was to do which of the following?
answer
Start making larger-than-life movies
question
Movies such as Dial M for Murder, The Ten Commandments, and Spartacus were a response to which of the following?
answer
The rising size of television audiences
question
Movie studios are responding to the growth of movie piracy by doing which of the following?
answer
Releasing the movie to as many theaters as possible
question
Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow was a significant movie for which of the following?
answer
It was the first major American movie to be filmed with all digital sets and backgrounds
question
The surprise movie hit 300 was a success in part for which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
Movie profitability is determined by which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
The movie High School Musical 3: Senior Year was a profitable hit because...?
answer
It had a small budget, lots of product tie-ins, and high video sales
question
Spike Lee has maintained his independence as a movie director by doing which of the following?
answer
Controlling the cost of his movies
question
Why did the Hays Office, run by the movie industry, censor films?
answer
Because many states and communities were threatening to set up local censorship boards that might have inconsistent standards of what they would or would not accept
question
Philo T. Farnsworth invented which of the following?
answer
The basic technology for television
question
When you watch a modern situation comedy on television that is filmed or taped before a live studio audience using multiple cameras, you are seeing the influence of which of the following?
answer
I Love Lucy
question
All U.S. television broadcasting became digital in which year?
answer
2009
question
Network affiliates are which of the following?
answer
Local broadcast stations that carry network programming
question
Which of the following created the Public Broadcasting System?
answer
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
question
PBS attracted its first significant audience with which of the following programs?
answer
Sesame Street
question
The major company doing television ratings in the United States is which of the following
answer
Nielsen Media Research
question
Over the last thirty years, the Big Three television networks (ABC, CBS, NBC) have done which of the following?
answer
They have lost 1/3 of all their viewers to cable, syndicated programming, and independent stations
question
The show LOST is notable for featuring which of the following?
answer
The first prime-time network character who doesn't speak English
question
What is the 5th highest rated television network in the United States?
answer
Univision
question
What are telenovelas?
answer
Spanish-language television soap operas
question
In the 1960s, television programs were not allowed to show which of the following?
answer
A married couple sharing a bed
question
Nielsen Media Research says the average American spends _____________ hours a day watching television?
answer
4
question
The so-called V-chip is designed to do which of the following?
answer
Stop children from seeing offensive programs on V-chip equipped television sets
question
Jon Stewart, on Comedy Central's The Daily Show, tends to...?
answer
All of the above
question
The show I love Lucy was controversial when it first came out for which of the following?
answer
It had the white Lucille Ball marries to the Cuban American Desi Arnaz
question
Cable television was initially developed as a way of doing which of the following?
answer
Delivering broadcast television signals to communities with poor reception
question
When HBO first went on the air on 1975, the broadcast networks made which of the following responses?
answer
They largely ignored it
question
Which of the following statements about premium cable channels is true?
answer
They are the channel that you pay extra for and that of not carry commercials, such as HBO and Showtime
question
The conversion from analog to digital television broadcasting was deployed by several months in 2009 because...?
answer
Many fears that some poor consumers were not ready for the conversion
question
Why are cable networks such as MTV and CNN more profitable than the Big Four broadcast networks?
answer
Cable networks receive revenue from advertising and subscription revenue. Broadcast networks only receive advertising revenue
question
Broadcast networks are more successful than ever these days for which of the following reasons?
answer
You can't fool me; broadcast networks are losing audience share and advertisers
question
Television networks are now showing more diverse programming for which of the following reasons?
answer
They want to attract a larger audience
question
Critics worry that television has a strong influence on young people because..?
answer
All of the above
question
One outcome of Janet Jackson's 2004 Super Bowl "wardrobe malfunction" was which of the following?
answer
Individual stations became cautious about broadcasting serious programs that contained nudity or violence
question
Audience members can now interact with cable and broadcast television by doing which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
Why are broadcast networks making their hit programs available on the Internet?
answer
Because if the networks didn't put legal copies up on the Internet, people would just share pirated copies
question
Our definition of what is broadcasting is being changed by the fact that you can now do which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
Twitter was originally created so people could share their answers to the question...?
answer
What are you doing?
question
Paul Baran's idea of cutting messages into small pieces and sending them on the easiest route was known as which of the following?
answer
Packet switching
question
ARPAnet, a predecessor of the Internet, was created so which of the following?
answer
Allow incompatible computers to talk with each other
question
Who developed TCP/IP, the original specification for the Internet's protocols?
answer
Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf
question
Which of the following is the address for where Web pages are located?
answer
URL
question
The first Web browser that could handle graphics was called which of the following?
answer
Mosaic
question
People connect to the Internet using which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
The movie that revolutionized Internet-based promotion of films was which of the following?
answer
The Blair Witch Project
question
__________ is/are a major new medium of mass communication?
answer
Video Games
question
The word cyberspace is used to mean which of the following?
answer
The Internet and the interactions that take place there
question
Cyberpunk literature and films deal with which of the following themes?
answer
The differences between humans and machines
question
World-wide, _______ perfect of the population has access to the Internet?
answer
24%
question
In the United States, ________ percent of the population has access to the Internet at home.
answer
73%
question
On the Web site, cookies are which of the following?
answer
Files used to identify and track visitors at a Web site
question
Web sites use ________ to track users while they are on the site
answer
Small files called cookies
question
Astronomer and computers experts Clifford Stoll says that people should spend _______ time online.
answer
Less
question
Twitter's big innovation was...?
answer
Connecting mobile Internet, mobile phones, and computer-based Internet as part of a single channel
question
Radio and the Internet have which of the following in common?
answer
They both were initially developed as tools for machine-assisted interpersonal communication
question
The next-generation Internet will be used primarily for which of the following?
answer
Providing high quality video and audio links
question
According to Tim Berners-Lee, which of the following is a principle upon which the Web is based?
answer
Users should be able to link to any document at anywhere in the world
question
The World Wide Web became the standard for posting documents the internet because its creators did which of the following?
answer
Gave it away for free
question
An advantage that web sites run by legacy media have over purely new media sites is which of the following?
answer
They have a reliable source of content
question
The NewYork Times, the Washington Post, and USA Today could all be considered __________ media outlets?
answer
Click and mortar
question
Video games could be considered a new mass media medium because...?
answer
The consoles can be used to deliver a range of media content, and video games are becoming a new way to deliver advertising
question
Cyberpunk author William Gibson has expressed concern over which of the following?
answer
That people will get such specialized news through online filter that they will be isolated from news they need
question
One of the big advantage of distributing a movie over the Internet instead of in theaters in which of the following?
answer
The cost of online distribution is close to zero
question
Which of the following tends to be true of user-written encyclopedias such as Wikipedia?
answer
They tend to have articles on a wide range of topics
question
Which of the following are true of Chinese bloggers?
answer
They can be published if they are critical of the government
question
Arthur Sulzberger, publisher o the New York Times, has said which of the following?
answer
The Times in in the business of selling news and advertising space
question
________________ is a feature film director who also directs television commercials?
answer
Spike Lee, Ridley Scott, Micheal Mann
question
The innovation in the ways Pears' soap marketed its product was that it was the first to use which of the following?
answer
A brand name
question
The term "economy of abundance" means which of the following?
answer
There are as many or more goods available as people want to buy
question
William Paley became convinced of the potential of radio advertising rights after he did which of the following?
answer
He used radio advertising for his family's cigar company
question
The advertising agency department responsible for deciding where to place the advertising is which of the following?
answer
Media planning
question
The advertising agency department responsible for deciding the target market for the advertising is which of the following?
answer
Research and planning
question
The advertising agency department responsible for developing that actual advertisements is which of the following?
answer
Creative activity
question
In advertising, the cost of reaching 1,000 consumers with a particular advertisements a particular medium is known as which of the following?
answer
CPM
question
The biggest advertising medium in the United States for which audience size is measured is which if the following?
answer
Magazines
question
In radio, the term "drive time" means which of the following?
answer
Morning and afternoon commute times
question
Until the recession of 2009, the fastest growing advertising media type in the United States was which of the following?
answer
Internet
question
According to the text, the gay market is seen as desirable to advertisers for which of the following?
answer
It is perceived as relatively
question
Broadcast television networks carry an average of ___________ of advertising and promotion clutter per reason?
answer
15 minutes
question
British television viewers see an average of _______ commercials per week.
answer
311
question
In 2008,companies spent _____ a year advertising to children.
answer
$17 billion
question
In 2006, the advertising industry revised its guidelines for advertising _________ to children.
answer
Food
question
The social process by which people go from having the identities they are born with, to being able to decide who they want to be is which of the following?
answer
Modernization
question
The processor going from having work done by muscle to being done by machines is which of the following?
answer
Industrialization
question
The first major mass medium to be supported primarily by advertising the United States was which of the following?
answer
Newspapers
question
An example of a direct action message would be which of the following?
answer
A local grocery store ad for fresh produce
question
An example of an indirect action message would be which of the following?
answer
An ad by Honda promoting corporate responsibility through the fuel efficiency of its lie of SUVs
question
An example of an advocacy message would be which of the following?
answer
A political ad promoting reduced government spending
question
An example of an business-tobusiness ad would be which of the following?
answer
An ad selling cleaning services to hotels
question
In which way are newspaper ads more effective than radio or TV ads?
answer
Newspaper ads allow advertisers to give detailed information
question
What is an advantage of radio advertising over magazine ads?
answer
Radio ads have shorter lead time than magazine ads
question
An advertisement designed to reach an audience in a set of southern suburbs of Minneapolis would be called __________ advertising?
answer
Zoned
question
An advertisement designed to sell soda to young hip audience would be called ____________ advertising?
answer
Targeted
question
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl commercial was designed to do which of the following?
answer
Make people aware that Apple was introducing a new computer
question
One of the biggest problems in controlling advertising of junk food to children is which of the following?
answer
It is difficult to decide on hat is junk food and what is healthy food
question
Integrated marketing communication campaigns typically involve?
answer
Advertising, public relations, sales promotions
question
The Denny's 2009 Super Bowl integrated marketing communication including which of the following?
answer
An effective mix of advertising, public relations, and sales promotion
question
The person most responsible for creating the fair use doctrine for American copyright law is...
answer
Barbara Ringer
question
The belief that Americans should be allowed to freely express themselves originated with which of the following
answer
First Amendment
question
The John Peter Zenger case established which of the following?
answer
Truth as an absolute defense against libel
question
The law passed by congress following the 9/11 attacks which expanded the ability of the FBI to look into people's media use and tap their phones is known as which of the following?
answer
USA PATRIOT ACT
question
The definition of libel is which of the following?
answer
Any published statement that unjustifiably exposes someone to ridicule or contempt
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question
Edward Muybridge and Etienne Marey are famous for which of the following?
answer
They are conducted early experiments on depicting motion photos
question
Which of the following was the first major movie with multiple scenes and a plot?
answer
The Great Train Robbery
question
Who developed the earliest portable movie cameras?
answer
Augusta-Marie and Louis-Jean Lumiere
question
Who was the director of Birth of a Nation, the controversial silent film about the Civil War?
answer
D. W. Griffith
question
Among the earliest movie stars in the United States were which of the following?
answer
Florence Lawrence
question
In the 1930s and 1940s, the studios required theaters to schedule a large number of lesser movies in order to get one or to major films. This practice was known as which of the following?
answer
Block Booking
question
Movie attendance peaked in which year?
answer
1946
question
The larger number of smaller theaters ground together that replaced the larger Art Deco movie places are known as which of the following?
answer
Multiplexes
question
The film that created the idea of the summer blockbuster was which of the following?
answer
Jaws
question
Which of the following was the movie that sold the most tickets of all time?
answer
Gone With The Wind
question
As of 2006, approximately ________ percent of all households had DVD players?
answer
81 %
question
The year 2005 was noteworthy in the movie industry for which of the following reason?
answer
It was the first time in 2 decades that the annual overall box office declined
question
Ancillary markets for movies include which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
Which of the following movies proved the value of Internet promotion?
answer
The Blair Witch Project
question
Which of the following was one of the earliest rebellions against the controls of the studio system?
answer
The establishment go United Artists
question
Once it was introduced, almost every movie made used which of the following technologies?
answer
Sound
question
The blacklist of the 1940s and 1950s was driven by which of the following?
answer
A fear of communism
question
Hollywood's response to the rise of television was to do which of the following?
answer
Start making larger-than-life movies
question
Movies such as Dial M for Murder, The Ten Commandments, and Spartacus were a response to which of the following?
answer
The rising size of television audiences
question
Movie studios are responding to the growth of movie piracy by doing which of the following?
answer
Releasing the movie to as many theaters as possible
question
Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow was a significant movie for which of the following?
answer
It was the first major American movie to be filmed with all digital sets and backgrounds
question
The surprise movie hit 300 was a success in part for which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
Movie profitability is determined by which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
The movie High School Musical 3: Senior Year was a profitable hit because...?
answer
It had a small budget, lots of product tie-ins, and high video sales
question
Spike Lee has maintained his independence as a movie director by doing which of the following?
answer
Controlling the cost of his movies
question
Why did the Hays Office, run by the movie industry, censor films?
answer
Because many states and communities were threatening to set up local censorship boards that might have inconsistent standards of what they would or would not accept
question
Philo T. Farnsworth invented which of the following?
answer
The basic technology for television
question
When you watch a modern situation comedy on television that is filmed or taped before a live studio audience using multiple cameras, you are seeing the influence of which of the following?
answer
I Love Lucy
question
All U.S. television broadcasting became digital in which year?
answer
2009
question
Network affiliates are which of the following?
answer
Local broadcast stations that carry network programming
question
Which of the following created the Public Broadcasting System?
answer
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
question
PBS attracted its first significant audience with which of the following programs?
answer
Sesame Street
question
The major company doing television ratings in the United States is which of the following
answer
Nielsen Media Research
question
Over the last thirty years, the Big Three television networks (ABC, CBS, NBC) have done which of the following?
answer
They have lost 1/3 of all their viewers to cable, syndicated programming, and independent stations
question
The show LOST is notable for featuring which of the following?
answer
The first prime-time network character who doesn't speak English
question
What is the 5th highest rated television network in the United States?
answer
Univision
question
What are telenovelas?
answer
Spanish-language television soap operas
question
In the 1960s, television programs were not allowed to show which of the following?
answer
A married couple sharing a bed
question
Nielsen Media Research says the average American spends _____________ hours a day watching television?
answer
4
question
The so-called V-chip is designed to do which of the following?
answer
Stop children from seeing offensive programs on V-chip equipped television sets
question
Jon Stewart, on Comedy Central's The Daily Show, tends to...?
answer
All of the above
question
The show I love Lucy was controversial when it first came out for which of the following?
answer
It had the white Lucille Ball marries to the Cuban American Desi Arnaz
question
Cable television was initially developed as a way of doing which of the following?
answer
Delivering broadcast television signals to communities with poor reception
question
When HBO first went on the air on 1975, the broadcast networks made which of the following responses?
answer
They largely ignored it
question
Which of the following statements about premium cable channels is true?
answer
They are the channel that you pay extra for and that of not carry commercials, such as HBO and Showtime
question
The conversion from analog to digital television broadcasting was deployed by several months in 2009 because...?
answer
Many fears that some poor consumers were not ready for the conversion
question
Why are cable networks such as MTV and CNN more profitable than the Big Four broadcast networks?
answer
Cable networks receive revenue from advertising and subscription revenue. Broadcast networks only receive advertising revenue
question
Broadcast networks are more successful than ever these days for which of the following reasons?
answer
You can't fool me; broadcast networks are losing audience share and advertisers
question
Television networks are now showing more diverse programming for which of the following reasons?
answer
They want to attract a larger audience
question
Critics worry that television has a strong influence on young people because..?
answer
All of the above
question
One outcome of Janet Jackson's 2004 Super Bowl "wardrobe malfunction" was which of the following?
answer
Individual stations became cautious about broadcasting serious programs that contained nudity or violence
question
Audience members can now interact with cable and broadcast television by doing which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
Why are broadcast networks making their hit programs available on the Internet?
answer
Because if the networks didn't put legal copies up on the Internet, people would just share pirated copies
question
Our definition of what is broadcasting is being changed by the fact that you can now do which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
Twitter was originally created so people could share their answers to the question...?
answer
What are you doing?
question
Paul Baran's idea of cutting messages into small pieces and sending them on the easiest route was known as which of the following?
answer
Packet switching
question
ARPAnet, a predecessor of the Internet, was created so which of the following?
answer
Allow incompatible computers to talk with each other
question
Who developed TCP/IP, the original specification for the Internet's protocols?
answer
Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf
question
Which of the following is the address for where Web pages are located?
answer
URL
question
The first Web browser that could handle graphics was called which of the following?
answer
Mosaic
question
People connect to the Internet using which of the following?
answer
All of the above
question
The movie that revolutionized Internet-based promotion of films was which of the following?
answer
The Blair Witch Project
question
__________ is/are a major new medium of mass communication?
answer
Video Games
question
The word cyberspace is used to mean which of the following?
answer
The Internet and the interactions that take place there
question
Cyberpunk literature and films deal with which of the following themes?
answer
The differences between humans and machines
question
World-wide, _______ perfect of the population has access to the Internet?
answer
24%
question
In the United States, ________ percent of the population has access to the Internet at home.
answer
73%
question
On the Web site, cookies are which of the following?
answer
Files used to identify and track visitors at a Web site
question
Web sites use ________ to track users while they are on the site
answer
Small files called cookies
question
Astronomer and computers experts Clifford Stoll says that people should spend _______ time online.
answer
Less
question
Twitter's big innovation was...?
answer
Connecting mobile Internet, mobile phones, and computer-based Internet as part of a single channel
question
Radio and the Internet have which of the following in common?
answer
They both were initially developed as tools for machine-assisted interpersonal communication
question
The next-generation Internet will be used primarily for which of the following?
answer
Providing high quality video and audio links
question
According to Tim Berners-Lee, which of the following is a principle upon which the Web is based?
answer
Users should be able to link to any document at anywhere in the world
question
The World Wide Web became the standard for posting documents the internet because its creators did which of the following?
answer
Gave it away for free
question
An advantage that web sites run by legacy media have over purely new media sites is which of the following?
answer
They have a reliable source of content
question
The NewYork Times, the Washington Post, and USA Today could all be considered __________ media outlets?
answer
Click and mortar
question
Video games could be considered a new mass media medium because...?
answer
The consoles can be used to deliver a range of media content, and video games are becoming a new way to deliver advertising
question
Cyberpunk author William Gibson has expressed concern over which of the following?
answer
That people will get such specialized news through online filter that they will be isolated from news they need
question
One of the big advantage of distributing a movie over the Internet instead of in theaters in which of the following?
answer
The cost of online distribution is close to zero
question
Which of the following tends to be true of user-written encyclopedias such as Wikipedia?
answer
They tend to have articles on a wide range of topics
question
Which of the following are true of Chinese bloggers?
answer
They can be published if they are critical of the government
question
Arthur Sulzberger, publisher o the New York Times, has said which of the following?
answer
The Times in in the business of selling news and advertising space
question
________________ is a feature film director who also directs television commercials?
answer
Spike Lee, Ridley Scott, Micheal Mann
question
The innovation in the ways Pears' soap marketed its product was that it was the first to use which of the following?
answer
A brand name
question
The term "economy of abundance" means which of the following?
answer
There are as many or more goods available as people want to buy
question
William Paley became convinced of the potential of radio advertising rights after he did which of the following?
answer
He used radio advertising for his family's cigar company
question
The advertising agency department responsible for deciding where to place the advertising is which of the following?
answer
Media planning
question
The advertising agency department responsible for deciding the target market for the advertising is which of the following?
answer
Research and planning
question
The advertising agency department responsible for developing that actual advertisements is which of the following?
answer
Creative activity
question
In advertising, the cost of reaching 1,000 consumers with a particular advertisements a particular medium is known as which of the following?
answer
CPM
question
The biggest advertising medium in the United States for which audience size is measured is which if the following?
answer
Magazines
question
In radio, the term "drive time" means which of the following?
answer
Morning and afternoon commute times
question
Until the recession of 2009, the fastest growing advertising media type in the United States was which of the following?
answer
Internet
question
According to the text, the gay market is seen as desirable to advertisers for which of the following?
answer
It is perceived as relatively
question
Broadcast television networks carry an average of ___________ of advertising and promotion clutter per reason?
answer
15 minutes
question
British television viewers see an average of _______ commercials per week.
answer
311
question
In 2008,companies spent _____ a year advertising to children.
answer
$17 billion
question
In 2006, the advertising industry revised its guidelines for advertising _________ to children.
answer
Food
question
The social process by which people go from having the identities they are born with, to being able to decide who they want to be is which of the following?
answer
Modernization
question
The processor going from having work done by muscle to being done by machines is which of the following?
answer
Industrialization
question
The first major mass medium to be supported primarily by advertising the United States was which of the following?
answer
Newspapers
question
An example of a direct action message would be which of the following?
answer
A local grocery store ad for fresh produce
question
An example of an indirect action message would be which of the following?
answer
An ad by Honda promoting corporate responsibility through the fuel efficiency of its lie of SUVs
question
An example of an advocacy message would be which of the following?
answer
A political ad promoting reduced government spending
question
An example of an business-tobusiness ad would be which of the following?
answer
An ad selling cleaning services to hotels
question
In which way are newspaper ads more effective than radio or TV ads?
answer
Newspaper ads allow advertisers to give detailed information
question
What is an advantage of radio advertising over magazine ads?
answer
Radio ads have shorter lead time than magazine ads
question
An advertisement designed to reach an audience in a set of southern suburbs of Minneapolis would be called __________ advertising?
answer
Zoned
question
An advertisement designed to sell soda to young hip audience would be called ____________ advertising?
answer
Targeted
question
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl commercial was designed to do which of the following?
answer
Make people aware that Apple was introducing a new computer
question
One of the biggest problems in controlling advertising of junk food to children is which of the following?
answer
It is difficult to decide on hat is junk food and what is healthy food
question
Integrated marketing communication campaigns typically involve?
answer
Advertising, public relations, sales promotions
question
The Denny's 2009 Super Bowl integrated marketing communication including which of the following?
answer
An effective mix of advertising, public relations, and sales promotion
question
The person most responsible for creating the fair use doctrine for American copyright law is...
answer
Barbara Ringer
question
The belief that Americans should be allowed to freely express themselves originated with which of the following
answer
First Amendment
question
The John Peter Zenger case established which of the following?
answer
Truth as an absolute defense against libel
question
The law passed by congress following the 9/11 attacks which expanded the ability of the FBI to look into people's media use and tap their phones is known as which of the following?
answer
USA PATRIOT ACT
question
The definition of libel is which of the following?
answer
Any published statement that unjustifiably exposes someone to ridicule or contempt