Flashcards About U.S. History Unit 7

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Joseph Stalin
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Communist dictator of the Soviet-Union in 1924 – ruthless leader who let nothing stand in his way -focused on model communist state
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totalitarian
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Government that has complete control over its citizens and puts down all opposition
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Benito Mussolini
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Fascist dictator of Italy Il Duce running all aspects of Italian life
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fascism
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Political system based on a strong, centralized government headed by a dictator
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Adolf Hitler
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Nazi dictator of Germany
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Nazism
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Fascist Political philosophy of Germany under Nazi dictator Hitler
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Francisco Franco
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Fascist dictator of Spain
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Neutrality Acts
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Laws passed by Congress to ban the sale of arms or loans to nations at war
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How did dictators take power in Europe?
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promising simple solutions, rebuilding national pride (propaganda), providing scapegoats( target for anger and blame), and absorbing freedoms and dissolving individual rights
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What five major countries were ruled by dictatorships in 1930’s?
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Germany – Hitler Italy – Mussolini Russia – Stalin Japan – Tojo Spain – Franco
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How did the United States react to the rise of expansionist dictatorships in Europe and Asia?
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Congress passed Neutrality Acts
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How did the United States respond to the rise of dictators?
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passing the Lend -Lease Act
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Winston Churchill
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Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II called the Pact dishonorable appeasement predicted that it would eventually lead to war
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appeasement
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Trying to pacify an aggressor in order to keep the peace
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nonaggression pact
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Agreement between Germany and Russia not to fight each other
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blitzkrieg
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Lightning war strategy used by Germany against Poland
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Charles de Gaulle
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Head of the French government in exile in England
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Neville Chamberlain
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Prime minister of Great Britain before World War II
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How did Britain and France react to Hitler’s aggression?
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Britain and France responded by saying that they would go into war if Germany attacked Poland.
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How did Hitler begin to expand Germany’s territory?
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by conquering territories (Czech and Suden) because he knew he could form alliances easily Blitzkrieg – Poland
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How did Hitler conquer much of Europe so quickly?
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What happened to Hitler’s plans for conquering France and Britain?
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shot himself April 30, 1945
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What did Britain and France do about Nazi and Soviet aggression?
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They both seized american ships.
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How did Hitler’s attacks on France and on Britain turn out?
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Holocaust
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Systematic murder of 11 million Jews and other people in Europe by the Nazis
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Kristallnacht
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Name given the night of November 9, 1938, when Nazis in Germany attacked Jews, their businesses, and their synagogues
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genocide
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Deliberate and systematic killing of an entire people
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ghetto
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A segregated neighborhood
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concentration camp
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Prison camps operated by the Nazis where Jews and others were starved while doing slave labor, or murdered
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How did the persecution of the Jews begin in Germany?
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On April 7, 1933, shortly after Hitler took power in Germany he oredered all nonaryans to be removed from government jobs
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How did the world react to Germany’s persecution of the Jews?
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didn’t want to be involved
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How did the Nazis try to kill off the Jews and others?
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marching on city hall in Munich, Germany
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Who were the targets of the “final solutions”?
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Blacks and Immigrants (Jews and Catholics)
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How did the Nazis kill so many people?
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they had mobile killing units that were able to execute people on a massive scale
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Why were certain people separated from the others and led to the gas chambers?
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some looked weaker than others so they would be put in gas chambers, where the strong ones were treated as slaves
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Axis powers
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Germany, Italy, and Japan
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Lend-Lease Act
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Law that allowed lending or leasing arms to any nation “whose defense was vital to the United States”
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Atlantic Charter
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British and American statement of goals for fighting World War II
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Allies
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Group of nations, including the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, who opposed the Axis powers
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Hideki Tojo
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Prime minister of Japan during World War II
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How did the United States try to stay out of war but be prepared?
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Treaty with British — 54-40 or fight, but negotiate 49th parallel
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How did the United States slowly move toward war?
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Why did the United States change its policy of neutrality?
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Name two ways to which the United States became the “arsenal of democracy”?
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How did the United States move toward war?
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What events moved the United States closer to war?
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What brought the United States into conflict with Japan?
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What event caused the American declaration of war against Japan?
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aggressor
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one who starts violence, a war, or an invasion
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arsenal
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supply of ammunition, arms, and other war materials
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chancellor
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prime minister; leader of the government
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emigration papers
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official documents giving permission to enter a nation
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front
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area of contract between combating forces; battlefront
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government in exile
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government that has had to flee to a foreign country because its own territory has been conquered and occupied
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isolationism
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policy of opposing political and economic involvement with other countries
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massacre
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savage killing of many victims
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merchant ship
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ship used for trade
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militant
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aggressive; fighting or warring
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occupy
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seize and maintain control over by force
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pacify
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ease the anger of; soothe
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peacetime draft
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forced enrollment of certain persons into the armed forces when there is not a war
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puppet government
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government with no real power of its own that is controlled by another nation
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storm troopers
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special German soldiers trained to carry out sudden attacks or assaults
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synagogues
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Jewish houses of worship
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war machine
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machinery necessary to wage war, including production of weapons, transport, and military vehicles
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Weimar Republic
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democratic government of Germany set up after WWII
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What are the characteristics of a totalitarian state?
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What was the outcome of Britain’s and France’s policy of appeasement?
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What groups did the Nazis deem unfit to belong to the Aryan “master race”?
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How did the United States give aid to nations resisting Hitler?
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How did the expansionist ideas of Hitler, Stalin, and Tojo lead to WWII?
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WWII has been called “the good war” because it was fought to rid the world of brutal and dangerous dictatorships. Explain why people think of it this way.
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George Marshall
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Army chief of staff during WWII
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Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
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Women volunteers who served in non-combat positions
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A. Philip Randolph
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Important African-American labor leader
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Manhattan Project
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Secret research project that resulted in the Atomic Bomb
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Office of Price Administration (OPA)
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Agency of the federal government that fought inflation
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War Production Board (WPB)
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Government agency that decided which companies would make war materials and how to distribute raw materials
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rationing
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Restricting the amount of food and other goods people may buy during wartime to assure adequate supplies for the military
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How did Americans react to Pearl Harbor?
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How did women and minorities join in the war effort?
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What changes took place in a American life?
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How dd the war change life at home?
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How did the federal government get involved in the economy?
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How did the federal government regulate American life during the war?
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
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American general
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D-Day
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Allied invasion to liberate Europe
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Omar Bradley
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American general
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George Patton
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American general
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Battle of the Bulge
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German counteroffensive in December 1944
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V-E Day
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Victory in Europe Day, May 8, 1945
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Harry S. Truman
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33rd president of the United States
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What were the goals of the American and British alliance?
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What was the Battle of the Atlantic, and how did the Allies win it?
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What happened in the Soviet Union, North Africa, and Italy?
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How were the Allies victorious in the Soviet Union, North Africa, and Italy?
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Why did the Allies invade Normandy?
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How did the Allies liberate Europe and defeat Germany?
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Douglas MacArthur
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American commander in the Philippines
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Chester Nimitz
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Commander of American naval forces in the Pacific
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Battle of Midway
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American victory that was the turning point in the Pacific War
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kamikaze
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Japanese suicide flight
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J. Robert Oppenheimer
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Scientist who led the Manhattan Project
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Hiroshima
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City that was the site of the first atomic-bomb drop in Japan
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Nagasaki
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Japanese city that was the site of the second atomic-bomb drop
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Nuremberg Trials
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Tribunal that tried Nazi leaders for war crimes
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What was so important about the Battle of Midway?
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Why was the Battle of Midway important?
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What were the important battles in the Pacific?
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Why was the Battle of Leyte Gulf so important?
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Why did the United States use the atomic bomb?
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Why did Truman decide to use the atomic bomb?
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How did the Allies try to shape the postwar world?
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How did the Yalta Conference shape the postwar world?
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GI Bill of Rights
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Law passed by Congress to help servicemen readjust to civilian life
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James-Farmer
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Civil rights leader who founded the Congress of Racial Equality
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Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
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Interracial organization formed to fight discrimination
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internment
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Confinement under guard, especially during wartime
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Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
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Civil rights group formed by Japanese Americans
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How did the war created opportunities at home?
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What opportunities did the war create at home?
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How did the war affect African Americans and Mexican Americans?
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How did WWII affect African Americans and Mexican Americans?
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What happened to Japanese Americans during the war?
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What reason was given for the internment of Japanese Americans?
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executive order
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Order issued by the president to any part of the executive branch of government
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home front
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Civilian population or the civilian activities of a country at war
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internment camp
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Area where people are kept under guard, especially during wartime
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liberate
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set free from oppression imprisonment, or foreign control
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outpost
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Fortified area away from a main settlement, used to prevent an attack on the main settlement
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race riots
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Riots caused by racial hatred or dissension
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sonar
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System using underwater sound waves to detect submerged objects
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tribunal
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Court of justice
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unconditional surrender
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Giving up to an enemy without any demands or requests
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war bonds
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certificates of debt issued by a government – the government uses the money to pay for a war and pays the investor at a certain future date
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How did the federal government’s actions affect civilian life during WWII?
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How did the Battle of the Bulge signal that the end of WWII in Europe was near?
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What was the result of dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
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What events showed racial tension in the United States during WWII?
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What social and economic changes in American society arose from WWII?
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How did the Allies defeat Germany in Europe?
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How did the United States defeat Japan in the Pacific?
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