Mohandas Gandhi raised the hopes and demands of millions of his people and in the process was changed himself
Ryan White raised people’s awareness about AIDS
Gandalf the white
The exchange dimension is so common that you can observe it at all walks of life.
No new taxes = votes.
Good service = good tip.
Surpass goals = promotion.
transforming but in a negative way: self-consumed, exploitive; power-oriented, with warped moral values
Ex. Darth Vader, Hannibal Lecter
Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on their followers
•More attention to followers’ rather than leader’s needs
•Suggested TL could apply to outcomes that were not positive
•Described transactional and transformational leadership as a continuum
Extended House’s work by
•Giving more attention to emotional elements & origins of charisma
•Suggested charisma is a necessary but not sufficient condition for TL
raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and idealized goals
transcending self-interest for the good of the team or organization
addressing higher-level needs
High standards of moral and ethical conduct
Making others want to follow the leader’s vision
Inspiring followers to commitment and engagement in shared vision
Using symbols & emotional appeals to focus group members to achieve more than self-interest
Challenging their own beliefs and valuing those of leader and organization
Supporting followers to
Try new approaches
Develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues
Acting as coaches to assist followers in becoming fully actualized
Helping followers grow through personal challenges
Ex. Showing optimism helps employees become more engaged in their work (Tims et al., 2011)
A hands-off, let-things-ride approach
Refers to a leader who abdicates responsibility delays decisions, gives no feedback, and makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs
TLs stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers
TLs commonly create a vision
TLs require leaders to become social architects
TLs build trust & foster collaboration
Intuitive appeal. People are attracted to TL because it makes sense to them.
Process focused. TL treats leadership as a process occurring between followers and leaders.
Expansive leadership view. TL provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models.
Emphasizes followers. TL emphasizes followers’ needs, values, and morals.
Effectiveness. Evidence supports that TL is an effective form of leadership.
-Dimensions are not clearly delimited
-Parameters of TL overlap with similar conceptualizations of leadership
-Validity of MLQ not fully established
-Some transformational factors are not unique solely to the transformational model
TL treats leadership more as a personality trait or predisposition than a behavior that can be taught
No causal link shown between transformational leaders and changes in followers or organizations
TL is elitist and antidemocratic
Suffers from heroic leadership bias
Has the potential to be abused