TOK | Theory of Knowledge Flashcards

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Knowledge claim
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In TOK there are two types of knowledge claims. Claims that are made within particular areas of knowledge or by individual knowers about the world. It is the job of TOK to examine the basis for these first-order claims.
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Knowledge Question
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TOK is primarily concerned with knowledge questions. This phrase is used often in describing what is seen in a good TOK presentation or a good TOK essay. An essay or presentation that does not identify and treat a knowledge question has missed the point. It also occurs in the assessment descriptors that examiners use to mark the essay and that the teacher uses to mark the presentation. To put it briefly, the whole point of the presentation and essay tasks is to deal with knowledge questions.
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Knowledge Framework
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One effective way to examine the AOKs is through a knowledge framework. A knowledge framework is a way of unpacking the AOKs and provides a vocabulary for comparing AOKs.
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Vertical Integration
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Comparing different subjects to eachother.
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Horizontal Integration
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The ways concepts are compared within a subject.
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Perspective
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The concept that an object or idea can be viewed or thought of differently.
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Shared Knowledge
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Shared knowledge is highly structured, is systematic in its nature and the product of more than one individual. Much of it is bound together into more or less distinct areas of knowledge such as the familiar groups of subjects studied in the Diploma Programme. While individuals contribute to it, shared knowledge does not depend only upon the contributions of a particular individual—there are possibilities for others to check and amend individual contributions and add to the body of knowledge that already exists.
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Personal knowledge
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Personal knowledge, on the other hand, depends crucially on the experiences of a particular individual. It is gained through experience, practice and personal involvement and is intimately bound up with the particular local circumstances of the individual such as biography, interests, values, and so on. It contributes to, and is in turn influenced by, an individual’s personal perspective.
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Cultural Influence
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Cultural influences means historical, geographical, and familial factors that affect assessment and intervention processes.
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Identity Influence
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stems from the personal trust and respect members have for the leader
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Paradigm Shift
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A term coined by Thomas Kuhn in 1962 for describing monumental changes in the meanings of terms and concepts that would shake up the status quo.
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Foolish Gullibility
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Believing anything
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Knee-Jerk Rejection
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ready to reject everything
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Constructive Doubt
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seeks answers and explanations, it drives a person forward
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Coherence Check
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A statement is true if it fits with our overall set of beliefs. Limitations- Not sufficient by itself, things may be coherent but not true. A fairy tale may be coherent and not true. – With some ingenuity, any crazy belief can be made to appear coherent. – A set of beliefs may be wrong
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Correspondence Check
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A statement is true only if it corresponds to a fact.Limitations – Requires the existence of all kinds of ghostly facts to which true statements are supposed to correspond.- There is a gap between language used to describe facts and the world.- Truth cannot be determined in isolation
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Pragmatic Check
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A statement is true if it is useful or works in practice. Limitations:- A statement can be useful and not true, and true but not useful- Allows two contradictory beliefs to be true- \”Useful\” and \”works in practice,\” are to vague to give us a workable theory of truth.
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Passive Process
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A slow discontinuing process
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Active Process
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A continuous process
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Context
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Conditions, including facts, social/historical background, time and place, etc., surrounding a given situation
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Active Selection
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adaptive response
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Influence of expectation
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refers to the influence of context or belief that may affect one’s interpretation of a situation or even treatment outcome.
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Confirmation bias
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A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
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Attention/Filtering
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Brain’s filtering of stimuli / attention or focus. Sense Perception related.
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Allegory of the Cave
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Seeing is not always true; Plato uses this to say that we only have a skewed view on the world and do not take into account what we may not know
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Hindsight Bias
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The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. \”I knew it all along\”
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Suggestibility
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the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections
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Consistency Bias
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selective recall of past events to fit our current beliefs
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Influence of Trauma/Emotion
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Memory of trauma affects emotion.
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Availability heuristic
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Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
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Collective Memory
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the experiences shared and recalled by significant numbers of people. Such memories are revived, preserved, shared, passed on, and recast in many forms, such as stories, holidays, rituals, and monuments.
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Deductive reasoning
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Drawing a conclusion from initial definitions and assumptions by means of logical reasoning. Moves from General to Specific. Top Down.
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Syllogism
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A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
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Inductive reasoning
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A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations. Moves from Specific to General. Bottoms UP.
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Generalization
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A conclusion, drawn from specific information, that is used to make a broad statement about a topic or person.
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Assumption
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A belief or statement taken for granted without proof.
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Inference
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A conclusion one draws based on premises or evidence
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Fallacy
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A mistaken belief based on unsound information

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