activational effects
short-term hormonal influences on animal behavior usually occurring late in life

classical conditioning
a technique that associates a natural response to a stimulus to an unrelated stimulus; also called Pavlovian conditioning

the study of animal behavior in its natural environment

when an animal learns not to respond to a stimulus

insightful learning
finding a solution to a once unsolvable problem

latent learning
learning that has taken place but is dormant until a situation requires it

operant conditioning
a technique that uses rewards to increase a learned behavior

optimality theory
a theory that behavior evolves to promote the greatest fitness for the animal

organizational effects
long-term hormonal influences on animal behavior usually occurring early in life

social learning
learning a behavior by observing and watching others

Ethology is the study of animal _____.

What 4 general questions are asked during he study of ethology
What mechanisms are causing the behavior?
How does the behavior develop?
What is its survival value?
How did it evolve?

Ethology is a branch of

In the 1900s,…….. were based in North America, while were based in Europe.
comparative biologist

What man proposed that as animals evolved, so did their emotions.
George Romanes

“An animal’s behavior is based on its instincts.”

This statement would most likely come from a(n) _____.


Ivan Pavlov’s dog experiment suggested that _____
both ethologists and comparative behaviorists were correct

They began to recognize the importance of both —- and ——– in animal behavior.

“An animal’s behavior is based on learning.”
comparative behaviorist

What is the study of genes?

The _____ theory suggests that favorable behaviors are passed down from generation to generation.

——- is based on genetic inheritance

behaviors are produced by what 2 organ systems

Sometimes, pregnant women are very emotional. This is believed to be caused by extra estrogen and progesterone that are released during pregnancy and would be ——-considered an effect on behavior.

After taking his dogs for a walk, Eric would bring the dogs in the kitchen, make them sit, and then give them a treat. Pretty soon, after every walk, the dogs would automatically go into the kitchen, sit, and wait for a treat. This is an example of _____.
operant conditioning

Leraned behaviors are based on—–

Joe decides to shave his face for the first time and does a good job from simply remembering how his dad did it. Joe learned how to shave by _____.
latent learning

Baby Jaiden started imitating the way her mom’s mouth moved as she talked and smiled at her. This is an example of _____.
social learning

This type of learning can develop skills like physical strength and endurance, social bonding, and cognitive abilities:

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