The sources of Shakespeares plays Essay
Shakespeare, Macbeth is created by combining two people, Makbeth and Donwald. Also, the
murder of Shakespeares King Duncan, comes almost directly from Donwalds murder of
Holinsheds King Duff. Shakespeare also condensed Macbeths seventeen year reign into a
period consisting of a couple of weeks. The saying that history is written by the victors holds
true here. After Malcolm ascended to power he proceeded to rewrite history to make his family
justified in overthrowing Macbeth. This editing of history made the real Macbeth darker and more
evil and made King Duncan, making him more docile and kind. The Celtic customs of succession
were ignored in Shakespeares play, and with that, so was Macbeths claim to the throne by being
Due to the amount and context of the information used by Shakespeare, I have decided to
go through Shakespeares Macbeth explaining the play and then summarizing the information
from Holinsheds and explaining the parallels. In the paragraphs pertaining to the plot of
Shakespeares Macbeth, I will use the names given by the author (e.g. Macbeth, Macduff,
Banquo, etc.). To avoid confusion as to what is being discussed (Shakespeares story line or how
he uses Holinsheds), bold type will be used when referring to Holinsheds work ( I will also use
the chroniclers spellings of the names — e.g. Makbeth, Makduffe, Banquho), while plain type will
be used when referring to Shakespeares plot. The page numbers cited in reference to Holinsheds
pertain to W.G. Broswell-Stones 1896 printing of Shakespeares Holinshed.
Shakespeares Macbeth opens on three witches. They speak in rhymes that sound like
magical incantations, they then agree to meet again when the battle between Scotland and Norway,
(from which Macbeth is about to return) is over. One of the witches says that they will soon meet
We are then taken from the heath on which the witches met, to King Duncan’s court. A
messenger returns from the war with Norway with news of victory, due mostly to Macbeths
bravery. Other soldiers enter and report that Macdonwald, the Thane of Cawdor, assisted the
enemy, but that Duncans forces had won despite the betrayal. King Duncan declares a death
sentence on Macdonwald and bestows his title (Thane of Cawdor) upon Macbeth, who has not yet
returned or been told of this honor.
In Holinsheds (pg. 168-170) Makdonwald, the Thane of Cawdor, rebels against the
King with the assistance of troops from Ireland. Makbeth and Banquho are dispatched to
put down the rebellion. Shakespeare deviates from Holinsheds here, by saying that
Macbeth defeats Macdonwald in battle, while in Holinsheds, Makdonwald, seeing the size
and ferocity of Makbeths forces, kills his family and then himself, as to avoid capture.
Makbeth finds the body, decapitates the slain noble and parades around with
Makdonwalds head on a pole, then chases the recently arrived army from Norway back to
their ships. For Makbeths courage and tactics in battle, he is granted the slain Thanes
Macbeth and his friend Banquo encounter the witches on their way home from the
battlefield. The witches call to Macbeth, saying: All hail!” (I, iii, 47-50) calling him by his
present title, the Thane of Glamis, as well as the Thane of Cawdor, and proclaiming that he shalt
be King hereafter”. Macbeth, having not yet heard of his promotion to Thane of Cawdor is
confused. But the idea of becoming king intrigues him. Banquo asks the witches about their
predictions for him, and they respond, in their usual ways of half-truths and contradiction, that he
will be “Lesser than Macbeth, and greater, Not so happy yet much happier and Though shalt
get kings though thou be none” (I, iii, 65-67). Macbeth demands that the witches give him an
explanation for their prophecy, but they vanish.
Soon after this strange occurrence, Macbeth and Banquo are greeted by the King’s
messengers. They inform Macbeth of his new title, the Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth tells Banquo
that this is proof that the witches’ prophecies are true. Macbeth’s continues to think about
becoming king, and he wonders if he will have to commit murder to attain what he has been
promised . The scene ends with Macbeth whispering to Banquo that they must discuss all that has
happened at a more appropriate time.
This scene was taken almost verbatim from Holinsheds. Makbeth and Banquho
encountered the witches or weird sisters and were greeted with All haile, Makbeth, thane
of Glammis!, Haile, Makbeth, thane of Cawder!, All haile, Makbeth, that heereafter
shalt be king of Scotland! (pg. 170). Banquho then inquires about his future, the witches
reply: we promise greater benefits unto thee, than unto him, for he shall reigne indeed, but
with an unluckie end: neither shall he leave anie issue behind him to succeed in his place,
where contrailie thou in deed shalt not reigne at all, but of thee those shall be borne which
shall governe the Scottish kingdome by long order of continuall descent.
Macbeth and Banquo travel back to Duncan’s castle. Duncan expresses his gratitude to
the two generals. Duncan then announces that he has decided to name his oldest son Malcolm,
Prince of Cumberland and heir to the throne. Ostensibly, Macbeth replies with joy, but he realizes
that this is one more thing preventing him from obtaining the crown. He invites King Duncan to a
feast at his castle that evening, Macbeth then goes to write a letter to his wife to inform her of the
In Holinsheds (pg. 171), over dinner, Banquho comments on how two of the
witches prophecies have been fulfilled and how Makbeths prophesied rise to the throne
still remains. King Duncane names his eldest son, Malcolme, Prince of Cumberland and
heir to the throne. By doing this, King Duncane broke Scottish tradition in that the most
worthy of the kinsmen were to ascend to the throne. Makbeth began to contemplate how he
would go about rising to power, possibly by force, since King Duncane had basically
stripped him of his claim to the throne.
Macbeths letter also tells of his victory, the encounter with the witches, and their
prediction of his new title, the Thane of Cawdor, which he has already attained, as well as their
prediction of his ascension to the throne. Lady Macbeth is excited by the news, saying that her
husband shall become king as prophesied, but expressing some concern. When Macbeth arrives,
his wife explains to him her plan to kill the King while he sleeps as a guest in their home.
Holinsheds (pg. 170-171) Lady Makbeth is also ambitious and passionately desires
the title of Queen. The witches prophecies along with his wifes encouragement convinces
Makbeth to murder the royal obstacle and claim his right to the throne. Shakespeare differs
here by using Donwalds tale of regicide (pg. 150-151). Donwald, also convinced in part by
his wife, has his King killed during the night, while he sleeps. Conversely, Makbeth, with
the support of Banquho among others, kills the presiding King with honor, in open battle.
He then declares his right to the throne and with common consent, is crowned King of
Scotland, in the customary manner in a coronation at Scone (pg. 171).
Lady Macbeth then explains her plan of getting Duncan’s chamber guards drunk, killing
him with the guards daggers while they sleep, and then, acting surprised and outraged, blaming
them for the Kings murder. After committing the murder, Macbeth returns to his room, his hands
covered in blood. Macbeth claims that he heard a voice saying “Sleep no more! Macbeth does
In Holinsheds Donwald and his wife dine with the Kings guards, getting them so
inebriated and keeping them up so late that once asleep, they could not be awakened even if
they were moved. Shakespeare deviates here once again in that Donwald bribed his own
men to kill the King, while he took lookout, and remained with them for the rest of the
night (pg. 150-151), while Macbeth killed the King himself and then returned to his own
chamber. Later on it is mentioned that Donwald heard a voice telling him that he and his
bloodline will be punished for his deeds; he was terrified by this and could not sleep (pg.
When the body of the slain King is discovered, an alarm is sounded and the entire
household rushes in. On being told about the discovery of the murder they expresses their horror
and sadness. It is suggested that it was Duncans guards who killed him, and Macbeth announces
that he has, in a fit of rage, already killed them as punishment.
In Holinsheds the Kings body is carried away by his assassins but the alarm is
sounded upon the discovery of the blood covered room. Donwald kills the chamberlains in a
fit of rage, and blames them for the murder (pg. 151).
The murdered Kings sons, Malcolm and Donalbain show more fear for their own lives
than sadness over their fathers death. They decide to escape from Scotland because they fear that
their fathers murderer will come for them next. Malcolm flees to England while Donalbain goes
to Ireland. Ross, a noble, leaves for Macbeths coronation in Scone, but Macduff resolves not to
attend, but instead to stay at his own castle in Fife.
At this point, Shakespeare jumps ahead in Holinsheds, back to the tale of Makbeth.
The sons of the slain King Duncane, Malcolme and Donald Bane, fearing that Makbeth will
soon come for them in order to eliminate any possibility of losing his kingdom, decided to
flee, Donald to Ireland and Malcolme first to Cumberland, where he remained until the
land was recovered by the English from the Danish, at which time he traveled to England
and was warmly received by King Edward.
One scene in Macbeth that seems to be included only to use more of Holinsheds material:
an old man talks to Ross and Macduff about the unnaturalness of recent events. He speaks of a
falcon being killed by an owl that usually hunts mice and of reports of horses eating each other.
In Holinsheds account of Donwalds life, it is said that for six months after the
assassination, there were continual clouds all over the country and neither the sun or the
moon could be seen. There were terrible thunder storms along with violent winds and the
general populace feared destruction. It is also said that horsses in Louthain, being of
singular beautie and swiftnesse, did eat their owne flesh and a sparhawke also strangled
by an owle. Holinshed states that everyone knew this was due to the abominable murder of
Macbeth senses that Banquo knows what he has done, and decides that he and his son
Fleance must be killed, not only because Macbeth fears being discovered, but also because of the
witches prediction that Banquos descendants would become Kings. Macbeth hires professional
murderers to follow them and Banquo is slain but Fleance escapes into the night, unharmed.
In Holinsheds, Makbeth invites Banquho and Fleance to dinner. Remembering the
witches prediction that Banquos descendants will rule Scotland, Makbeth fears that he
will be served the same fate as King Duncane. He decides to hire professional murderers to
follow Banquho and Fleance home and kill them, thereby ending Banquhos bloodline and
preventing the prophecy from coming true. Banquho is killed but Fleance escapes
unscathed. Realizing that his life is still in danger, Fleance flees to Wales. (pg. 171)
Lennox and another lord discuss the events that have taken place including the deaths of
Duncan and Banquo. There is also discussion of Macbeths displeasure with Macduff, who failed
to attend a royal banquet. It is also said that Macduff is on his way to visit Malcolm in England
with the purpose of asking the English King Edward for support in restoring Duncans family to
the throne. Macbeth has heard of this and is preparing for war with England.
In Holinsheds there is also a recounting of Makbeths displeasure with Makduffe,
due again partially to his absence. This time, however, it is due to Makduffes absence from
the building of the castle at Dunsinanne. Makduffe sent workers to aid in the labor (as all
the other Thanes did) but failed to come in person (as all the other Thanes did). (pg. 174)
Macbeth decides to return to the witches and see if they have any more predictions. He
enters their cave and demands more information. The witches summon forth their masters,
apparitions whom they claim will have the answers Macbeth is looking for. The first master tells
Macbeth Beware Macduff! Beware the Thane of Fife (IV, i, 72-73).The second says for none
of woman born Shall harm Macbeth (IV, i, 81-82).The third warns Macbeth Macbeth shall
never be vanquished be until Great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane hill Shall come against him
(IV, i, 92-94). Macbeth then inquires about the prophecy given to Banquo regarding his royal
children. A fourth master then appears as an apparition in the form of a line of eight crowned
kings with Banquo at the end holding a mirror that displays more kings. Macbeth asks if this
prediction is true and he is told it is. With this the witches vanish again. With this information and
the warning to be wary of Macduff, Macbeth resolves to kill him and his entire family.
In Holinsheds Makbeth receives predictions not from the witches masters but
from wizzards. The witches masters used by Shakespeare are probably a
representation of this, but most likely could not figure out how to incorporate their arrival
into the plot, so he used apparitions in their place. The wizzards told Makbeth to take
heed of Makduffe as well as that he should never be slaine with man borne of anie
woman, nor vanquished till the wood of Bernane came to the castell of Dunsinane. Even
with the reassurance from the wizzards, Makbeth decided to go to Makduffes home in
Fife and murder the Thanes wife and children.
Lady Macduff is confused by the absence of her husband, having not been told of his
planned journey to England. She doesnt understand why he left without bidding her farewell and
fears that rumors of his being a traitor are true. A group of hired assassins burst into Macduffs
castle to find two of their targets, Lady Macduff and her son together, engaged in a conversation.
The Thanes son is killed, and Lady Macduff flees from the house screaming, the assassins give
chase and she too is apparently killed.
In Holinsheds it is said that Makbeth and his forces laid siege to Makduffes castle,
opened the gates without any resistance, entered, and killed everyone inside. Makbeth then
took all of Makduffes goods, proclaimed him a traitor, and banished him from Scotland.
Makduffe, however, had already escaped from danger and was already in England.
Macduff meets Malcolm and tells him about the bad times that have befallen their
homeland. Macduff speaks of the evil Macbeth now ruling the country and asks Malcolm to claim
his right to the throne. Macduff tells of his plan to overthrow the tyrannical Macbeth. Malcolm
says that he has none of the qualities that are required in a leader. He claims that he has the
opposite traits and that he would harm the country even more. Malcolm claims that he is
adulterous (seeking the nightly company of others wives, daughters, matrons, and maids).
Macduff replies that even though many other rulers have fallen from power for the same fault,
there are enough willing women in Scotland to satisfy even the hungriest of men. Malcolm also
claims that if he were King, he would divest the nobles of their lands and riches, and that all these
ill-gotten gains would only make him want more. Macduff still tries to convince Malcolm to join
him by saying that there is enough wealth in Scotland to appease his hunger and that these vices
wont outweigh his virtues. Malcolm then replies that he has none of the virtues found in a proper
king such as verity, temprance, stableness(IV, iii, 92). Macduff then passionately admits that
Malcolm was his last hope, that he now must give up, and can never return home because it will
never be reconquered. Malcolm then relents, saying Macduffs passion has convinced him of the
honor and honesty carried my the banished Thane. He retracts the claims of his vices and says that
he was merely trying to make sure he would not be handed to over to Macbeth as an offering to
gain his favor. He says he has obtained ten thousand troops and the legendary general Siward
from King Edward to aid their cause and that he will fight to claim his right to the throne.
In Holinsheds this entire section is described in detail. Every single event occurs in
Shakespeare exactly as it happens in Holinshed. Makduffe finds Malcolme, he tells of all the
horrors that have occurred in Scotland, the murders of both nobles and commoners alike,
and how the people desire nothing more than deliverance from these harsh times. Malcolme
sighs (just as he does in Shakespeare) and Makduffe proceeds to tell him of a plan to
overthrow Makbeth and save the people of Scotland from his tyranny. Malcolme is unsure
if Makduffe comes to him as a wolf in sheeps clothing and feigns disinterest. Malcolme
says that he is sorry for what the people have to endure but that things would be worse
under his reign due to certeine incurable vices. He claims he is adulterous and would
seeke to defloure your maids and matrones. Makduffe says This surlie is a verie evill
fault, for manie noble princes and kings have lost both their lives and their kindomes,
neurethlesse there are women enow in Scotland, and therefore follow my counsell.
Malcolme clams that he is so greedy that he would desire the lands of all the nobles and
their riches, he would also betray anyone who would believe him. To this Makduffe replies
that there are enough riches in Scotland that would be his by right that he would not need
others possessions. Malcolme claims he has no princely qualities such as Veritie, truth,
and justice and soothfastnesse, and that he is unfit to rule because of this. Makduffe
exclaims that he is a banished man for ever, without comfort or consolition, he then turns
to leave and starts to cry. Malcolme then admits that he is guilty of none of the faults he
previously claimed and that he was testing Makduffe to see if he would be betrayed.
Malcolme proclaims that King Edward has given him ten thousand men along with a
famous general, Siward, and he will join Makduffe to fight for the reclamation of their
Most of Macbeths Thanes desert him and join Malcolm and Macduff. Lady Macbeth
becomes extremely ill. Despite this, Macbeth continues to prepare for battle with the forces of his
attackers. A messenger comes to tell Macbeth that there is an enemy force of ten thousand men
approaching but he dismisses this and holds on to the prophecies of the witches. Macbeth still
believes that he shall not be killed by any man born of woman and that he cannot be defeated until
the Forest of Birnam marches to his castle.
Malcolm commands that his troops all cut branches from the trees and carry this foliage in
front of them as they march towards Dunsinane. Macbeth continues to fortify his defenses and
acknowledges that his enemies were strengthened by the troops deserting him. Lady Macbeth
commits suicide but Macbeth continues to stand strong, in appearance at least. A messenger
comes to Macbeth and informs him that the woods of Birnam are actually marching to Dunsinane.
Malcolms troops enter the castle and Macbeth is first attacked by Siwards son whom he defeats.
Macbeth then fights Macduff who reveals to him during the battle that he was not born of woman
but rather Macduff was from his mothers womb Untimely ripped (V, iii, 15-6) and Macbeth is
slain. Siward receives news that his son has been killed, and he asks if his wounds were on his
front. When he receives an affirmative answer he declares Why then, Gods soldier be he! Had I
as many sons as I have hairs, I would not wish them to a fairer death. The battle is won by
Malcolms forces and in a closing address, the King to be promotes the Thanes to Earls, calls back
those exiled, and invites all present to the coronation in Scone.
Again, in Holinsheds (pg. 176) the plot for this act is the same, with a few
exceptions. One is that Makbeths wife does not commit suicide. However, Malcolme does
lead his troops to Birnane wood and command that they carry branches in front of them as
they march. Makbeth realizing their numbers instead flees, Makduffe gives chase until
Makbeth leaps from his horse and says that he cannot be killed by Makduffe for that he is
born of woman. Makduffe replies to this that he was never borne of my mother but ripped
out of her wombe and kills Makbeth, ending his reign.
In Holinsheds (pg. 192) there are two different stories pertaining to Siward and the
death of his son. The first is that one of Siwards sons was killed in this battle, and was told
that the wounds were on the front of his body. Siward rejoiced to hear that his son died
manfullie in battle. The other is that Siward sent his son with an army to reclaim
Scotland and Siwards son died while overseas. Upon hearing this news, Siward demanded
to know whether the wound that killed him was on his frontside or his back. Being told that
the wound was on his front he said I rejoice (saith he) even with all my heart, for I would
not wish either my sonne nor my selfe any other kind of death. (pg. 176) With victory
attained with the help of King Edward, Malcolme traveled to Scone for the coronation.
After being crowned, Malcolme called a Scottish parliament and rewarded all who assisted
him in overthrowing Makbeth with confiscated lands. He also made many Earls, Lords,
Barons, and Knights from the existing Thanes, these being the first earls known to
As can be seen, Shakespeares use of Holinsheds is extensive. However, Holinshed
didnt write these events in sequence. The murder Shakespeare used is discussed almost twenty
pages before the majority of the story. The death of Siwards son is taken mostly from sixteen
pages after the description and of conclusion Makbeths final battle. Shakespeare read through
these stories and from the pieces, created the collage of a script that we know as Macbeth.
There are some scenes that seem almost as if Shakespeare wrote them into the play
intending to use them, but cut them from the rest of the story without removing their beginning.
An example is the prophecy pertaining to Banquo. In Holinsheds it states that Banquho was the
Thane of Lochquhaber and that the house of Stewards descended from him. It also says that
Banquhos descendants ruled Scotland for many generations, and even in the 1500s the family
As I stated briefly before, Duncan was not the kind and gentle ruler he was made out to
be, he ruled for only about six years, during which time Scotland was plagued with war and terror.
The real Macbeths reign was not so quick or as horrible as it was told in Shakespeares version or
in Holinsheds. Macbeth actually ruled for about seventeen years, during which time, Scotland and
its inhabitants prospered. Macbeth was also the last King to put emphasis on the learning of the
Shakespeare did have good reason for vilifying Macbeth and in turn, glorifying his
demise. The King ruling England at the time this play was written was James I. This young ruler
traced his families lineage back to Scotland and even to King Duncan and Malcolm. By making a
play so favorable to this lineage, Shakespeare hoped to gain James favor. Shakespeare also used
the witches to this purpose, James was extremely interested in the supernatural and even wrote a
book, Daemonologie. Also, in Macbeth, King Edward is able to heal lepers with a simple touch of
his hand; King James was supposedly blessed with this gift as well.
Another compelling example of Shakespeares use of others work as a basis for his own
is Julius Caesar. As stated earlier, Shakespeare primarily used Sir Thomas Norths English
translation of Jaques Amyots French translation of Plutarchs Latin The lives of Noble Greecians
and Romans. Norths Plutarch was well read during Shakespeares time, printed in three editions,
the first in 1579, the second in 1595 and the third in 1603, the third edition was then reprinted in
1612. The 1579 edition consisted of 1,175 pages, and contained the lives of fifty men, each with a
medallion profile following their story. Its fairly easy to see why this book was so popular to the
Renaissance reader. Plutarch offered in depth character analyses of past heroes, and also discussed
the causes and results of the Roman Civil wars. Plutarch even drew comparisons between noble
Greeks and their Roman counterparts, writing parallel lives allowed the reader to easily compare
the two societies. Many Elizabethans saw the Roman civil wars as a parallel to their own Wars of
the Roses and so Norths translation was digested eagerly by its audience. This was also due in
part to the fact that The Lives presented these characters as the shapers of history, and that
Plutarch was believed to be an impartial judge due to the fact that about one hundred years had
While Holinshed was educated, he was still a somewhat of a rustic bourgeois. Sir
Thomas North, however, was a cultivated aristocrat who wrote with flair and a sense of the
dramatic. Due to the fine prose that North wrote, it has been said that entire sections could easily
be changed into the blank verse Shakespeare used in Julius Caesar. However, during my research,
it became clear that Shakespeare did not borrow wholesale. Instead, Shakespeare would take an
individual line, alter its wording and insert that into his play.
In Macbeth Shakespeare took entire scenes almost directly from his source. In Caesar
however he took the accounts of Caesar, Brutus, and Antony in Plutarch, where certain events are
described from different viewpoints, and used details from each account to create his own story.
Due to this, it is not possible to move through the play almost scene by scene citing specific places
where Shakespeare took from Plutarch. Shakespeare uses Plutarchs mostly to guide his work,
sometimes taking events, merging and compressing them, to create large and important sections of
the plot. To best explain this, I have cited specific events where Shakespeare took from different
accounts and combined them to create his scenes. The numbers in parentheses refer to the pages in
Walter W. Skeats Shakespeares Plutarch, while portions of Julius Caesar are referred to by the
traditional method (act, scene, lines).
The midpoint of the play is around the assassination of Caesar, in which Shakespeare
combines sections that pertain to the assassination from both The Life of Julius Caesar (pg.
100-101) and The Life of Marcus Brutus (pg. 119-120). Another example of this is seen in the
festival of Lupercalia in which Caesar was offered the crown three times and rejected it every
time. For this, Shakespeare combines Caesars account (pg. 99-100) with Antonys (pg. 164).
There are many more examples, such as the events that precede Caesars murder. These are
discussed in both Caesars (pg. 97-100) and Brutus(pg. 117 and 118) lives. Even for the death of
Brutus, the events of both Antonys (pg. 171) and Brutus (pg. 149-151) stories are amalgamated
There are also events that come from only one story: the scenes that illustrate Caesars
ambition and the conspirators attempts to indoctrinate Brutus come almost entirely from Caesars
life. Also, the formation of the conspiracy to kill Caesar, the publics response, Antonys address
at Caesars funeral, the appearance and effects of Caesars ghost, the disagreements between
Brutus and Cassius, the battle of Brutus and Cassius with Antony and Octavius, and the events
dealing with Brutus wife, Portia, are all, for the most part, taken only from Brutus section.
Shakespeare even uses details pertaining to events from Plutarch. Case in point,
Shakespeare includes in Antonys eulogy (III, ii) and the reading of Caesars will, in which every
citizen of Rome is left 75 drachmas, and Caesars personal gardens and orchards are left for
public use. The people are so moved by this that they resolve to cremate Caesars body in a holy
place and declare that they will set fire to the homes of his murderers. Cinna the poet, a friend of
Caesars, is walking among the plebeians, explaining a dream that he had involving Caesar (III,
iii). The group barrages him with questions, one of which is his name. When he replies that he is
called Cinna, the already angry mob assumes that he is Cinna the conspirator and beats him to
death. This sequence of events is taken almost exactly from The Life Marcus Brutus (pg. 122).
Another example of Shakespeare using specifics from Plutarch is Caesars assassination
(III, i). Artemidorus writes a letter to Caesar informing him of those plotting the murder. He tries
to deliver the letter himself but is thwarted to due to the mass of people surrounding Caesar (pg.
100). The conspirators are then approached by Popilius Lena, who wishes them well on their
enterprise(III, i, 12) (pg. 117) and then speaks to Caesar. At first, Cassius fears their plan has
been revealed by Popilious, but Brutus realizes from Caesars expression that the message was o
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Griffin, Alice. The sources of ten Shakespearean plays. Thomas Y Crowell, New
Spencer T. J. B., Shakespeares Plutarch, Penguin books, Middlesex, England,
Rowse A. L., The Annotated Shakespeare, Orbis Publishing Ltd., 1984
Nicholl, Allardyce & Josephine, Holinsheds Chronicle as used in Shakespeares
plays, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1927
Derrick, Thomas, Understanding Shakespeares Julius Caesar, Greenwood press,
Daniel, Samuel, Poems and A Defense of Ryme, Phoenix books, London , 1930