The Brain – Flashcard

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The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as:
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association areas.
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Research with split-brain patients suggests that the _____ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
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left cerebral hemisphere
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While some neural clusters in the _____ regulate hunger, other areas influence thirst, sleep, body temperature, and sexual behavior.
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hypothalamus
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The two hemispheres that make up 85% of the brain’s weight are collectively known as the _____.
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cerebrum
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Philip Vogel and Joseph Bogen were able to reduce seizure activity in epileptic patients by severing the:
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corpus callosum.
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All of the following are primarily left hemisphere functions EXCEPT:
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facial recognition.
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The auditory cortex is located in the _____.
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temporal lobes
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Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?
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frontal
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The _____ is the neural system between the hemispheres and the older parts of the brain that is linked to emotions and basic motivations.
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limbic system
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The _____ helps coordinate movement and enables one type of nonverbal learning.
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cerebellum
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The _____ of the brain is primarily important for making critical judgments.
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left hemisphere
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Following a horrible injury to the _____ of his brain, Phineas Gage suffered from irritability and other distinct personality changes.
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frontal lobes
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Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
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the brainstem
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The earliest technique for examining the living human brain involved the study of:
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head injuries.
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The _____ lobes are located on the top and rear of the brain.
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parietal
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The _____ covers the two hemispheres and serves as the body’s information processing center.
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cerebral cortex
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The _____ lobes are located just above the ear.
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temporal
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The _____ is the place where most nerves connected to the brain connect with the opposite side of the body.
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brainstem
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In 1949, Giuseppe Moruzzi and Horace Magoun severed a cat’s _____ from higher brain regions; the cat lapsed into a permanent coma.
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reticular formation
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The limbic system structure that influences aggression is called the _____.
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amygdala
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Following a horrible injury to the _____ lobes of his brain, Phineas Gage suffered from irritability and other distinct personality changes.
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frontal
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Reward centers have been discovered in specific regions of the _____, which is located in the limbic system.
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hypothalamus
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The _____ sits between the brainstem and the pons.
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medulla
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Hemispheric specialization is known as:
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lateralization.
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Someone with a split brain will have trouble verbally identifying an object projected in their _____ visual field.
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left
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Paul, a construction worker, is walking quickly through his construction site and runs face-first into a low-hanging beam. He notices afterward that he has trouble forming words. Paul may have suffered an injury to his _____ lobe.
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frontal
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A person who is having difficulty feeling touches and sensations most likely has a problem with his or her _____ lobes.
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parietal
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In 1961, _____ were able to reduce seizure activity in epileptic patients by severing the corpus callosum.
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Vogel and Bogen
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Research with split-brain patients led Michael Gazzaniga to conclude that the _____ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
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left cerebral hemisphere
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Speech is processed primarily in the right hemisphere by the _____ of those who are left-handed and by the _____ of those who are right-handed.
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minority; minority
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The limbic system structure that influences aggression is called the:
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amygdala.
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Jamar is having difficulty hearing. He may have a problem with his _____ lobes.
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temporal
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Brain activity results in telltale electrical signals that can be detected by a(n):
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electroencephalogram (EEG).
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Francine has lost her ability to speak after she was in a serious car accident eight months ago. She has suffered an injury to the _____ lobes of the cerebral cortex.
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frontal
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Philip Vogel and Joseph Bogen were able to reduce seizure activity in epileptic patients by severing the _____.
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corpus callosum
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Nine-year-old Josie is running through the playground and collides face-first with the feet of a child who is on a swing. When she has trouble forming words after this collision, her mother worries that she has suffered an injury to her _____ lobe.
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frontal
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Ralph was involved in a bar fight and sustained a blow to the back of the head from a beer bottle. He was dazed and could not see for about two minutes. Which lobe was affected?
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occipital
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Joe is experiencing vision problems after getting hit very hard in the back of the head during a hockey game. He likely has an injury to the _____ lobes of his cerebral cortex.
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occipital
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If a researcher electrically stimulates the _____ in an animal, the animal will immediately wake up and be alert.
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reticular formation
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In his research on the limbic system, Dr. Harrington electrically stimulates the _____ of cats and then measures their rage and fear reactions.
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amygdala
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Hemispheric specialization is known as _____.
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lateralization
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Ceci has a problem with her temporal lobes. She may have difficulty _____.
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hearing
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After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth, coordinated manner. It is likely that she has suffered damage to her _____.
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cerebellum
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The _____ is to sensory input as the registrar’s office is to a college campus.
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thalamus
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In 1949, Giuseppe Moruzzi and Horace Magoun found that when they electronically stimulated a cat’s _____, the animal became awake and alert.
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reticular formation
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All of the following are primarily right hemisphere functions EXCEPT:
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judgment.
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The _____ is the neural system between the hemispheres and the older parts of the brain. It is linked to emotions and basic motivations.
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limbic system
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When researchers Olds and Milner (1954) accidently placed electrodes near a rat’s _____, the animal kept returning to the place where it had been stimulated.
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hypothalamus
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This brain structure helps coordinate movement and enables one type of nonverbal learning.
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the cerebellum
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Following massive damage to his frontal lobes in 1848, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by:
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irritability.
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The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the:
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hypothalamus.
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New neurons are formed in the brain on a daily basis. This is a process known as:
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neurogenesis.
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Active neurons require _____ the way a car requires fuel.
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glucose
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Dr. Schoenfeld is a neurosurgeon working with patients who have major epileptic seizures. The part of the brain Dr. Schoenfeld should sever to help reduce his patients’ seizures is the _____.
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corpus callosum
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A person who suffers a head trauma slightly above the ear is likely to have problems with bodily functions controlled by the _____ lobes.
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temporal
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A person who is having difficulty hearing may have a problem with his or her _____ lobes.
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temporal
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Fabian is experiencing vision problems after getting hit very hard in the back of the head during a soccer game. He likely has an injury to the _____ lobes of his cerebral cortex.
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occipital
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After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth, coordinated manner. It is likely that she has suffered damage to her:
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cerebellum.
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The hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala are all parts of the:
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limbic system.
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A thermostat is to a house as the _____ is to the brain.
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hypothalamus
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The _____ is to the limbic system as an alarm is to a building.
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amygdala
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If a cat’s _____ is severed from the rest of the brain, it will stop engaging in purposefully climbing and eating, though it can still move.
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brainstem
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To obtain a scan using this technique, a patient is injected with (or ingests) a low, harmless dose of a short-lived radioactive glucose.
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positron emission tomography (PET)
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Dr. Humphrey is a neuropsychologist who works with post-surgical patients who have had surgery to sever their corpus callosums, in order to reduce severe seizures. When she presents the word “SAL-TED” to one patient, “SAL” transmits to his left visual field and “TED” to his right visual field. She then asks him to tell her what he saw. The patient will say _____.
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TED
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Cynthia performs well above her grade level in mathematics. Researchers would conclude that her _____ hemisphere functions very well.
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left
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Jeanette has lost her ability to speak after she was in a serious car accident eight months ago. She has suffered an injury to the _____ lobes of the cerebral cortex.
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frontal
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Dr. Hauser is a neurosurgeon working with patients who have major epileptic seizures. What part of the brain might Dr. Hauser sever to help reduce his patients’ seizures?
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corpus callosum
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Patrice is left-handed. This means that she processes speech primarily in her _____ hemisphere.
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left
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Some researchers suggest that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to _____.
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alcoholism
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Jane took a hard fall backwards and banged her head while walking in the dark next to her house. She would be most likely to have problems associated with bodily functions controlled by the _____ lobe of the cerebral cortex.
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occipital
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Parmindi suffered an injury to her frontal lobes. As a result, she has lost her ability to _____.
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speak
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_____ is to psychology as the microscope is to biology.
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
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In 1939, Heinrich Kluver and Paul Bucy surgically lesioned this part of the brain, which eliminated defensive responses in various mammal species.
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amygdala
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Following a head injury, a person who has difficulty recognizing emotional responses in others MOST likely suffered damage to the _____.
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amygdala
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Dr. Snell studies the part of the brain that is active when people are lying. She asks half of her participants to tell the truth about an event from their childhoods and half to tell a lie about an event from their childhoods. Which of the following brain imaging techniques should she use to detect brain areas that are active when the participants are lying?
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functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
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Elena performs well above her grade level in mathematics. Researchers would conclude that her _____ hemisphere functions very well.
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left
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The _____ is to sensory input as an old-fashioned switchboard was to telephone calls.
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thalamus
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Roxana fell backwards and hit her head while walking down the stairs one night. She is most likely to have problems associated with bodily functions controlled by the _____ lobe of her cerebral cortex.
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occipital
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To monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one’s own name, researchers would make use of a(n):
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EEG.
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Following a head injury, a person who has difficulty recognizing emotional responses in others MOST likely suffered damage to the:
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amygdala.
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If a researcher is interested in measuring both the structure and function of the brain, which of the following techniques would you recommend?
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functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
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Some researchers suggest that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to:
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alcoholism.
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Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?
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a PET scan
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Which limbic system structure regulates thirst and body temperature?
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hypothalamus
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The association areas are located in the
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cerebral cortex.
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The corpus callosum is a wide band of axon fibers that
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transmits information between the cerebral hemispheres.
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Jason and Alex are biologically unrelated adolescents who were adopted as infants and raised together in the same home. For which of the following are Jason and Alex least likely to resemble each other any more than they resemble a genetically unrelated adolescent from another home in their neighborhood?
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extraversion

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