Texas Politics chp. 3, 12, 13, 14

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
ability-to-pay theory of taxation
An approach to government finance that holds that taxes should be based on an individual’s financial resources.
Adversary proceeding
A legal procedure in which each side presents evidence and arguments to bolster its position while rebutting evidence that might support the other side.
Aggravated offenses
Violent crimes
Arraignment
A judicial proceeding at which a suspect is formally charged with a crime and asked to enter a plea.
Authorization process
the procedure through which Congress legislatively establishes a program, defines its general purpose, devises procedures for its operation, specifies an agency for implementation, and indicates an approximate level of funding.
Biennium
two-year budget period.
Bilingual education
teaching of academic subjects in both English and student’s native language, usually Spanish.
Booking
An administrative procedure in which law enforcement personnel document a suspect’s arrest.
Burden of proof
The legal obligation of one party in a lawsuit to prove its position to a court.
Charter school
A publicly funded but privately managed school that operates under the terms of a formal contract, or charter, with the state.
Clearance rate
the proportion of crimes known to authorities for which an arrest is made.
Conflict of interest
a situation in which the personal interests of a public official may clash with that official’s professional responsibilities.
Deferred adjudication
A type of probation that can be granted by a judge to a defendant who pleads guilty or nolo contendere to certain, relatively less serious offenses.
Dual school system
separate sets of schools for white and African American youngsters.
Eminent domain
The authority to take private property for public use upon just compensation.
Employees Retirement System (ERS) Trust Fund
A pension fund for state employees.
Entitlement programs
Government programs providing benefits to all persons qualified to receive them under law.
Equal Protection Clause
The constitutional provision found in the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution that declares “No state shall… deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
Excise tax
A tax levied on the manufacture, transportation, sale, or consumption of a particular item or set of related items.
Federal grant program
A program through which the national government gives money to state and local governments to spend in accordance with set standards and conditions.
Federal preemption of state authority
an act of Congress adopting regulatory policies that overrule state policies in a particular regulatory area.
Federal system or federation
A political system that divides power between a central government, with authority over the whole nation, and a series of state governments.
Felony
A serious criminal offense, such as murder, sexual assault, or burglary.
Formula grant program
A grant program that awards funding on the basis of a formula established by Congress.
Foundation School Program
The basic funding program for public education in the state of Texas.
Franchise Tax
A tax on businesses chartered or organized in Texas and doing business in the state.
General Fund
the state treasury account that supports state programs and services without restriction.
Good time
A prison policy that credits inmates with time off for good behavior.
Grand jury
A body of 12 citizens that hears evidence presented by the prosecuting attorney and decides whether to indict an accused person.
Hospital district
A special district that provides emergency medical services, indigent healthcare, and community health services.
Incremental model of budgeting
A theoretical effort to explain the budget process on the basis of small (incremental).
Independent school districts (ISDs)
Units of local government that provide public education services to district residents from kindergarten through the 12th grade.
Indictment
A formal accusation charging an individual with the commission of a crime.
Interstate Commerce Clause
The constitutional provision giving Congress the authority to “regulated commerce… among the several states.”
Long ballot
An election system that provides for the election of nearly every public official of any significance.
Magistrates
Judicial officers.
Matching funds requirement
A legislative provision that the national government will provide grant money for a particular activity only on the condition that the state or local government involved supply a certain percentage of the total money required for the project or program.
Medicaid
A federal program designed to provide health insurance coverage to low-income persons, people with disabilities, and elderly people who are impoverished.
Medicare
A federal health insurance program for people 65 and older and people with permanent disabilities.
Miranda warning
the judicial stipulation that a criminal defendant’s confession cannot be admitted into evidence unless police first inform the defendant of the constitutional right to remain silent and to consult an attorney.
Misdemeanor
A relatively minor criminal offense, such as a traffic violation.
National Crime Victim Survey (NCVS)
A measure of the incidence of crime in the United States based on interviews with people in more than 50,000 households.
National Supremacy Clause
The provision found in Article IV of the Constitution that declares that the U.S. Constitution, the laws made under it, and the treaties of the United States are the supreme law of the land.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act
A federal law that requires state governments and local school districts to institute basic skills testing in reading and mathematics for students in grades three through eight, and use of the results to assess school performance.
Nolo Contendere
A plea indicating a defendant’s decision not to contest a criminal charge.
Nonpartisan elections
Election contests in which the names of the candidates, but not their party affiliations, appear on the ballot.
Pari-mutuel wagering
A system for gambling on horse and dog racing.
Performance-based budgeting
A system of budget preparation and evaluation in which policymakers identify specific policy goals, set performance targets for agencies, and measure results.
Permanent School Fund (PSF)
A fund established in the Texas Constitution as an endowment to finance public elementary and secondary education.
Plea bargain
A procedure in which a defendant agrees to plead guilty in order to receive punishment less than the maximum for an offense.
Police power
The authority to promote the health, welfare, and safety of the people.
Probable cause
The reasonable belief that a crime has been committed and that a particular suspect is the likely perpetrator of that crime.
Progressive tax
A levy whose burden weighs more heavily on persons earning higher incomes than it does on individuals making less money.
Project grant program
A grant program that requires state and local governments to compete for available federal money.
Recidivism
The tendency of offenders released from prison to commit additional crimes and be returned behind bars.
Robin Hood plan
A reform of the state’s school finance system designed to increase funding for poor school districts by redistributing money from wealthy districts.
School choice
An educational reform movement that allows parents to choose the elementary or secondary school their children will attend.
School Lunch Program
A federal program that provides free or reduced-cost lunches to children from poor families.
Sovereignty
The authority of a state to exercise legitimate powers within its boundaries, free from eternal interference.
State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
A federal program designed to provide health insurance to children from low-income families whose parents are not poor enough to qualify for Medicaid.
Subpoena
A legal order compelling a person’s attendance at an official proceeding, such as a trail.
Susidence
The sinking of the surface of the land caused by the too-rapid extraction of subsurface water.
Sunset review
The periodic evaluation of state agencies by the legislature to determine whether they should be reauthorized.
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
Formerly the Food Stamp Program, it is a federal program that provides food vouchers to low-income families and individuals.
Tax elasticity
The extent to which tax revenues increase as personal income rises.
Tax incidence
The point at which the actual cost of a tax falls.
Temporary Assistance For Needy Families (TANF)
A federal black grant program that provides temporary financial assistance and work opportunities to needy families.
Texas Teacher Retirement System (TRS) Trust Fund
A pension fund for the state’s public school teachers.
Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
A record of offenses known to police compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from reports submitted by local law enforcement agencies.
Utility district
A special district that provides utilities, such as water and sewer service, to residents living in unincorporated urban areas.

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