test out ch 5 practice questions
File permissions are only available under Windows for files on a partition formatted with NTFS, not FAT32. The Encrypting File Service (EFS) with Windows encrypts individual files. The Ext4 file system is used on Linux systems.
The active partition contains the boot sector, which is required to load an operating system. An extended partition is a partition type on a basic disk. An extended partition can exist, but is not required to boot.
The active partition identifies which partition holds the boot loader code. When the system starts, it looks in the volume boot record (VBR) of the active partition to identify the location of the boot loader code. The system partition is the partition that holds the operating system files. This might be the same as the active partition, but can be different. A primary partition is a partition type on a basic disk. An active partition must be a primary partition, but there can be additional non-active primary partitions on a disk. An extended partition is a partition type that is subdivided into logical drives. The extended partition cannot be the active partition.
A primary partition is a partition type used on basic disks. The active partition must be a primary partition. Each physical disk can have up to four primary partitions, or three primary partitions and one extended partition. Logical drives are defined within an extended partition.
Extended partitions with logical drives.
Basic disks use primary and extended partitions. Each physical disk can have up to four primary partitions, or three primary partitions and one extended partition. Logical drives are defined within an extended partition. The extended partition can be divided into multiple logical drives. Dynamic disks support volumes that use discontiguous disk space. Simple volumes contain disk space from a single hard disk (both contiguous or discontiguous space). Spanned volumes contain disk space from multiple hard disks, grouped together into a single logical volume. Striped volumes use equal partition sizes on two disks to create a volume. Data is divided and saved to each disk.
When you upgrade a basic disk to a dynamic disk, existing partitions are converted to simple volumes. You can convert the disk without deleting partitions or losing any data. Use the convert command to change the file system from FAT32 to NTFS. The partition table type (either MBR or GPT) does not affect the partition or volume type.
DiskPart is the command line utility you can use to create, format, and manage partitions, and volumes.
Disk Management is the graphical utlity you would use to do the same partition and volume creation, formatting, and management tasks you can do with DiskPart. DiskMan does not exist. Format is a command line utility used for formatting disks for use with Windows. CHDSK is used to find and fix errors on disks, volumes, and files.
Which disk management operation can you perform on the disk to use some of the free space for the Linux partition?
You can decrease the space used by primary partitions and logical drives by shrinking them into adjacent, contiguous space on the same disk. For example, if you discover that you need an additional partition but do not have additional disk, you shrink the existing partition from the end of the volume to create new unallocated space that can then be used for a new partition.
Use primary and extended partitions.
Supported by all operating systems.
Only support volumes made up of contiguous disk space.
Dynamic disks include the following characteristics:
Support up to 128 volumes.
Support volumes that use discontiguous disk space.
Store partitioning information in a hidden database on all such disks in the system.
If you need the drive to boot Windows and the computer uses traditional BIOS (not UEFI), you need to set up the drive with MBR.
A GPT drive can:
Be basic or dynamic.
Set up to boot 64-bit Windows 7 on a UEFI-based computer.
Be used to create up to 128 partitions.
RAID provides both fault tolerance and improved performance RAID (mirroring) provides only fault tolerance with no performance benefit. Both RAID 5 and RAID 1 can only sustain a loss of one disk in the set. Use multiple disk controllers to provide redundancy for the disk controller.
A RAID 5 array stripes data and parity information across multiple hard disks. To complete a RAID 5 array, a minimum of three hard disks is required. A RAID 0 and RAID 1 can both be implemented with a minimum of two hard disks.
RAID 0 uses disk striping and offers no fault tolerance. Disk striping breaks data into units and stores the units across a series of disks by reading and writing to all disks simultaneously. A failure of one disk in the set means all data is lost. This is the fastest of all RAID types. RAID 5 also uses disk striping, but provides fault tolerance for a single disk failure. RAID 1 provides fault tolerance but does not use striping. An expanded volume set is a volume that spans more than one hard drive. An expanded volume set also offers no fault tolerance, yet does not use striping.
In this scenario, Disk 2 is shared between both volumes. If Disk 2 fails, the RAID 1 is still accessible because RAID 1 (mirrored) volumes can sustain a loss of a single disk. The data on the RAID 0 volume is not accessible. RAID 0 uses striping, which distributes the data evenly between multiple disks. If a single disk fails, the entire volume is lost.
RAID 0 (striping) uses two or more disks and provides an increase in performance but not fault tolerance. RAID 1 (mirroring) uses two disks to provide fault tolerance but not an increase in performance. RAID 5 uses a minimum of three disks and provides both fault tolerance and an increase in read performance.
If using an onboard RAID controller with SATA drives, edit the CMOS settings and identify the drive type as RAID. This tells the system to load the onboard BIOS for accessing the connected drive. If you want to install the operating system on a RAID array, you will need to manually load the controller driver so that Windows can see the RAID array.
Windows 7 desktop operating systems support creating RAID 0 and RAID 1 arrays in Disk Management, bu do not support configuring RAID 5. To use RAID 5 on a client computer, you will need to use a RAID controller installed in an expansion slot or integrated in the motherboard.
You must install the RAID driver so that Windows recognizes arrays created by the motherboard RAID utility. Without the driver, Windows will not be able to see the logical drive defined by the array. When you define the array, you configure the BIOS to use RAID as the SATA type. If you had not completed this step, you would not be able to run the RAID configuration utility,. Use AHCI to configure SATA drives to support hot-swapping.
A RAID 10 array nests a mirrored array within a striped array. To create a RAID 10 array, a minimum of four hard disks is required (two for the mirrored array and two more to stripe the mirror).
RAID 5 also uses disk striping, but provides fault tolerance for a single disk failure. Disk striping breaks data into units and stores the units across a series of disks by reading and writing to all disks simultaneously. RAID 0 uses disk striping and offers no fault tolerance. A failure of one disk in the set means all data is lost. RAID 1 provides fault tolerance but does not use striping. A RAID 10 array nests a mirrored array within a striped array.
Your task in this lab is to:
– Add the minimum number of disks to the computer to create the RAID array that meets the scenario requirements. Do not remove extra disks from the Shelf.
– Connect all disks to the motherboard and provide power for the disks.
– Boot the computer and configure a RAID array using the motherboard RAID configuration utility.
– Choose the RAID level based on the scenario requirements.
– Configure the array to use all of the disk space on the installed disks.
1. Click on Drive Bays.
2. Install three Hard Drives, Internal, SATA.
3. Click on Power Supply.
4. Select the 15-pin SATA connector and provide power to the three Hard Drives.
5. Click the Cable.
6. Select the SATA Cable Three Times. Remember that there are Partial Connections.
7. Click on Motherboard.
8. Connect the other end of the SATA cables to the SATA connectors on the Motherboard.
9. Click Front.
10. Turn on the computer and press Delete to enter the BIOS.
11. Click on System Configuration.
12. Click on SATA Operation.
13. Select RAID On.
14. Click Apply.
15. Click Exit.
16. Press Ctrl+I to the RAID Configuration.
17. Press 1 to Create RAID volume.
18. Leave the name as Volume 0.
19. Press Tab to go to the RAID Level.
20. Use the Arrow Buttons to Select RAID 5, which provides both fault tolerance and improved performance.
21. Leave Disks, Stripe Size, and Capacity.
22. Press Enter to create the Specified volume.
23. When the warning: ALL DATA ON SELECTED DISKS WILL BE LOST are you sure you want to create this volume> (Y/N) press Y for Yes.
24. Check the Disk Volume Information.
25. Press Done.
Install three hard drives.
Set the SATA Operation mode in the BIOS to RAID.
Create a RAID 5 array with three disks.
Configure three drives in the array.
Configure the RAID array as RAID 5.
Use a total capacity on the disks.
To complete this lab:
Create a RAID 5 array to provide both fault tolerance and increased performance. A RAID 0 array increases performance only, while a RAID 1 array provides only fault tolerance.
Install three disks to create RAID 5 array. A RAID 5 array requires a minimum of three disks.
Complete the following steps:
1. On the computer, switch to the drive bays view.
2. On the Shelf, expand the Hard Drives category.
3. Drag a hard drive to a free 3.5″ drive bay.
4. Repeat step 3 to add additional hard drives are required by the scenario.
5. To connect the hard drives to the motherboard, on the Shelf, expand the Cables category.
6. Select a cable. In the Selected Component window, drag a connector end to the hard drive.
7. Repeat step 6 to connect cable to additional hard drives.
8. On the computer, switch to the motherboard view.
9. In the Partial Connections list for the computer, select a SATA cable.
10. In the Selected Component window, drag the unconnected cable end to the motherboard SATA connector.
11. Repeat steps 9 and 10 to connect additional SATA cables to the motherboard.
12. To connect the power cables, select the power supply.
13. On the computer, switch to the Drive Bays view.
14. In the Selected Component window, drag a SATA power connector to a hard drive.
15. Repeat step 14 to connect power to the other drive (s).
16. Switch to the front view of the computer.
17. Turn on the computer.
18 As the computer, press the Delete key to enter the BIOS setup program.
19. To configure the SATA drive mode, open System Configuration in the drop-down menu on the left.
20. Select SATA Operation.
21. Select RAID On and click Apply.
22. Select Exit to restart the system.
23. As the system boots, after the BIOS loads the RAID controller will load. Press Ctrl + I when you see the message on the screen.
24. Select Create RAID Volume and press Enter.
25. Press Enter.
26. Use the up and down arrow keys to define the RAID Level.
27. Press Enter.
28. Use the up and down arrow keys to define the stripe size.
29. Press Enter.
30. Press Enter to accept the default capacity and continue.
31. Press Enter.
32. When prompted, press Y.
33. Press Esc, then Y to restart.
The read speed is 48x. When multiple numbers are listed together, the first number is the record speed, the second number is the rewrite speed, and the last number is the read speed. If the drive does not perform rewrite functions, the middle number will be omitted.
A Blu-ray disc has the greatest storage capacity of optical media. A single-sided Blu-ray disc holds up to 25 GB of data. Dual-layer or double-sided discs double the storage capacity. Experimental 20 layer Blu-ray discs hold up to 500 GB. Single-layer, single-sided DVDs hold about 4.7 GB. A dual-layer or double-sided DVD can hold up to 8.5 GB; a dual-layer, double-sided DVD can hold up to 17 GB.
BD-RE is the Blu-ray standard which defines rewritable disks. BD-ROM is the read-only standard and BD-R is the recordable standard. R/RW is used to designate rewritable CD and DVD discs, not Blu-ray discs.
Optical storage devices use lasers for both reading and writing information. The following are all optical storage devices:
CD (Compact Disc)
DVD (Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc)
BD (Blu-ray Disc)
HDDS (Hard Disk Drives) are magnetic storage devices. A flash device stores information using programmable, non-volatile flash memory. USB flash drive, SSDs (Solid state Drives), and SDHC memory cards are flash devices.
Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) is an optical media standard that can be used to store large amounts of different types of data ( computer, data, video, audio). Single-sided discs can hold about 4.7 GB of data. Dual-layer discs can hold up to 8.5 GB of data. A red laser causes a crystal to form which creates the reflective and non-reflective areas on the bottom of the DVD-RW disc.
Blu-ray Disc (BD) was originally developed for high definition video (and expanded content on movie discs), but can also be used for data storage. Blu-ray uses a blue laser instead of the red laser used with CDs and DVDs. The blue laser light has a shorter wavelength, which allows data to be packed more tightly on the disc.
You can connect one SATA device per port. If you have 4 port, you can connect 4 devices.
To add a feature to a computer, add an expansion card in a free bus slot. In this case, you could add a Serial ATA host adapter in a free PCI slot.
SATA devices use a special 15-pin power connector that supplies 3.3, 5, and 12 volts. Using the 4-pin Molex connector for a SATA device requires an adapter cable. The master setting only applies to IDE drives, and is used to determine the active controller with multiple devices on the same cable channel. Device IDs are used with SCSI devices, not SATA devices. Low-level formatting is done at the factory by the drive manufacturer.
Most modern computer systems use SATA optical drives. At one time, IDE/EIDE (ATAPI) optical drives were the most common type of optical drives implemented but this has changed. SCSI was also used at one time but has fallen out of favour for optical drives. In the early 1990’s some sound cards provided a proprietary internal connector for ealy CD-ROM drives, but these are now obsolete. Likewise, parallel ports were used in the early 1990’s optical drives, but these are also now obsolete.
SATA is primarily used for internal hard drives in modern desktop PC systems. PATA (also called EIDE, IDE, and ATAPI) is a parallel ATA interface and was the most common interface used for hard disks and CD/DVD drives in the past, but not in modern PC systems, USB and Firewire are interface standards for connecting various external devices, including external hard drives. SCSI is commonly used for server storage, but is rarely used for hard disks in modern desktop systems.
Supports up to 6 Gbps data transfer rates.
Addresses solid state drives.
SATA3 support up to 6Gbps (600 MBps). It mainly addresses solid state drives with SATA (hard disk drives are not capable of sending data at this rate).
SATA1 is the original SATA standard. It provided for 1.5 Gbps (150 MBps) data transfer. SATA2 supports up to 3 Gbps (300 MBps). eSATA is a subset of other standards specifically for externally connected devices. eSATAp (also known as Power over eSATA or Power eSATA) is meant to replace eSATA. It combines the functionality of an eSATA and a USB port with a source of power in a single connector.
Integrates data and device power into a single cable.
Uses a connector and port that are neither L-shaped nor rectangular.
eSATAp (also known as Power over eSATA or Power eSATA) is meant to replace eSATA. It combines the functionality of an eSATA and a USB port with a source of power in a single connectors. It integrates data and device power into a single cable, and the connector and port are neither L-shaped nor rectangular.
SATA1 is the original SATA standard. It provided for 1.5 Gbps (150 MBps) data transfer. SATA2 supports up to 3 Gbps (300 MBps). SATA 3 support up to 6 Gbps (600 MBps). It mainly addresses solid state drives with SATA (hard disk drives are not capable of sending data at this rate). eSATA is a subset of other standard specifically for externally connected devices.
Flash devices store information using programmable, non-volatile flash memory. Common flash devices are MMC, SD, SDHC, and XD memory cards as well as USB thumb drives. DLT drivers use magnetic tape. Hard disks and floppy disks use magnetic disks and platters. Optical drives use a reflective surface and optical readers.
Hard disks use magnetic disks and platters. Optical drives such as DVD or CD-ROM drives, use a reflective surface that is read by an optical reader. Flash devices such as SD cards store information using programmable, non-volatile flash memory. DLT drives use magnetic tape.
DLT tape systems are used primarily for backups. The large storage capacity of these systems make them ideal for server backups. CD-R and DVD-R do not provide sufficient storage capacity for server backups. RAID is a data protection method that preserves data on hard disks if one disk in a set fails. It is not considered a back mechanism.
A hard disk has a large memory capacity, is fast, and is relatively inexpensive. Optical disks are also inexpensive, but are not as fast and do not provide the storage capacity of hard disks. USB flash drives are not as inexpensive as hard disks with equal storage capacity and are not available with the capacity as the larger hard disks. Solid State Drives (SSD) have a large memory capacity and are fast, but are much more expensive than comparable hard drives.
Lower power requirements
Solid state drives have the following advantages when compare to hard disk drives:
They have lower power consumption.
They have no moving parts (and hence less prone to failure)
They are faster
They are less susceptible to physical damage (from dropping)
They are smaller and lighter.
They are smaller and lighter.
They use standard SATA disk interfaces.
The storage capacity for SSDs is small in comparison to HDDs. SSDs are several times more expensive than comparable HDDs.
Solid State Drives (SDDs) are generally more expensive than hard disk drives (HDDs). Some advantages of SSDs over HDDs include the following:
They are faster
They have no moving parts so they last longer.
They have lower power consumption.
They are less susceptible to physical damage (from dropping) and immune from magnetic fields.
They are smaller and lighter.
Flash devices store information using programmable, non-volatile flash memory. Common flash devices are eMMC, SD, SSD, MiniSD, MicroSD, memory sticks, and USB thumb drives. DLT drives use magnetic tape. Hard disks use magnetic disks and platters. Optical drives use a reflective surface and optical readers.
The following are magnetic storage devices:
A hard disk is a thick magnetic disk encases in a thicker protective shell.
A tape drive (also called a digital linear tape or DLT drive) stores data on magnetic tapes similar to audio cassette tapes.
Optical discs such as CDs and DVDs use lasers for both reading and writing information. Flash devices store information using programmable, non-volatile flash memory. Solid state drives are flash devices with a storage capacity similar to a small hard drive.
Solid state drive (SSD) is a flash device with storage capacity similar to a small hard drive. They are faster than other devices. They have no moving parts and last longer than other storage devices.
Optical discs use lasers to read and write information that is stored in the form of pits in their reflective coating. They are ideal for storing and playing music and video. They are portable and cheap and have a long shelf life.